Universities in the United Kingdom
Universities in the United Kingdom have generally been instituted by Royal Charter, Papal Bull, Act of Parliament or an instrument of government under the Further and Higher Education Act 1992. For new public universities, approval is required from the Privy Council, while private universities may be granted the right to use the title by Companies House. The exact criteria for University title vary between the four countries of the United Kingdom. Degree awarding powers, which are three-tiered and allow the granting of foundation degrees, taught degrees, and research degree, are granted by the Privy Council.
Institutions that hold degree awarding powers are termed Recognised Bodies, this list includes universities, university colleges, colleges of the University of London, higher education colleges, and the Archbishop of Canterbury. Listed Bodies offer courses leading to degrees of a Recognised Body, this includes institutions whose degrees are validated by a recognised body, and the colleges of the universities of Oxford, Cambridge, and Durham. Undergraduate applications to almost all UK universities are managed by the Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS)
While legally, University refers to an institution that has been granted the right to use the title, in common usage it normally includes colleges of the University of London. These include a number of institutions that feature regularly in the league tables of the world's top universities, such as UCL, the LSE and King's College London.
Most UK universities fall into one or more categories:
Grouping by age & location (these tend to be somewhat fuzzy in definition):
- Ancient universities - the six universities founded before 1800, often subdivided into the Ancient Universities of Scotland and Oxbridge in England. When used historically it can also include the University of Dublin (now in the Republic of Ireland) and Marischal College, Aberdeen (now merged with the University of Aberdeen). The definition is sometimes stretched to include Durham and/or Dundee, both of which share some characteristics with the true ancient universities.
- St David's College, Lampeter and Durham University - founded in the early 19th century as religiously-exclusive, residential university institutes, following the Oxbridge pattern.
- University of London and its constituent colleges - founded in London from the early 19th century onwards as non-residential university colleges, following the pattern of the ancient universities of Scotland.
- Red Brick universities or Civic Universities - founded in provincial cities as non-residential university colleges in the later 19th and early 20th century, sometimes used to mean any university established between 1800 and 1992.
- Plate Glass universities - new institutions created in the 1960s as residential universities with degree-awarding powers from the start (in contrast to being created as university colleges), formerly described as the 'new universities' or the 'Robbins expansion' universities.
- The Open University - The UK's 'open to all' distance learning university (est. 1968).
- Old universities - Institutions that were part of the University sector prior to 1992, including universities created by ancient usage, Act of Parliament, or Royal Charter, and full colleges of the federal Universities of London and Wales in 1992; this includes all of the above categories.
- New Universities or Post-1992 universities - granted University status by an instrument of government under the Further and Higher Education Act 1992, including former Polytechnics, Colleges of Higher Education, and other Higher Education Corporations, but not including older university institutions that have gained University status since 1992 via royal charter (e.g., Imperial College or Cardiff University).
Mission groups (these are actual groupings with defined memberships):
- Russell Group - self-selected association of 24 public research universities.
- Million+ - coalition of post-1992 universities
- University Alliance - coalition of "business engaged" (mostly) post-1992 universities.
- Cathedrals Group - coalition of (mostly) new universities with historic links to one or more of the Christian churches.
- Independent Universities Group - private universities.
The central co-ordinating body for universities in the United Kingdom is Universities UK.
- Ancient universities
- Third oldest university in England debate
- University of London
- Red brick university
- Robbins Report (1963) and Plate glass university
- Jarratt report (1985)
In the years following the end of the Second World War, local education authorities (LEAs) paid student tuition fees and provided non-mature[clarification needed] students with a maintenance grant. Under the Education Act 1962 a national mandatory award of student maintenance grant was established, payable by the LEAs to students on most full-time courses. In 1980, the level of grant increased from £380 to £1,430.
As the university population rose during the 1980s the sums paid to universities became linked to their performance and efficiency, and by the mid-1990s funding per student had dropped by 40% since the mid-1970s, while numbers of full-time students had reached around 2,000,000 (around a third of the age group), up from around 1,300,000.
In 1989 the levels of maintenance grants were frozen at £2,265 – which since 1985 had been means tested – but a system of student loans was introduced to provide for additional funding. Initially loans of up to £420 were available, and could be taken out by all students. The costs of tuition continued to be met in full for all domestic students.
Following an investigation into the future of universities, the July 1997 report of the National Committee of Inquiry into Higher Education, chaired by the then Sir Ronald (later Lord) Dearing recommended the ending of universal free higher education, and that students should pay £1,000 towards the cost of their tuition fees, which would be recovered in the form of a graduate tax.
At the time of the Dearing Report, tuition fees were still paid in full by the local education authorities, student grants of up to £1,755 (£2,160 in London) were linked to family income, and a subsidised student loan of £1,685 (£2,085 in London) was available. Instead of following Dearing's suggestions, the grant was replaced by the present loan scheme, introduced for students starting in 1998. There was a transition year when about half the previous means-tested grant was available, though they still had to pay the new £1,000 tuition fee. From 1999, the grant was abolished altogether.
The abolition of tuition fees was a major issue in the 1999 Scottish Parliamentary elections, and subsequently was part of the agreement that led to the Labour/Liberal Democrats coalition that governed Scotland from 1999 to 2003.
From the academic year 2006/7, a new system of tuition fees was introduced in England. These variable tuition fees of up to £3,000 per year are paid up-front as previously, but new student loans are available that may only be used to pay for tuition fees, and must be repaid upon graduation, in addition to the existing loan. In fact, there is very little variation in the tuition fees charged by universities—nearly all charge the maximum tuition fee on all courses. Instead, the differences appear in the nature and value of various 'access' bursaries that are on offer.
The universities in the United Kingdom (with the exception of The Open University) share an undergraduate admission system operated by UCAS. Applications must be made by 15 October for admissions to Oxford and Cambridge (and medicine, dentistry and veterinary science courses) and by 15 January for admissions to other UK universities.
Many universities now operate the Credit Accumulation and Transfer Scheme (CATS) and all universities in Scotland use the Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework (SCQF) enabling easier transfer between courses and institutions.
One-half of universities have lost confidence in the grades that are awarded by secondary schools, and require many applicants to sit for a competitive entrance examination. According to the Schools Minister, “strong evidence has been emerging of grade inflation across subjects” in recent years.
Some subjects, particularly where highly competitive or that lead to a professional qualification, require that students be interviewed prior to being offered a place on the chosen course.
The vast majority of United Kingdom universities are government financed, with only four private universities (the charitable University of Buckingham, Regent's University London and profit-making University of Law and BPP University) where the government does not subsidise the tuition fees. There is also Richmond, The American International University in London which essentially offers an American liberal arts education.
British undergraduate students and students from other European Union countries who qualify as home students have to pay university tuition fees up to a maximum of £9,000. A government-provided loan may only be used towards tuition fee costs. Scottish and European Union students studying in Scotland have their tuition fees paid by the Student Awards Agency for Scotland. Students are also entitled to apply for government-provided loans to pay for living costs, a portion of which is also means-tested. A new[when?] grant is also available, which is means-tested and offers up to £2,700 a year. As part of the deal allowing universities to charge higher tuition fees, all universities are required to offer bursaries to those in receipt of the full government grant. Different funding arrangements are in place for students on National Health Service (NHS) being eligible for a non-means tested bursary, while healthcare students on degree level courses are eligible for a means tested bursary, and are not eligible for the full student loan as a result of their bursary entitlement.
Students living in the UK, if they are from non-European countries, have to pay the same fees as overseas students at a very high rate, even if they have been in the UK for more than 3 years, without Indefinite Leave to Remain. Such students are not eligible for loan from the Students Loan Company either.
On 9 December 2010 the House of Commons voted to increase the cap on tuition fees to £9,000 per year.
Students in Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland are also eligible for a means-tested grant, and many universities provide bursaries to students with low financial capabilities. Non-European Union students are not subsidised by the United Kingdom government and so have to pay much higher tuition fees.
In principle, all postgraduate students are liable for tuition fees—though a variety of scholarship and assistantship schemes provide support. The main sources of funding for postgraduate students are research councils such as the AHRC (Arts and Humanities Research Council) and ESRC (Economic and Social Research Council).
British universities tend to have a strong reputation internationally for two reasons: history and research output. The UK's role in the industrial and scientific revolutions, combined with its imperial history and the sheer longevity of its ancient universities, are significant factors as to why these institutions are world-renowned. The University of Cambridge, for example, has produced 90 Nobel Laureates to date - more than any other university in the world. The reputation of British institutions is maintained today by their continuous stream of world-class research output. The larger research-intensive civic universities are members of the Russell Group, which receives two-thirds of all research funding in the UK.
The perceived rankings of universities in the United Kingdom is also heavily influenced by the popularity in recent years of newspaper league tables that rank universities by teaching and research. Only four universities in the UK have never been ranked outside the top ten, with Oxford, Cambridge, LSE and Warwick having become constant features at the summit of national ranking tables, while Cambridge, LSE and Oxford University have consistently ranked in the top 3 positions.
The UK's top universities have fared well in international rankings, where three of them were in the world top ten according to the Times Higher Education World University Rankings in 2013, these being Oxford (2nd), Cambridge (7th) and Imperial (10th); while the top 40 are being completed by UCL (21st), LSE (32nd), KCL (38th) and Edinburgh (39th). Times Higher Education World University Rankings is a widely acknowledged international ranking of universities. A Chinese Academic Ranking of World Universities also places Cambridge (5th place) and Oxford (9th place) in the World top ten in 2013, with University College London (20th), Imperial College London (22nd) following in the top 30 and The University of Manchester (38th), University of Edinburgh (45th) and King's College London (59th) following in the top 60 ARWU 2014 report. As to QS World University Rankings, these UK universities are in the top 20: Cambridge (3rd), UCL (4th), Imperial (5th), Oxford (6th), Edinburgh (17th) and KCL (19th). The University of Warwick and the University of York ranked 3rd and 6th respectively in the 2012 QS Top 50 under 50 universities. The UK also has more of the best "young" universities than virtually any other country in the world - along with Australia it has 14 elite universities under 50 years old.
The London School of Economics been seen to consistently perform worse than might be expected within global league tables. The school was ranked 11th in the world in 2004 and 2005 within the THE-QS World University Rankings, the School, but dropped to 66th and 67th in the 2008 and 2009 edition. The school administration asserts that the fall was due to a controversial change in methodology which hindered social science institutions. In January 2010, THE concluded that their existing methodology system with Quacquarelli Symonds was flawed in such a way that it was unfairly biased against certain schools, including LSE.
The UK Golden Triangle Universities of Cambridge, Oxford, KCL, UCL, Imperial and LSE, along with Edinburgh, Manchester and Bristol tend to be part of the highest ranked UK universities in majority of the leading international league tables.
In England and Wales the majority of young full-time university students attend universities situated a long distance from their family homes; this is not generally the case for universities in most European countries, such as Italy or Spain. For this reason most universities in the United Kingdom provide (or at least help organise) rented accommodation for many of their students, particularly in the first year; some British universities provide accommodation for the full duration of their courses. For this reason the lifestyle of university students in the United Kingdom can be quite different from those of European universities where the majority of students live at home with their parents. The introduction of university fees paid by students from 2006 onwards has led many English and Welsh students to apply to institutions closer to their family's homes to reduce the additional costs of moving and living further away.
The University of London from its reform in 1900 and the University of Wales from its inception have been federal universities; they have a governing body with overall responsibility for the maintenance of standards at the constituent colleges. Recently, however, there has been considerable pressure from the larger colleges to become more autonomous and, in some cases, completely independent institutions. Example of this were the secession of Imperial College London from the University of London and Cardiff University leaving the University of Wales. Cardiff's departure and policies pursued by the Welsh Government have led to the breakup of the University of Wales, which is to merge with the University of Wales Trinity Saint David.
The London School of Economics (part of the University of London) was founded with Articles of Association and is actually a company registered at Companies House, having no Royal Charter or founding Act of Parliament. The University of Buckingham was the only private university in the UK until 2012.
Another anomaly is that University of Warwick, originally to be named the University of Warwickshire when it was established in 1965, is several miles from Warwick, the county town, and is situated on the southern edge of Coventry in the West Midlands county. Following the county boundary changes, Warwick University's campus straddles the Warwickshire and city of Coventry boundary, although many of its students live in the nearby towns of Kenilworth and Leamington Spa, Warwickshire.
UK universities have a statutory obligation to support their students in the establishment of some form of Students' Union (sometimes also called a "Students' Association" or "Guild of Students", and, in the Scottish Ancients, a Students' Representative Council). These associations are usually members of the National Union of Students of the United Kingdom and/ or their local NUS area organisation.
Whether or not universities actually do conform to such statutory obligations, and if, for example, the code of practice of the NUS is followed when determining the make-up of such bodies is a hotly contested and ambiguous matter. There is no real or well-implemented vetting service used to ensure that, for example, Students' Union Presidents are fairly (or non-discriminatingly) selected – or that a minimal, standardised and regional method of ensuring an allocation of annual university funding is directed towards such students' union bodies.
In common with practice worldwide, graduates of universities in the United Kingdom often place not only their academic qualifications but also the names of the universities that awarded them after their name, the university typically being placed in parentheses, thus: John Smith, Esq, BSc (Sheffield). Degrees are generally listed in ascending order of seniority followed by diplomas. An exception may be made when a degree of a different university falls between two degrees of the same university: John Smith, PhD (London), MSci (York).
The oldest British universities are typically denoted by an abbreviation of their Latin name. 'Oxon', 'Cantab', and 'Lond' for Oxford, Cambridge and London, respectively, are almost ubiquitous except, perhaps curiously, within those institutions themselves. Sometimes, as in the case of 'St And' for University of St Andrews, or 'Lond' for University of London, the Latin and English abbreviations are identical ('Londin' is also, though more rarely, used). More recently established universities also use Latin abbreviations, especially when they share the name of an episcopal see, in which case they sometimes use the same abbreviation that the bishop uses for his signature. The following are among the most common:
- Aber (Aberdonensis) for University of Aberdeen, although at risk of confusion with Aberystwyth (which has the aber.ac.uk domain)
- Cantab (Cantabrigiensis) for University of Cambridge
- Cantuar (Cantuariensis) for Archbishop of Canterbury, alias a Lambeth degree, and more recently University of Kent
- Cicest (Cicestensis) for University of Chichester
- Dund (Dundensis) for University of Dundee
- Dunelm (Dunelmensis) for Durham University
- Ebor (Eboracensis) for University of York
- Edin (Edinburgensis) for University of Edinburgh
- Exon (Exoniensis) for University of Exeter
- Glas (Glasguensis) for University of Glasgow
- Lpol (Liverpolis) for University of Liverpool
- Lond (Londiniensis) for University of London
- Manc (Mancuniensis) for University of Manchester
- Open for The Open University
- Oxon (Oxoniensis) or Oxf for University of Oxford
- Soton (Sotoniensis) for University of Southampton
- St And (Sancti Andreae) for University of St Andrews
- Wigorn (Wigorniensis) for University of Worcester
- Winton (Wintonensis) for University of Winchester
On 30 March 2007 the University of Oxford issued a document entitled 'Oxford University Calendar: Notes on Style', which promulgated a new system of abbreviations for use in University publications. The general rule is to use the first syllable and the first letter of the second syllable. Thus Oxford and Cambridge became 'Oxf' and 'Camb'. The change was controversial (p. 2, n. 1) but was considered essential to preserve consistency since most of the United Kingdom's universities can be rendered only in English. This document also counsels against the use of parentheses.
In 2011, a merger was proposed between two universities in Scotland: University of Abertay Dundee and University of Dundee. A merger occurred between three institutions in Wales: University of Wales Lampeter and Trinity University College merged in 2010 to form the University of Wales, Trinity Saint David, with Swansea Metropolitan University joining in 2012 and the University of Wales committed to joining in the future. In 2011 a merger was proposed between two other universities in Wales: University of Glamorgan and the University of Wales, Newport, which became the University of South Wales in April 2013.
Value of academic degrees
A study by the Office for National Statistics has found that, although university graduates are consistently more likely to be employed than other people, they are increasingly likely to be overqualified for the jobs which they do hold. The study also found that the type of degree is significant. On average, medical undergraduates earn the most at £45,600 per year, while media and information studies undergraduates earn the least at £21,000 per year. Finally, a degree from a Russell Group school is worth considerably more than a degree from a non-Russell school.
A study from the Higher Education Statistics Agency has found that, six months after graduation, the proportion of graduates who are either in full-time employment or studying for an advanced degree ranges from 78.7% for civil engineers to 51.2% for artists. There is also a wide variation in the proportion of graduates who are underemployed. For example, the most common employment fields for civil and mechanical engineers are engineering and construction. On the other hand, the most common workplaces for media studies graduates are shops and restaurants.
Another concern is the decline in academic standards. Faculty are under increasing pressure from administrators to award students good marks and grades without regard for those students' actual abilities, both to keep those students in school paying tuition and to boost the school's graduation rates. Students often use course evaluations to criticize any instructor who they feel has been making the course too difficult, even if an objective evaluation would show that the course has been too easy.
- Academic ranks in the United Kingdom
- Colleges within UK universities
- Skills Funding Agency
- Rankings of universities in the United Kingdom
- "Postgraduate universities". Totaljobs Group Ltd. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- Ethan Ennals (17 September 2015). "Edinburgh Uni ‘stuck in the Middle Ages’ according to RGU chief". The Tab.
- William Whyte (2015). Redbrick: A Social and Architectural History of Britain's Civic Universities. Oxford University Press. pp. 33–35.
- William Whyte (2015). Redbrick: A Social and Architectural History of Britain's Civic Universities. Oxford University Press. pp. 35–42.
- John Morgan (12 November 2015). "How the redbrick universities created British higher education". Times Higher Education.
Professor Whyte said that [Red brick] “describes the late 19th, early 20th-century foundations”: including Liverpool, Manchester, Leeds, Birmingham, Bristol, Sheffield, Newcastle, as well as Dundee “and the Welsh universities” beyond England
- Harry Mount (24 October 2015). "Corbyn's purge of the Oxbridge set". Spectator. - refers to many plate glass universities as 'red brick'
- "Life through a plate-glass window...". Times Higher Education. August 10, 2001.
- Lee Elliott Major (2 November 2000). "Ex-polys match old universities in teaching inspections". The Guardian.
- "An overview of the higher education sector". Universities UK. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- "Welcome to The Cathedrals Group". Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- John Morgan (8 January 2015). "Private providers create ‘Russell Group of the alternative sector’". Times Higher Education.
- "Welcome to this site". Leeds.ac.uk. Retrieved 2010-05-28.
- UCAS website "Important Dates"
- Paton, Graeme (13 July 2012). "More students forced to sit university admissions tests". The Telegraph. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
- "Britain's first profit-making university opened". The Telegraph. 22 November 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
- "University of Cambridge". Archived from the original on 2008-02-13. Retrieved 2006-06-11. (archived from the original on 2008-02-13).
To the Cambridge official count could be added Eric Maskin (Economics 2007), a Research Fellow at Jesus College in 1976. The official count also excludes Roger D. Kornberg (Chemistry 2006) and Andrew Fire (Physiology/Medicine 2006), postdocs at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology in 1972-76 and 1983-86, respectively.
- "Times Higher Education". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 2014-09-01.
- [dead link]
- "LSE in university league tables – External Relations Division – Administrative and academic support divisions – Services and divisions – Staff and students – Home". .lse.ac.uk. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- "Graduates in the UK Labour Market - 2013" (PDF) (Press release). Office for National Statistics. 19 November 2013. Retrieved 24 November 2013.
- "What do graduates do?". Higher Education Careers Services Unit. Higher Education Statistics Agency. October 2015. Retrieved 23 October 2015.
- Alderman, Geoffrey (10 March 2010). "Why university standards have fallen". Guardian. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
- Paton, Graeme (23 October 2014). "Education standards 'in decline' at overcrowded universities". Telegraph. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
- "List of UK Universities also showing accommodation for students and parents".
- Catherine Armstrong. "What is a University in the UK".
- Universities in the United Kingdom at DMOZ
- Guardian Special Report - UK Higher Education
- Studies Concerning Higher Education and Adult Learning from the Office for National Statistics