Britishness is the state or quality of being British, or of embodying British characteristics, and is used to refer to that which binds and distinguishes the British people and forms the basis of their unity and identity, or else to explain expressions of British culture—such as habits, behaviours, or symbols—that have a common, familiar or iconic quality readily identifiable with the United Kingdom. Dialogue about the legitimacy and authenticity of Britishness is intrinsically tied with power relations and politics; in terms of nationhood and belonging, expressing or recognising one's Britishness provokes a range of responses and attitudes, such as advocacy, indifference, or rejection.
Britishness "sprung into political and academic prominence" in the late 20th century, but its origins lie with the formation of the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. Although Britishness was used to refer to Britons collectively as early as 1682, historian Linda Colley asserts that it was after the Acts of Union 1707 that the citizens of Great Britain began to assume a "layered" identity—to think of themselves as simultaneously British but also Scottish, English, and/or Welsh. In this formative period, Britishness was "closely bound up with Protestantism". The Oxford English Dictionary Online dates the first known use of the term Britishness to refer to the state of being British to a June 1857 issue of Putnam's Monthly Magazine.
Since the late 20th century, the exploration and proliferation of Britishness became directly associated with a desire to define, sustain or restore a homogeneous British identity or allegiance to Britain, prompting debate. For instance, the Life in the United Kingdom test—reported as a test of one's Britishness—has been described as controversial. The UK Independence Party have asserted that Britishness is tied with inclusive civic nationalism, whereas the Commission for Racial Equality reported that Scots, Welsh, Irish and ethnic minorities may feel quite divorced from Britishness because of white English dominance; Gwynfor Evans, a Welsh nationalist politician, said that "Britishness is a political synonym for Englishness which extends English culture over the Scots, Welsh, and the Irish". Historians Graham Macphee and Prem Poddar state that Britishness and Englishness are invariably conflated as they are both tied to the identity of the British Empire and UK; slippage between the two words is common. With regards to a proposed oath of allegiance for school leavers, historian David Starkey argued that it is impossible to teach Britishness because "a British nation doesn't exist".
Gordon Brown, then Chancellor of the Exchequer, made a speech in 2006 to promote Britishness. Brown's speech to the Fabian Society's Britishness Conference proposed that British values demand a new constitutional settlement and symbols to represent a modern patriotism, including a new youth community service scheme and a 'British Day' to celebrate.
One of the central issues identified at the Fabian Society conference was how the English identity fits within the framework of a devolved UK. Does England require a new constitutional settlement for instance?
Her Majesty's Government has sought to promote Britishness with the inaugural Veterans' Day (now called Armed Forces Day), first held on 27 June 2006. As well as celebrating the achievements of members of the armed forces, at the first event for the celebration Brown said:
Scots and people from the rest of the UK share the purpose—that Britain has something to say to the rest of the world about the values of freedom, democracy, and the dignity of the people that you stand up for. So at a time when people can talk about football and devolution and money, it is important that we also remember the values that we share in common.
Not all people residing in England and the United Kingdom are white due to recent immigration from foreign countries. According to the 2011 census in England, around 85.4% of residents are white (British, Irish, other European), 7.8% Asian (mainly South Asian), 3.5% Black, 2.3% are of Mixed-race heritage, 0.4% Arab, and 0.6% identified as Other ethnicity, with a significantly higher ethnic minority population in large cities such as London.
A survey conducted in 2007 found that the majority of people in many non-white ethnic groups living in Great Britain described their national identity as British. This included almost nine in ten (87%) of people with mixed heritage, 85% of Black Caribbean people, and 80% of Pakistanis and Bangladeshis. Non-whites were more likely to describe themselves as British than whites. One-third of people from the White British group described themselves as British; the remaining two third of respondents identified themselves as English, Welsh, or Scottish.
A study conducted for the Commission for Racial Equality (CRE) in 2005 found that, in England, the majority of ethnic minority participants identified primarily as British, whereas white English participants identified as English first and British second. In Wales and Scotland, the majority of both white and ethnic minority participants identified as Welsh or Scottish first and British second, although they saw no incompatibility between the two identities. Other research conducted for the CRE found that white participants felt that there was a threat to Britishness from large-scale immigration, the "unfair" claims that they perceived ethnic minorities made on the welfare state, a rise in moral pluralism, and political correctness. Much of this frustration was found to be targeted at Muslims rather than minorities in general. Muslim participants in the study reported feeling victimised and stated that they felt that they were being asked to choose between Muslim and British identities, whereas they saw it possible to be both at the same time.
Within the United Kingdom
|Identity||National Identity in Scotland from 1997–2003|
|Scottish not British||23||32||36||31|
|More Scottish than British||38||35||30||34|
|Equally Scottish and British||27||22||24||22|
|More British than Scottish||4||3||3||4|
|British not Scottish||4||4||3||4|
There is evidence that people in Scotland are increasingly likely to describe themselves as Scottish, and less likely to say they are British. A 2006 study by social scientists at the Universities of Edinburgh, Dundee, St Andrews and Lancaster shows that more than eight out of ten people in Scotland saw themselves as Scottish. At the same time, there has been a long-term decline in Scots defining themselves as British, although more than half of the people in the survey saw themselves as British.
- 62% identified themselves as Scottish only
- 18% identified themselves as Scottish and British
- 8% identified themselves as British only
The Scottish National Party MSP and Cabinet Secretary for Justice, Kenny MacAskill gave the following submission to the UK Parliament's Joint Committee on Human Rights in March 2008 discussing a British Bill of Rights:
What is meant by Britishness? Is there a concept of Britishness? Yes, just as there is a concept of being Scandinavian. We eat fish and chips, we eat chicken masala, we watch EastEnders. Are [the SNP] British? No, we are not. We consider ourselves Scottish.
Identity and politics
In a 1998 poll, 37% of Scottish National Party voters stated themselves to be "Scottish, not British", the rest demonstrating some form of British identity, with the most popular choice being "More Scottish than British" (41%). This conclusion was again put forward in 2002, with similar figures cited. However, the British Social Attitudes Survey of 2007 found that only 21% of Scots saw themselves as 'Equally Scottish and British', with less than half choosing British as a secondary identity. The report concluded that 73% of respondents saw themselves as 'only' or 'mainly' Scottish.
- Commission for Racial Equality 2005, p. 21
- "British – Britishness". Brewer's Britain and Ireland. credoreference.com. 2005. Retrieved 11 April 2010.(subscription required)
- "Britishness". Oxford English Dictionary Online. September 2008. Retrieved 14 September 2010.
- Wright & Gamble 2009, p. 32.
- Commission for Racial Equality 2005, pp. 6–7
- Commission for Racial Equality 2005, pp. 11–12
- Wright & Gamble 2009, p. 149.
- Colley 1992, pp. 12–13. Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "Colley1213" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
- What is Britishness anyway? BBC News, 10 September 2002
- [dead link]
- "South East Wales Public Life – Dr Gwynfor Evans". BBC. Retrieved 13 April 2010.
- Macphee & Poddar (2007). Empire and After: Englishness in Postcolonial Perspective. New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books. ISBN 978-1-84545-320-6.
- Can pupils learn 'Britishness'? BBC News, 12 October 2007
- "UK | UK Politics | Pupils 'to take allegiance oath'". BBC News. 11 March 2008. Retrieved 13 April 2010.
- Brown speech promotes Britishness BBC News, 14 January 2006.
- The future of Britishness Fabian Society, 14 January 2006
- New Britishness must resolve the English question Fabian Society, 14 January 2006
- "Brown pinning his hopes on a new regiment". The Herald. 27 June 2006. Retrieved 15 October 2006.[dead link]
- "Our Scottish PM in waiting goes British". Daily Telegraph. 14 January 2006. Retrieved 15 October 2006.
- Hurst, Greg (22 November 2007). "Maverick streak makes mockery of hunt for a British motto". The Times. Retrieved 10 May 2010.
- Office for National Statistics, Social Trends No.39, 2009.[dead link]
- Template:Http://www.ethnos.co.uk/pdfs/9 what is britishness CRE.pdf Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "cre4" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
- Devolution, Public Attitudes and National Identity[dead link]
- "Study Shows Scottish sense of 'Britishness' in decline". University of Edinburgh. 2 June 2006. Archived from the original on 15 June 2006. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
- Bond, Ross; Rosie, Michael (January 2006). "Feeling Scottish: its personal and political significance" (PDF). Institute of Governance, University of Edinburgh. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
- "Scotland's Census 2011 - Analysis: National Identity". Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- Joint Committee on Human Rights, A Bill of Rights for the UK?, Twenty – ninth Report of Session 2007–08, Ev. 61, Q290
- "Scottish Affairs, D.McCrone, Polls 1997–98 (online article)". Scottishaffairs.org. Retrieved 2014-02-26.
- "Scottish Affairs, D.McCrone+L.Paterson, No.40, Summer 2002 (online article)". Scottishaffairs.org. Retrieved 2014-02-26.
- "Home" (PDF). NatCen. Retrieved 13 April 2010.[dead link]
- Colley, Linda (1992), Britons: Forging the Nation, 1701–1837, Yale University Press, ISBN 978-0-300-05737-9
- Commission for Racial Equality (November 2005), Citizenship and Belonging: What is Britishness? (PDF), Commission for Racial Equality, ISBN 1-85442-573-0
- Wright, Tony; Gamble, Andrew (2009), Britishness: Perspectives on the British Question, John Wiley and Sons, ISBN 978-1-4051-9269-9
- Academy for the Study of Britishness
- Who Do We Think We Are – Exploring Britishness diversity and identity
- Being British
- Mark Easton, How British is Britain?, BBC report on 2011 census results, 30 September 2013