Britomart Transport Centre
|Auckland Transport urban rail|
An EMU sits at the newly electrified Britomart station.
|Location||Queen Elizabeth II Square, Queen Street, Auckland City|
|Owned by||Auckland Council|
|Line(s)||North Island Main Trunk
|Station code||BMT / AKL|
|5.7 million|
|Designated||11 July 1986|
Britomart Transport Centre is the public transport hub in the central business district of Auckland, New Zealand, and the northern terminus of the North Island Main Trunk line. It combines a bus interchange with a railway station in a former Edwardian post office, extended with expansive post-modernist architectural elements. It is at the foot of Queen Street, the main commercial thoroughfare of Auckland city centre, with the main ferry terminal just across Quay Street.
The centre was the result of many design iterations, some of them being substantially larger and including an underground bus terminal and a large underground car park. Political concerns and cost implications meant that these concepts did not proceed. However, at the time of its inception in the early 2000s the centre was still Auckland's largest transport project ever, built to move rail access closer to the city's CBD and help boost Auckland's low usage of public transport. It is one of the few underground railway stations in the world designed for use by diesel trains.
Initially seen as underused and too costly, it is now considered a great success, heading for capacity with the growing uptake of rail commuting. Limitations on further patronage are primarily due to the access tunnel from the east which provides only two rail tracks, and the lack of a through connection (via a rail link to the North Shore or to the Western line via a city tunnel) which would change it into a through station.
- 1 History
- 2 Capacity and rail connections
- 3 Services
- 4 Heritage registration
- 5 Awards
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Cost over-runs and differing tastes made the centre politically controversial, the design often being described as a large hole in the ground, both literally and figuratively. Despite this and a NZ$204 million price tag, it has won numerous design awards and is internationally recognised for its innovative but heritage-sympathetic architecture. The main source of contention was the relatively great expense of this public transport development in the Auckland Region which is traditionally very focused on the private car.
Britomart is on reclaimed land in the middle of what was once Commercial Bay. It is named after Point Britomart, a former headland at Commercial Bay's eastern end. In the 1870s and 1880s the headland was levelled in order to extend the railway line to the bottom of Queen Street, and was used to fill in Commercial Bay.
Auckland Railway Station moved west from its original site to Britomart in 1885 and remained there after the Post Office was built on the Queen Street frontage in 1911. In 1930 the station was relocated 1.2 km east to Beach Road and the former station site became a bus terminal in 1937 and car park in 1958.
Many proposals were made to locate the station back in the CBD, most notably in 1973 and 1987, with the 1970s proposal of the Mayor of Auckland, Dove-Myer Robinson, envisaging an underground station at Britomart and a tunnel loop, but that was stopped by the Muldoon National Government, which claimed it was unjustified and too costly. In 1995, Auckland City Council purchased the old Post Office (PostBank offices closed in 1988, though some postal services remained open beyond that year) and proposed to redevelop the area as a transit centre.
Early designs called for both the bus terminal and the railway to be underground, but these plans were scrapped as consultation showed that buses were preferred above ground by both users and operators, and projected costs soared, partly due to the difficulties with potential water ingress. The developer eventually defaulted on contractual deadlines, and the project failed.
In 1998, a cheaper option was decided on, partly after a consultation process with stakeholders and citizens. The architectural design was chosen via a competition. It used part of Queen Elizabeth II Square and surrounding streets as a bus terminal, with the existing dilapidated bus terminal redeveloped to incorporate both bus services and a pedestrianised area. When nearby Quay Street was realigned in the late 1990s, a tunnel was built (completed in 2000) to provide the underground railway link. Bus services using the old bus terminal were diverted to other locations in June 2001.
Designed by California architect Mario Madayag in collaboration with local Auckland architects Jasmax, construction of Britomart commenced in October 2001, with structural design having been provided by OPUS. It involved 14 km of piling, some being 40 m long and driven 16 m into the underlying bedrock, mainly to provide good earthquake protection, and to futureproof the area for potential later construction of buildings on top of the station. 200,000 cubic metres were excavated for the station, and 40,000 cubic metres of concrete poured. The station has a site area of 5.2 ha and includes 236 m² retail area.
The station opened to passengers on 7 July 2003, with the officia opening on 25 July 2003 by Sir Edmund Hillary and government ministers. Services to the old station ceased, except for some peak-time commuter services and excursion trains using the former Platform 4 (originally Platform 7), renamed 'The Strand'. The commuter services ceased after a few months.
- Pedestrian underpasses
Initial plans included an underground pedestrian walkway to Queen Elizabeth II Square, the nearby downtown ferry terminal and the main shopping street of Queen St. Due to cost over-runs only the short link to the square was built, the remainder replaced with a sizeable canopy over the footpath outside the station.
While no major works are currently planned for the station except for eventual installation of overhead wires, a major commercial building was built over the eastern approach tunnel in the late 2000s, at the eastern edge of the plaza behind the centre.
Capacity and rail connections
The station is designed to serve up to 10,500 passengers during the peak hour as a terminus. Capacity increases will probably not be possible without turning Britomart into a through station, with a tunnel underneath Auckland CBD (see below).
The station has five platforms, and is constrained by the 9.3 m width of the 426 m long double-track access tunnel. Early forecasts predicted that while double-tracking of the surrounding rail network would improve peak time train congestion, the capacity of the corridor would only be reached by around 2020. The recent growth in train patronage and increased services has meant that from 2011 the tunnel is at maximum capacity, almost 10 years earlier than predicted. Because of the capacity restrictions, a proposed Hamilton-Auckland commuter train service would have gone to the The Strand station some 1.5 km to the east.
In its early days, Britomart received a lot of criticism due to it being built on a scale and level of grandeur that was well in excess of the capacity and patronage of the rail network. Auckland Regional Council transport committee chairwoman Catherine Harland acknowledged that "Britomart opened ahead of its time", raising public expectations that the state of the rail network could not yet fulfil.
Patronage increased from 2.5 million journeys in 2003 to just over 11 million in January 2014, and more frequent services have been introduced by the Auckland Regional Transport Authority's (ARTA) rail operator Veolia to accommodate these greater numbers. This has led to concerns that the station will soon be at maximum capacity. During the peak, only 18 trains per hour can enter and exit.
The foresight of council planners in constructing such an iconic investment has spurred further development. The $600 million Project DART (Developing Auckland's Rail Transport) was undertaken, with the state-owned enterprise ONTRACK (now KiwiRail) providing the ‘below rail’ construction (i.e. platforms, tracks and signals) and ARTA providing the passenger services and facilities at stations (i.e. lighting, shelters and access), with funding from the Auckland Regional Council and Land Transport New Zealand.
With the announcement on 17 May 2007 that electrification of Auckland's rail network would proceed, changes will include installation of overhead wires, with the project expected to be complete in 2013. After electification diesel trains are to be replaced by new electric trains that Auckland Transport (initially ARTA) is purchasing. A small number of diesel trains are likely to continue to use the station providing regional and intercity services to unelectrified network areas.
Plans for a tunnel southward underneath the CBD to Mt Eden have been debated for nearly a century. It would allow trains to run through the station rather than having to reverse out over the same set of tracks. Governments have so far been unwilling to provide funding for this project and it is unlikely to proceed in the near future, though the major investments into public rail transport as decided on in 2007 have put it back on the drawing board. Current estimates for the cost of the loop are at around $1 billion, taking 5–7 years to plan and build.
On 5 March 2008 ARTA said that it had begun preliminary planning for a 3.5 km tunnel which would most likely be travelling under Albert Street and serving three underground stations near Wellesley Street (linking to Aotea Square), in the Karangahape Road / Pitt Street area, and one near Upper Symonds Street in Newton, at the southern end linking to a redeveloped station at Mt Eden.
Eastern tunnel capacity
A proposed alternative to increase capacity is the duplication of the existing eastern Britomart approach tunnel. This would require a new twin track tunnel approximately 500 metres long to be constructed parallel to the existing twin-track tunnel, providing four tracks from Quay Park Junction and retaining Britomart as a terminus. Estimated costs are $150 million to $200 million, taking of 4–5 years to plan and build. Such a project would allow the same capacity increase as the CBD loop at approximately one sixth to one fifth the cost, but without any of the additional benefits that the two new CBD underground stations or the more direct route to the Western Line would provide.
Initially seen as an inferior, but cheaper and more politically acceptable alternative to the CBD tunnel, the duplicate eastern approach is regaining favour due to the comparatively short build time. Even if planning commenced immediately the city underground loop might not become operational until several years after the maximum capacity of the existing corridor is reached. While seen as an alternative to the CBD through connection tunnel, a duplicate eastern tunnel would not preclude an underground line from being built.
Another option that will be in operation from early 2011 and will allow an increase in capacity of the existing tunnel is the use of 'bi-directional signalling', which will allow a train to leave on the same track that it entered - and which would free it from having to cross over other tracks which may not be safely clear of other trains yet.
Suburban services are provided by Transdev on behalf of Auckland Transport. Most services either commence from or terminate at Britomart. The suburban network extends to Pukekohe in the south and Swanson Railway Station in the west. The Northern Explorer, a thrice-weekly long-distance train between Britomart and Wellington via the North Island Main Trunk is operated by KiwiRail. Its predecessor service, The Overlander, was threatened with closure in 2006 and its future remained uncertain even after Toll reversed its decision to suspend services after public comments on the closure were strongly negative.
Buses and ferries
Britomart is a major interchange between trains, buses and ferries. It is the terminus for many bus routes, and The Link and the free City Circuit buses go past on their loops around the city. Buses depart from Queen Elizabeth II Square in front of Britomart and from stops up to a block away. This lack of more integrated bus facilities is one of the less perfect outcomes of the final design, which cut the underground bus station due to costs and because the bus operators preferred an above-ground solution.
Awards that the centre has received:
- 2004 Property Council of New Zealand - Merit Award, Special Purposes Category
- 2004 American Institute of Architecture - Architectural Record / Business Week International Winner
- 2004 New Zealand Institute of Architects - Resene Award, Community and Cultural
- 2004 New Zealand Institute of Architects - Resene Award, Heritage and Conservation
- 2004 Illuminating Engineering Society of Australia and New Zealand - Lighting Award
- 2004 New Zealand Concrete Society - Concrete Award
- 2005 New Zealand Institute of Architects - Resene New Zealand Award for Architecture, Community & Cultural
- 2007 Kenneth F. Brown Asia Pacific Culture and Architecture Design Award - Honorable mention
- Urban Design Case Studies - New Zealand Ministry for the Environment, March 2005, ISBN 0-478-18995-8
- Dearnaley, Mathew (20 February 2007). "Smoke chaos at Britomart". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 22 September 2011.
- Cultural & Civic Projects - Britomart Transport Centre (from the Jasmax website)
- References provided within this same article (Awards)
- Mode of Transport, Figure for New Zealand Regions (from the Travel Survey Highlights 1997-98, New Zealand Ministry of Transport)
- Chapter 1 - The Historic Land 1600-1959 (from the official Centre website)
- Chapter 2 - City Takes Control 1959-1995 (from the official Centre website)
- Chapter 3 - Transforming the Waterfront 1995-1999 (from the official Centre website)
- Chapter 4 - The Britomart Project 1999-2001 (from the official Centre website)
- Orsman, Bernard (9 November 2000). "Auckland City vision a transport of delights". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 22 September 2011.
- Bennett, Adam (24 September 2007). "Opus IPO set to ride out volatility". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 22 September 2011.
- First Britomart Tour – Wednesday 29 November 2006 - IPENZ, Auckland Branch, January 2007 Bulletin
- Ministers at the opening of Britomart (from the New Zealand Labour Party website)
- Gibson, Anne (27 May 2009). "Two towers take shape at $1b Britomart centre". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 22 September 2011.
- Mathew Dearnaley (5 March 2008). "$1b loop tunnel plan to unlock Britomart". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 5 March 2008.
- "Britomart nears capacity". Auckland Transport Blog. 17 August 2010. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- "Strand rail link 'best'". Waikato Times. 11 May 2011. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- "Happy birthday, Britomart". The New Zealand Herald. 7 July 2004. Retrieved 22 September 2011.
- New tracks, more services, greater reliability (media release from ARTA, Wednesday 6 June 2007. Retrieved 9 October 2007.)
- Rail Development Plan 2006 - Foreword (from the ARTA, August 2006)
- Auckland's Transport Strategy and the Role of Rail (from the Engineers for Social Responsibility website)
- Auckland's Eastern Transport Corridor (from the Engineers for Social Responsibility website)
- Rail Newsletter Issue 29 (published on the Auckland Regional Transport Authority (ARTA) website, late 2006)
- 21st century public transport for Auckland - Auckland Regional Transport Authority, Thursday 17 May 2007
- "Auckland rail network enters new era". http:nzherald.co.nz. The New Zealand Herald. 2014-03-31. Retrieved 2014-05-14.
- "Electric trains". Auckland Transport. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
- Following the money - e.nz magazine, IPENZ, January/February 2007
- Dearnaley, Mathew (21 May 2007). "$1b Auckland rail upgrade powers ahead". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 22 September 2011.
- Auckland’s rail network tomorrow: 2016 to 2030 (from the ARTA, August 2006)
- Britomart West Rail Extension Feasibility Study (URS Group, final report for Auckland City Rapid Transit Group, 2004)
- Dearnaley, Mathew (3 March 2008). "Transport's big leap forward waiting on law". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 22 September 2011.
- "Overlander saved". National Business Review. 28 September 2006. Retrieved 22 September 2011.
- "Chief Post Office". Register of Historic Places. Heritage New Zealand. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
- Britomart Transport Centre (from the Architectural Record website)
- School of Architecture announces winners of the 2007 Kenneth F. Brown... - UH News, University of Hawaii, Thursday 7 June 2007
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Britomart Transport Centre.|
- Britomart Project (from the Auckland City Council website)
- Britomart Transport Centre (BTC official website)