Broadnosed pipefish

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Broadnosed pipefish
Syngnathus typhle 1293.JPG
Syngnathus typhle Gervais.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Syngnathiformes
Family: Syngnathidae
Genus: Syngnathus
Species:
S. typhle
Binomial name
Syngnathus typhle
Synonyms

The broadnosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle) is a fish of the family Syngnathidae (seahorses and pipefishes). It is native to the Eastern Atlantic from Vardø in Norway, Baltic Sea (north to the Gulf of Finland) and the British Isles at north to Morocco at south. It is also found in the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and Sea of Azov. It is common in the coastal shallow waters, usually on reefs with seagrasses. This species is notable for its "broad" snout, which is as deep as its body.

Description[edit]

The broadnosed pipefish is a slender, elongated fish with a hexagonal cross-section which distinguishes it from its even more threadlike relation the straightnose pipefish (Nerophis ophidion), which has a circular cross-section. The body surface is covered by small bony plates. The head resembles that of a seahorse with a long, laterally flattened snout and obliquely sloping mouth. Unlike the straightnose pipefish, it has a fan-shaped caudal fin. The general colour is greenish, often with various darker mottling, and the belly is yellow. The average size is about 15 to 20 cm (6 to 8 in) with a maximum of 25 cm (10 in).[2]

Distribution[edit]

The broadnosed pipefish is native to the Eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. Its range extends from Vardø, Norway to Morocco. It is found at depths to about 20 m (66 ft).[3]

Biology[edit]

The broadnosed pipefish tends to rest in a vertical position among the fronds of seaweed and feeds on plankton such as copepods which it sucks in through its mouth.[2]

This species of pipefish has a sex-role reversed mating system in which females compete for access to males.[4] This fish breeds in the summer. The male has a brood pouch into which several females deposit clutches of about twenty eggs and where the eggs are fertilised. The fry hatch after about four weeks and are expelled into the open water. Even after this the male continues to provide some parental care as the fry can retreat into the brood pouch in case of danger.[2]

Reproduction[edit]

Courtship and copulation[edit]

Males and females both actively court one another for mating, but courting is more frequent in females.[5] Courtship and copulation follow a stereotyped pattern, beginning when one fish identifies a prospective mate nearby and performs the ritualized dance.[6] If the other is receptive, the two align and continue the dance together until the female delivers her eggs into the male's brood pouch via an ovipositor.[6][7] The male then shakes the eggs into his brood pouch, releases his sperm into the pouch and assumes an S-shaped posture to fertilize the eggs.[6]

Mating system[edit]

These pipefish have a polygynandrous mating system, with both males and females mating with multiple partners during a breeding season.[8]

Like other species of pipefish, the broadnosed pipefish is sex-role reversed: males brood the eggs and because of their increased investment in offspring are the choosier sex, whereas females compete more intensely than males for access to mates.[5] Females can produce eggs faster than males can brood them, and are limited by the size of the male's brood pouch, which cannot carry all the eggs of a female similar to himself in size.[9][10] Male brood time is approximately four to six weeks, during which time the male provides oxygen and nutrients to the developing embryos until they hatch.[10][11] One to six females contribute to each brood clutch, which is the highest rate of multiple maternity in all of the pipefish species.[8]

Mate choice[edit]

Although males are choosier than females, both sexes exhibit a preference for large mates due to a positive correlation between size and fecundity.[12][9] Large females produce more and larger eggs and transfer more eggs per mating, while large males have increased brood clutch size and embryo weight.[7] Males also exhibit an avoidance of females carrying high parasite loads, which is negatively correlated with fecundity.[13]

The pipefish are not always able to mate with their preferred mates. For example, when predators are present, males are less choosy and mate indiscriminately with small and large females.[14] However, both sexes can compensate for mating with non-preferred mates. For example, females deposit more proteinaceous eggs when mating with a lower quality male.[9] This increases offspring viability since the smaller males are less able to nurture the embryos himself.[9] Males, on the other hand, can selectively absorb the eggs of lower-quality females after copulation.[15] By doing so, the male gains nutrients by ingesting the nutritious egg, which he can then allocate to caring for the embryos he sires with preferred, higher quality females in the future.[15]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pollom, R. (2014). "Syngnathus typhle". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2014: e.T198767A46263316. Retrieved 9 June 2018.
  2. ^ a b c "Broad-nosed pipefish: Syngnathus typhle (L.)". NatureGate. Retrieved 2013-12-19.
  3. ^ "Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus, 1758: Broadnosed pipefish". FishBase. Retrieved 2013-12-19.
  4. ^ Berglund, Anders (2003). "Sex role reversal in pipefish". Advances in the Study of Behavior. 32: 131–167.
  5. ^ a b Anders, Berglund; Widemo, Maria; Rosenqvist, Gunilla (2005). "Sex-role reversal revisited: choosy females and ornamented, competitive males in a pipefish" (PDF). Behavioral Ecology. 16: 649–655. doi:10.1093/beheco/ari038.
  6. ^ a b c Dugatkin, Lee. "Pipefish Courtship and Copulation". W. W. Norton & Company.
  7. ^ a b Berglund, Anders; Rosenqvist, Gunilla; Svensson, Ingrid (1988). "Multiple Matings and Paternal Brood Care in the Pipefish Syngnathus typhle". Oikos. 51: 184–188. doi:10.2307/3565641. JSTOR 3565641.
  8. ^ a b Jones, Adam; Rosenqvist, Gunilla; Berglund, Anders; Avise, John (1999). "The Genetic Mating System of a Sex-Role-Reversed Pipefish (Syngnathus typhle): A Molecular Inquiry". Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 46: 357–365. doi:10.1007/s002650050630. JSTOR 4601686.
  9. ^ a b c d Goncalves, Ines; Mobley, Kenyon; Ahnesjö, Ingrid; Sagebakken, Gry; Jones, Adam; Kvarnemo, Charlotta (2010). "Reproductive compensation in broad-nosed pipefish females". Royal Proceedings: Biological Sciences. 277: 1581–1587. doi:10.1098/rspb.2009.2290. JSTOR 41148684. PMC 2871843.
  10. ^ a b Berglund, Anders; Rosenqvist, Gunilla (1990). "Male Limitation of Female Reproductive Success in a Pipefish: Effects of Body-Size Differences". Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 27: 129–133. doi:10.1007/bf00168456. JSTOR 4600455.
  11. ^ Ahnesjö, Ingrid (1996). "Apparent Resource Competition among Embryos in the Brood Pouch of a Male Pipefish". Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 38: 167–172. doi:10.1007/s002650050229. JSTOR 4601187.
  12. ^ Bernet, Patricia; Rosenqvist, Gunilla; Berglund, Anders (1998). "Female-Female Competition Affects Female Ornamentation in the Sex-Role Reversed Pipefish Syngnathus typhle". Behaviour. 5: 535–550. doi:10.1163/156853998792897923. JSTOR 4535544.
  13. ^ Rosenqvist, Gunilla; Johansson, Kerstin (1995). "Male avoidance of parasitized females explained by direct benefits in a pipefish". Animal Behaviour. 49: 1039–1045. doi:10.1006/anbe.1995.0133.
  14. ^ Berglund, Anders (1993). "Risky sex: male pipefishes mate at random in the presence of a predator". Animal Behaviour. 46: 169–175. doi:10.1006/anbe.1993.1172.
  15. ^ a b Berglund, Anders (18 March 2010). "Evolutionary biology: Pregnant fathers in charge". Nature. 464: 364–365. doi:10.1038/464364a.

External links[edit]

  • Kuiter, Rudie H. 2000. Seahorses, pipefishes, and the relatives. Chorleywood, UK: TMC Publishing. 240 p.