Broadway theatre,[nb 1] or Broadway, are the theatrical performances presented in the 41 professional theatres, each with 500 or more seats, located in the Theater District and the Lincoln Center along Broadway, in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Broadway and London's West End together represent the highest commercial level of live theater in the English-speaking world.
While the thoroughfare is eponymous with the district and its collection of 41 theaters, and it is closely identified with Times Square, only three of the theaters are located on Broadway itself, namely the Broadway Theatre, the Palace Theatre, and the Winter Garden Theatre. The rest are located on the numbered cross streets, extending from the Nederlander Theatre one block south of Times Square on West 41st Street, north along either side of Broadway to 53rd Street, as well as the Vivian Beaumont Theater, at Lincoln Center on West 65th Street. While exceptions exist, the term "Broadway theatre" is generally reserved for venues with a seating capacity of at least 500 people. Smaller theaters in New York are referred to as off-Broadway, regardless of location, while very small venues with fewer than 100 seats are called off-off-Broadway, a term that can also apply to non-commercial or avant-garde theater, or productions held outside of traditional theater venues.
The Theater District is an internationally prominent tourist attraction in New York City. According to The Broadway League, for the 2018–19 season total attendance was 14,768,254. Broadway shows had $1,829,312,140 in grosses, with attendance up 9.5%, grosses up 10.3%, and playing weeks up 9.3%. The Museum of Broadway on West 45th Street, opened to the public in November 2022, became the first museum to document the history and experience of Broadway theatre and its profound influence upon shaping Midtown Manhattan and Times Square.
Most Broadway shows are musicals. Historian Martin Shefter argues that "'Broadway musicals', culminating in the productions of Rodgers and Hammerstein, became enormously influential forms of American popular culture" and contributed to making New York City the cultural capital of the world."
Early theatre in New York
New York's first significant theatre presence arose about 1750, when actor-managers Walter Murray and Thomas Kean established a resident theatre company at the Theatre on Nassau Street in Lower Manhattan, which held about 280 people. They presented Shakespeare plays and ballad operas such as The Beggar's Opera. In 1752, William Hallam sent a company of twelve actors from Britain to the colonies with his brother Lewis as their manager. They established a theatre in Williamsburg, Virginia, and opened with The Merchant of Venice and The Anatomist. The company moved to New York in 1753, performing ballad operas and ballad-farces like Damon and Phillida. The Revolutionary War suspended theatre in New York, but thereafter theatre resumed in 1798, the year the 2,000-seat Park Theatre was built on Chatham Street (now called Park Row). The Bowery Theatre opened in 1826, followed by others.
By the 1840s, P.T. Barnum was operating an entertainment complex in Lower Manhattan. In 1829, at Broadway and Prince Street, Niblo's Garden opened and soon became one of New York's premier nightspots. The 3,000-seat theatre presented all sorts of musical and non-musical entertainments. In 1844, Palmo's Opera House opened and presented opera for only four seasons before bankruptcy led to its rebranding as a venue for plays under the name Burton's Theatre. The Astor Opera House opened in 1847. A riot broke out in 1849 when the lower-class patrons of the Bowery Theatre objected to what they perceived as snobbery by the upper-class audiences at Astor Place: "After the Astor Place Riot of 1849, entertainment in New York City was divided along class lines: opera was chiefly for the upper-middle and upper classes, minstrel shows and melodramas for the middle-class, variety shows in concert saloons for men of the working class and the slumming middle-class."
The plays of William Shakespeare were frequently performed on the Broadway stage during the period, most notably by American actor Edwin Booth who was internationally known for his performance as Hamlet. Booth played the role for a famous 100 consecutive performances at the Winter Garden Theatre in 1865 (with the run ending just a few months before Booth's brother John Wilkes Booth assassinated Abraham Lincoln), and would later revive the role at his own Booth's Theatre (which was managed for a time by his brother Junius Brutus Booth, Jr.). Other renowned Shakespeareans who appeared in New York in this era were Henry Irving, Tommaso Salvini, Fanny Davenport, and Charles Fechter.
Birth of the musical and post-Civil War
Theatre in New York moved from Downtown gradually to Midtown Manhattan, beginning around 1850, seeking less expensive real estate. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the area that now comprises the Theater District was owned by a handful of families and comprised a few farms. In 1836, Mayor Cornelius Lawrence opened 42nd Street and invited Manhattanites to "enjoy the pure clean air." Close to 60 years later, theatrical entrepreneur Oscar Hammerstein I built the iconic Victoria Theater on West 42nd Street.
Broadway's first "long-run" musical was a 50-performance hit called The Elves in 1857. In 1870, the heart of Broadway was in Union Square, and by the end of the century, many theatres were near Madison Square. Theatres arrived in the Times Square area in the early 1900s, and the Broadway theatres consolidated there after a large number were built around the square in the 1920s and 1930s. New York runs continued to lag far behind those in London, but Laura Keene's "musical burletta" The Seven Sisters (1860) shattered previous New York records with a run of 253 performances. It was at a performance by Keene's troupe of Our American Cousin in Washington, D.C. that Abraham Lincoln was shot.
The first theatre piece that conforms to the modern conception of a musical, adding dance and original music that helped to tell the story, is considered to be The Black Crook, which premiered in New York on September 12, 1866. The production was five-and-a-half hours long, but despite its length, it ran for a record-breaking 474 performances. The same year, The Black Domino/Between You, Me and the Post was the first show to call itself a "musical comedy".
Tony Pastor opened the first vaudeville theatre one block east of Union Square in 1881, where Lillian Russell performed. Comedians Edward Harrigan and Tony Hart produced and starred in musicals on Broadway between 1878 (The Mulligan Guard Picnic) and 1890, with book and lyrics by Harrigan and music by his father-in-law David Braham. These musical comedies featured characters and situations taken from the everyday life of New York's lower classes and represented a significant step forward from vaudeville and burlesque, towards a more literate form. They starred high-quality professional singers (Lillian Russell, Vivienne Segal, and Fay Templeton), instead of the amateurs, often sex workers, who had starred in earlier musical forms.
As transportation improved, poverty in New York diminished, and street lighting made for safer travel at night, the number of potential patrons for the growing number of theatres increased enormously. Plays could run longer and still draw in the audiences, leading to better profits and improved production values. As in England, during the latter half of the century, the theatre began to be cleaned up, with less prostitution hindering the attendance of the theatre by women. Gilbert and Sullivan's family-friendly comic opera hits, beginning with H.M.S. Pinafore in 1878, were imported to New York (by the authors and also in numerous unlicensed productions). They were imitated in New York by American productions such as Reginald Dekoven's Robin Hood (1891) and John Philip Sousa's El Capitan (1896), along with operas, ballets, and other British and European hits.
Charles H. Hoyt's A Trip to Chinatown (1891) became Broadway's long-run champion when it surpassed Adonis and its 603 total performances in 1893, holding the stage for 657 performances. Chinatown itself was surpassed by the musical Irene (1919) in 1921 as the longest-running Broadway musical, and even earlier, in March 1920, by Lightnin' (1918) as the longest-running Broadway show. In 1896, theatre owners Marc Klaw and A. L. Erlanger formed the Theatrical Syndicate, which controlled almost every legitimate theatre in the U.S. for the next sixteen years. However, smaller vaudeville and variety houses proliferated, and Off-Broadway was well established by the end of the nineteenth century.
A Trip to Coontown (1898) was the first musical comedy entirely produced and performed by African Americans in a Broadway theatre (inspired largely. by the routines of the minstrel shows), followed by the ragtime-tinged Clorindy: The Origin of the Cakewalk (1898), and the highly successful In Dahomey (1902). Hundreds of musical comedies were staged on Broadway in the 1890s and early 1900s made up of songs written in New York's Tin Pan Alley involving composers such as Gus Edwards, John Walter Bratton, and George M. Cohan (Little Johnny Jones (1904), 45 Minutes From Broadway (1906), and George Washington Jr. (1906)). Still, New York runs continued to be relatively short, with a few exceptions, compared with London runs, until World War I. A few very successful British musicals continued to achieve great success in New York, including Florodora in 1900–01.
Early 20th century
In the early years of the twentieth century, translations of popular late-nineteenth century continental operettas were joined by the "Princess Theatre" shows of the 1910s, by writers such as P. G. Wodehouse, Guy Bolton, and Harry B. Smith. Victor Herbert, whose work included some intimate musical plays with modern settings as well as his string of famous operettas (The Fortune Teller (1898), Babes in Toyland (1903), Mlle. Modiste (1905), The Red Mill (1906), and Naughty Marietta (1910)).
Beginning with The Red Mill, Broadway shows installed electric signs outside the theatres. Since colored bulbs burned out too quickly, white lights were used, and Broadway was nicknamed "The Great White Way". In August 1919, the Actors' Equity Association demanded a standard contract for all professional productions. After a strike shut down all the theatres, the producers were forced to agree. By the 1920s, the Shubert Brothers had risen to take over the majority of the theatres from the Erlanger syndicate.
During this time, the play Lightnin' by Winchell Smith and Frank Bacon became the first Broadway show to reach 700 performances. From then, it would go on to become the first show to reach 1,000 performances. Lightnin' was the longest-running Broadway show until being overtaken in performance totals by Abie's Irish Rose in 1925.
Competing with motion pictures
The motion picture mounted a challenge to the stage. At first, films were silent and presented only limited competition. By the end of the 1920s, films like The Jazz Singer were presented with synchronized sound, and critics wondered if cinema would replace live theatre altogether. While live vaudeville could not compete with these inexpensive films that featured vaudeville stars and major comedians of the day, other theatres survived. The musicals of the Roaring Twenties, borrowing from vaudeville, music hall, and other light entertainment, tended to ignore plot in favor of emphasizing star actors and actresses, big dance routines, and popular songs.
Florenz Ziegfeld produced annual spectacular song-and-dance revues on Broadway featuring extravagant sets and elaborate costumes, but there was little to tie the various numbers together. Typical of the 1920s were lighthearted productions such as Sally; Lady Be Good; Sunny; No, No, Nanette; Harlem; Oh, Kay!; and Funny Face. Their books may have been forgettable, but they produced enduring standards from George Gershwin, Cole Porter, Jerome Kern, Vincent Youmans, and Rodgers and Hart, among others, and Noël Coward, Sigmund Romberg, and Rudolf Friml continued in the vein of Victor Herbert. Live theatre has survived the invention of cinema.
Between the wars
Leaving these comparatively frivolous entertainments behind and taking the drama a step forward, Show Boat premiered on December 27, 1927, at the Ziegfeld Theatre. It represented a complete integration of book and score, with dramatic themes, as told through the music, dialogue, setting, and movement, woven together more seamlessly than in previous musicals. It ran for 572 performances.
The 1920s also spawned a new age of American playwright with the emergence of Eugene O'Neill, whose plays Beyond the Horizon, Anna Christie, The Hairy Ape, Strange Interlude, and Mourning Becomes Electra proved that there was an audience for serious drama on Broadway, and O'Neill's success paved the way for major dramatists like Elmer Rice, Maxwell Anderson, Robert E. Sherwood, Clifford Odets, Tennessee Williams, and Arthur Miller, as well as writers of comedy like George S. Kaufman and Moss Hart. Classical revivals also proved popular with Broadway theatre-goers, notably John Barrymore in Hamlet and Richard III, John Gielgud in Hamlet, The Importance of Being Earnest and Much Ado About Nothing, Walter Hampden and José Ferrer in Cyrano de Bergerac, Paul Robeson and Ferrer in Othello, Maurice Evans in Richard II and the plays of George Bernard Shaw, and Katharine Cornell in such plays as Romeo and Juliet, Antony and Cleopatra, and Candida.
As World War II approached, a dozen Broadway dramas addressed the rise of Nazism in Europe and the issue of American non-intervention. The most successful was Lillian Hellman's Watch on the Rhine, which opened in April 1941.
After the lean years of the Great Depression, Broadway theatre had entered a golden age with the blockbuster hit Oklahoma!, in 1943, which ran for 2,212 performances. According to John Kenrick's writings on Broadway musicals, "Every season saw new stage musicals send songs to the top of the charts. Public demand, a booming economy and abundant creative talent kept Broadway hopping. To this day, the shows of the 1950s form the core of the musical theatre repertory."
Decline in late 1960s
Kenrick notes that "the late 1960s marked a time of cultural upheaval. All those changes would prove painful for many, including those behind the scenes, as well as those in the audience." Of the 1970s, Kenrick writes: "Just when it seemed that traditional book musicals were back in style, the decade ended with critics and audiences giving mixed signals."
Ken Bloom observed that "The 1960s and 1970s saw a worsening of the area [Times Square] and a drop in the number of legitimate shows produced on Broadway." By way of comparison, in the 1950 to 1951 season (May to May) 94 productions opened on Broadway; in the 1969 to 1970 season (June to May) there were 59 productions (fifteen were revivals). In the twenties, there were 70–80 theaters, but by 1969, there were 36 left.
Resurgence in early 1980s
In early 1982, Joe Papp, the theatrical producer and director who established The Public Theater, led the "Save the Theatres" campaign. It was a not-for-profit group supported by the Actors Equity union to save the theater buildings in the neighborhood from demolition by monied Manhattan development interests. Papp provided resources, recruited a publicist and celebrated actors, and provided audio, lighting, and technical crews for the effort.
At Papp's behest, in July 1982, a bill was introduced in the 97th Congress, entitled "H.R.6885, A bill to designate the Broadway/Times Square Theatre District in the City of New York as a national historic site". The legislation would have provided certain U.S. government resources and assistance to help the city preserve the district. Faced with strong opposition and lobbying by Mayor Ed Koch's Administration and corporate Manhattan development interests, the bill was not passed. The Save the Theatres campaign then turned their efforts to supporting the establishment of the Theater District as a registered historic district. In December 1983, Save the Theatres prepared "The Broadway Theater District, a Preservation Development and Management Plan", and demanded that each theater in the district receive landmark designation. Mayor Ed Koch ultimately reacted by creating a Theater Advisory Council, which included Papp.
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic in New York City, Broadway theaters closed on March 12, 2020, shuttering 16 shows that were playing or were in the process of opening. The Broadway League shutdown was extended first to April, then to May, then June, then September 2020 and January 2021, and later to June 1, 2021. Then-governor Andrew Cuomo announced that most sectors of New York would have their restrictions lifted on May 19, 2021, but he stated that Broadway theatres would not be able to immediately resume performances on this date due to logistical reasons. In May 2021, Cuomo announced that Broadway theaters would be allowed to reopen on September 14, and the League confirmed that performances would begin to resume in the fall season.
Springsteen on Broadway became the first full-length show to resume performances, opening on June 26, 2021, to 1,721 vaccinated patrons at the St. James Theatre. Pass Over then had its first preview on August 4, and opened on August 22, 2021, becoming the first new play to open. Hadestown and Waitress were the first musicals to resume performances on September 2, 2021. The 74th Tony Awards were also postponed; the Tony nominations were announced on October 15, 2020, and took place on September 26, 2021. On July 30, 2021, it was announced that all Broadway theaters required attendees to provide proof of full COVID-19 vaccination. The rule applied to guests ages 12+. Those under age 12 were required to provide a negative COVID-19 test (PCR within 72 hours or antigen within six hours of the performance start time). Beginning November 8, those ages 5-11 also had the option to provide proof of at least one vaccination shot. Effective December 14, in accordance with NYC's vaccination mandate, guests ages 5-11 were required to have at least one vaccination shot until January 29, 2022, where they had to be fully vaccinated. The vaccine mandate lasted until April 30, and attendees were also required to wear face masks until July 1.
During the COVID-19 shutdown, the Shubert Organization, the Nederlander Organization, and Jujamcyn had pledged to increase racial and cultural diversity in their theaters, including naming at least one theater for a Black theatrical personality. The August Wilson Theatre, owned by Jujamcyn, had been renamed after Black playwright August Wilson in 2005. The Shuberts announced in March 2022 that the Cort Theatre, which was under renovation at the time, would be renamed after actor James Earl Jones. In June 2022, the Nederlanders announced that the Brooks Atkinson Theatre would be renamed after Lena Horne, The James Earl Jones Theatre was rededicated in September 2022, while the Lena Horne Theatre was rededicated that November.
Although there are some exceptions, shows with open-ended runs generally have evening performances Tuesday through Saturday, with a 7:00 p.m. or 8:00 p.m. "curtain". The afternoon "matinée" performances are at 2:00 p.m. on Wednesdays and Saturdays and at 3:00 p.m. on Sundays. This makes for an eight-performance week. On this schedule, most shows do not play on Monday and the shows and theatres are said to be "dark" on that day. The actors and the crew in these shows tend to regard Sunday evening through Monday evening as their weekend. The Tony award presentation ceremony is usually held on a Sunday evening in June to fit this schedule.
In recent years, some shows have moved their Tuesday show time an hour earlier to 7:00 pm. The rationale for this move was that since fewer tourists take in shows midweek, Tuesday attendance depends more on local patrons. The earlier curtain makes it possible for suburban patrons to get home by a reasonable hour after the show. Some shows, especially those produced by Disney, change their performance schedules fairly frequently depending on the season. This is done in order to maximize access to their target audience.
Producers and theatre owners
Most Broadway producers and theatre owners are members of The Broadway League (formerly "The League of American Theatres and Producers"), a trade organization that promotes Broadway theatre as a whole, negotiates contracts with the various theatrical unions and agreements with the guilds, and co-administers the Tony Awards with the American Theatre Wing, a service organization. While the League and the theatrical unions are sometimes at loggerheads during those periods when new contracts are being negotiated, they also cooperate on many projects and events designed to promote professional theatre in New York.
Of the four non-profit theatre companies with Broadway theatres, all four (Lincoln Center Theater, Manhattan Theatre Club, Roundabout Theatre Company, and Second Stage Theatre) belong to the League of Resident Theatres and have contracts with the theatrical unions which are negotiated separately from the other Broadway theatre and producers. (Disney also negotiates apart from the League, as did Livent before it closed down its operations.)
The majority of Broadway theatres are owned or managed by three organizations: the Shubert Organization, a for-profit arm of the non-profit Shubert Foundation, which owns seventeen theatres; the Nederlander Organization, which controls nine theatres; and Jujamcyn, which owns five Broadway houses.
Both musicals and straight plays on Broadway often rely on casting well-known performers in leading roles to draw larger audiences or bring in new audience members to the theatre. Actors from film and television are frequently cast for the revivals of Broadway shows or are used to replace actors leaving a cast. There are still, however, performers who are primarily stage actors, spending most of their time "on the boards", and appearing in screen roles only secondarily. As Patrick Healy of The New York Times noted:
Broadway once had many homegrown stars who committed to working on a show for a year, as Nathan Lane has for The Addams Family. In 2010, some theater heavyweights like Mr. Lane were not even nominated; instead, several Tony Awards were given for productions that were always intended to be short-timers on Broadway, given that many of their film-star performers had to move on to other commitments.
According to Mark Shenton, "One of the biggest changes to the commercial theatrical landscape—on both sides of the Atlantic—over the past decade or so is that sightings of big star names turning out to do plays has [sic] gone up; but the runs they are prepared to commit to has gone down. Time was that a producer would require a minimum commitment from his star of six months, and perhaps a year; now, the 13-week run is the norm."
The minimum size of the Broadway orchestra is governed by an agreement with the musicians' union (Local 802, American Federation of Musicians) and The Broadway League. For example, the agreement specifies the minimum size of the orchestra at the Minskoff Theatre to be eighteen, while at the Music Box Theatre it is nine.
Most Broadway shows are commercial productions intended to make a profit for the producers and investors ("backers" or "angels"), and therefore have open-ended runs (duration that the production plays), meaning that the length of their presentation is not set beforehand, but depends on critical response, word of mouth, and the effectiveness of the show's advertising, all of which determine ticket sales. Investing in a commercial production carries a varied degree of financial risk. Shows need not make a profit immediately; should they make their "nut" (weekly operating expenses), or lose money at a rate acceptable to the producers, they may continue to run in the expectation that, eventually, they will pay back their initial costs and become profitable. In some borderline situations, producers may ask that royalties be temporarily reduced or waived, or even that performers—with the permission of their unions—take reduced salaries, to prevent a show from closing. Theatre owners, who are not generally profit participants in most productions, may waive or reduce rents, or even lend money to a show to keep it running.
Some Broadway shows are produced by non-commercial organizations as part of a regular subscription season—Lincoln Center Theatre, Roundabout Theatre Company, Manhattan Theatre Club, and Second Stage Theater are the four non-profit theatre companies that currently have permanent Broadway venues. Some other productions are produced on Broadway with "limited engagement runs" for several reasons, including financial issues, prior engagements of the performers, or temporary availability of a theatre between the end of one production and the beginning of another. However, some shows with planned limited engagement runs may, after critical acclaim or box office success, extend their engagements or convert to open-ended runs. This was the case with 2007's August: Osage County, 2009's God of Carnage, 2012's Newsies, and 2022's Take Me Out.
Historically, musicals on Broadway tend to have longer runs than "straight" (i.e., non-musical) plays. On January 9, 2006, The Phantom of the Opera at the Majestic Theatre became the longest-running Broadway musical, with 7,486 performances, overtaking Cats. The Phantom of the Opera closed on Broadway on April 16, 2023, soon after celebrating its 35th anniversary, after a total of 13,981 performances.
Attending a Broadway show is a common tourist activity in New York. The TKTS booths sell same-day tickets (and in certain cases, next-day matinee tickets) for many Broadway and Off-Broadway shows at a discount of 20 to 50%. The TKTS booths are located in Times Square, in Lower Manhattan, and at Lincoln Center. This service is run by Theatre Development Fund. Many Broadway theatres also offer special student rates, same-day "rush" or "lottery" tickets, or standing-room tickets to help ensure that their theatres are as full—and their grosses as high—as possible.
According to The Broadway League, total Broadway attendance was 14.77 million in 2018–2019, compared to 13.79 million in 2017–2018. The Broadway League reports that approximately 66% of all Broadway tickets were purchased by tourists in the 2012–2013 season, an increase of three percent from the 2011–2012 season. By way of comparison, London's West End theatre reported a total attendance of 15.5 million for major commercial and grant-aided theatres in central London for 2018. The average age of the Broadway audience in the 2017–18 theater season was 40, the lowest it had been in nearly two decades.
Off-Broadway and Off-Off-Broadway
The classification of theatres is governed by language in Actors' Equity Association contracts. To be eligible for a Tony, a production must be in a house with 500 seats or more and in the Theater District, which are the criteria that define Broadway theatre. Off-Broadway and Off-Off-Broadway shows often provide a more experimental, challenging, and intimate performance than is possible in the larger Broadway theatres. Some Broadway shows, however, such as the musicals Hair, Little Shop of Horrors, Spring Awakening, Next to Normal, Rent, Avenue Q, In the Heights, Fun Home, Dear Evan Hansen, and Hamilton, began their runs Off-Broadway and later transferred to Broadway, seeking to replicate their intimate experience in a larger theatre. Other productions are first developed through workshops and then out-of-town tryouts before transferring to Broadway. Merrily We Roll Along famously skipped an out-of-town tryout and attempted to do an in-town tryout—actually preview performances—on Broadway before its official opening, with disastrous results.
Broadway national tours
After, or even during, successful runs in Broadway theatres, producers often remount their productions with new casts and crew for the Broadway national tour, which travels to theatres in major cities across the country. Sometimes when a show closes on Broadway, the entire production, with most if not all of the original cast intact, is relaunched as a touring company, hence the name "Broadway national tour". Some shows may even have several touring companies out at a time, whether the show is still running in New York or not, with many companies "sitting down" in other major cities for their own extended runs. For Broadway national tours of top-tier cities, the entire Broadway production is transplanted almost entirely intact and may run for many months (or years) at each stop. For example, the first U.S. tour of The Phantom of the Opera required 26 53-foot-long (16.1 m) semi-trailers to transport all its sets, equipment, and costumes, and it took almost 10 days to properly unload all those trucks and install everything into a theater.
Second-tier and smaller cities can also attract national tours, but these are more likely to be "bus and truck" tours. These are scaled-down versions of the larger, national touring productions, historically acquiring their name because the casts generally traveled by bus instead of by air, while the sets and equipment traveled by truck. Tours of this type often run for weeks rather than months, and frequently feature a reduced physical production to accommodate smaller venues and tighter schedules, and to fit into less trucks. A typical second-tier city can usually sell only up to about eight weeks of tickets. For cities smaller than that, a touring production might move twice a week ("split weeks") or every day ("one-nighters"). For "bus and truck" tours, the production values are usually less lavish than the typical Broadway national tour or national touring production, and the actors, while still members of the actors' union, are compensated under a different, less lucrative union contract. The Touring Broadway Awards, presented by The Broadway League, honored excellence in touring Broadway.
Broadway productions and artists are honored by the annual Antoinette Perry Awards (commonly called the "Tony Awards", or "Tonys"), given by the American Theatre Wing and The Broadway League, and that were first presented in 1947. The Tony is Broadway's most prestigious award, comparable to the Academy Awards for Hollywood film productions. Their importance has increased since 1967 when the awards presentation show began to be broadcast on national television. In a strategy to improve the television ratings, celebrities are often chosen to host the show, some with scant connection to the theatre. The most recent Tony Awards ceremony was held on June 12, 2022. Other awards given to Broadway productions include the Drama Desk Award, presented since 1955, the New York Drama Critics' Circle Awards, first given in 1936, and the Outer Critics Circle Award, initially presented in 1950.
Broadway theatres and current productions
- An * after the opening date indicates that the listed show has not yet opened, but is scheduled to open on the given date at that theatre.
- An * after the closing date indicates that there is another production scheduled for that theatre.
- If the next show planned is not announced, the applicable columns are left blank.
- Capacity is based on the capacity given for the respective theatre at the Internet Broadway Database.
|Al Hirschfeld Theatre||W. 45th St. (No. 302)||1424||Jujamcyn Theaters||Moulin Rouge!||Musical||July 25, 2019||Open-ended|
|Ambassador Theatre||W. 49th St. (No. 219)||1125||Shubert Organization||Chicago||Musical||November 14, 1996||Open-ended|
|American Airlines Theatre||W. 42nd St. (No. 227)||740||Roundabout Theatre Company||Fat Ham||Play||April 12, 2023||August 6, 2023*|
|August Wilson Theatre||W. 52nd St. (No. 245)||1228||Jujamcyn Theaters||Funny Girl||Musical||April 24, 2022||September 3, 2023|
|Belasco Theatre||W. 44th St. (No. 111)||1018||Shubert Organization||Good Night, Oscar||Play||April 24, 2023||August 27, 2023|
|Bernard B. Jacobs Theatre||W. 45th St. (No. 242)||1078||Shubert Organization||Parade||Musical||March 16, 2023||August 6, 2023|
|Booth Theatre||W. 45th St. (No. 222)||766||Shubert Organization||Kimberly Akimbo||Musical||November 10, 2022||Open-ended|
|Broadhurst Theatre||W. 44th St. (No. 235)||1186||Shubert Organization||A Beautiful Noise||Musical||December 4, 2022||Open-ended|
|Broadway Theatre||W. 53rd St & Broadway (No. 1681)||1761||Shubert Organization||Here Lies Love||Musical||July 20, 2023*||Open-ended|
|Circle in the Square Theatre||W. 50th St. (No. 235)||840||Independent|
|Ethel Barrymore Theatre||W. 47th St. (No. 243)||1096||Shubert Organization||Peter Pan Goes Wrong||Play||April 19, 2023||July 23, 2023*|
|Eugene O'Neill Theatre||W. 49th St. (No. 230)||1066||Jujamcyn Theaters||The Book of Mormon||Musical||March 24, 2011||Open-ended|
|Gerald Schoenfeld Theatre||W. 45th St. (No. 236)||1079||Shubert Organization||Life of Pi||Play||March 30, 2023||Open-ended|
|Gershwin Theatre||W. 51st St. (No. 222)||1933||Nederlander Organization||Wicked||Musical||October 30, 2003||Open-ended|
|Hayes Theater||W. 44th St. (No. 240)||597||Second Stage Theater||The Thanksgiving Play||Play||April 20, 2023||June 11, 2023*|
|Hudson Theatre||W. 44th St. (No. 141)||970||Ambassador Theatre Group||A Doll's House||Play||March 9, 2023||June 10, 2023*|
|Imperial Theatre||W. 45th St. (No. 249)||1443||Shubert Organization||Bad Cinderella||Musical||March 23, 2023||June 4, 2023|
|James Earl Jones Theatre||W. 48th St. (No. 138)||1084||Shubert Organization||The Sign in Sidney Brustein's Window||Play||April 27, 2023||July 2, 2023|
|John Golden Theatre||W. 45th St. (No. 252)||805||Shubert Organization||Prima Facie||Play||April 23, 2023||July 2, 2023*|
|Lena Horne Theatre||W. 47th St. (No. 256)||1094||Nederlander Organization||Six||Musical||October 3, 2021||Open-ended|
|Longacre Theatre||W. 48th St. (No. 220)||1091||Shubert Organization||Leopoldstadt||Play||October 2, 2022||July 2, 2023|
|Lunt-Fontanne Theatre||W. 46th St. (No. 205)||1519||Nederlander Organization||Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street||Musical||March 26, 2023||Open-ended|
|Lyceum Theatre||W. 45th St. (No. 149)||922||Shubert Organization||Grey House||Play||May 30, 2023*||September 3, 2023|
|Lyric Theatre||W. 43rd St. (No. 214)||1622||Ambassador Theatre Group||Harry Potter and the Cursed Child||Play||April 22, 2018||Open-ended|
|Majestic Theatre||W. 44th St. (No. 245)||1645||Shubert Organization|
|Marquis Theatre||W. 46th St. (No. 210)||1612||Nederlander Organization||Once Upon a One More Time||Musical||June 22, 2023*||Open-ended|
|Minskoff Theatre||W. 45th St. (No. 200)||1710||Nederlander Organization||The Lion King||Musical||November 13, 1997||Open-ended|
|Music Box Theatre||W. 45th St. (No. 239)||1009||Shubert Organization|
|Nederlander Theatre||W. 41st St. (No. 208)||1235||Nederlander Organization||Shucked||Musical||April 4, 2023||Open-ended|
|Neil Simon Theatre||W. 52nd St. (No. 250)||1467||Nederlander Organization||MJ the Musical||Musical||February 1, 2022||Open-ended|
|New Amsterdam Theatre||W. 42nd St. (No. 214)||1747||Disney Theatrical Group||Aladdin||Musical||March 20, 2014||Open-ended|
|Palace Theatre||W. 47th St. & Broadway (No. 1564)||1743||Nederlander Organization|
|Richard Rodgers Theatre||W. 46th St. (No. 226)||1400||Nederlander Organization||Hamilton||Musical||August 6, 2015||Open-ended|
|St. James Theatre||W. 44th St. (No. 246)||1709||Jujamcyn Theaters||New York, New York||Musical||April 26, 2023||Open-ended|
|Samuel J. Friedman Theatre||W. 47th St. (No. 261)||650||Manhattan Theatre Club||Summer, 1976||Play||April 25, 2023||June 18, 2023*|
|Shubert Theatre||W. 44th St. (No. 225)||1460||Shubert Organization||Some Like It Hot||Musical||December 11, 2022||Open-ended|
|Stephen Sondheim Theatre||W. 43rd St. (No. 124)||1055||Roundabout Theatre Company||& Juliet||Musical||November 17, 2022||Open-ended|
|Studio 54||W. 54th St. (No. 254)||1006||Roundabout Theatre Company|
|Vivian Beaumont Theater||W. 65th St. (No. 150)||1080||Lincoln Center Theatre||Camelot||Musical||April 13, 2023||Open-ended|
|Walter Kerr Theatre||W. 48th St. (No. 219)||945||Jujamcyn Theaters||Hadestown||Musical||April 17, 2019||Open-ended|
|Winter Garden Theatre||W. 50th St. & Broadway (No. 1634)||1526||Shubert Organization||Back to the Future: The Musical||Musical||August 3, 2023*||Open-ended|
The following have been announced as future Broadway productions. The theatre in which they will run may not yet be known, or, if known, may be currently occupied by another show.
|An Enemy of the People||Play||To be announced||Early 2024|||
|The Cottage||Play||Hayes Theatre||July 24, 2023|||
|Harmony||Musical||Ethel Barrymore Theatre||November 13, 2023|||
|Home||Play||American Airlines Theatre||Spring 2024|||
|I Need That||Play||American Airlines Theatre||Fall 2023|||
|Jaja's African Hair Braiding||Play||Samuel J. Friedman Theatre||Fall 2023|||
|Just for Us||Solo||Hudson Theatre||June 26, 2023|||
|El Mago Pop||Magic||Ethel Barrymore Theatre||August 17, 2023|||
|Merrily We Roll Along||Musical||Hudson Theatre||October 2023|||
|The Mousetrap||Play||To be announced||2023|||
|The Shark Is Broken||Play||John Golden Theatre||August 10, 2023|||
|Purlie Victorious||Play||To be announced||Late Summer 2023|||
|Smash||Musical||To be announced||2024–25 season|||
|The Wiz||Musical||To be announced||Spring 2024|||
- ^ Although theater is generally the spelling for this common noun in the United States (see American and British English spelling differences), 130 of the 144 extant and extinct Broadway venues use (used) the spelling Theatre as the proper noun in their names (12 others used neither), with many performers and trade groups for live dramatic presentations also using the spelling theatre.
- ^ Pincus-Roth, Zachary (February 8, 2008). "Ask Playbill.com: Broadway or Off-Broadway—Part I". Playbill. Archived from the original on March 24, 2020. Retrieved August 14, 2022.
- ^ Viagas, Robert (December 16, 2015). "Hudson Theatre Will Be Reopened as Broadway House". Playbill. Archived from the original on August 14, 2022. Retrieved August 14, 2022.
- ^ Naden, Corinne J. (2011). The Golden Age of American Musical Theatre: 1943–1965. Scarecrow Press. p. 1. ISBN 9780810877344. Archived from the original on April 25, 2023. Retrieved November 9, 2020.
- ^ "How To Tell Broadway From Off-Broadway From..." Playbill. Playbill, Inc. January 13, 2019. Archived from the original on October 21, 2019. Retrieved February 28, 2020.
- ^ a b "2018 – 2019 Broadway End-of-Season Statistics" Archived December 6, 2019, at the Wayback Machine. Broadway League, May 28, 2019.
- ^ Martin Shefter (1993). Capital of the American Century: The National and International Influence of New York City. Russell Sage Foundation. p. 10. ISBN 9781610444972. Archived from the original on April 25, 2023. Retrieved November 20, 2015.
- ^ a b Kenrick, John (2003–2005). "Theatre in NYC: A Brief History I". Musicals101.com. Archived from the original on October 5, 2015. Retrieved January 24, 2008.
- ^ "Bowery Theatre history, Internet Broadway Database listing" Archived October 28, 2011, at the Wayback Machine Internet Broadway Database, accessed August 26, 2011
- ^ Snyder, Robert W. (1995). Jackson, Kenneth T. (ed.). The Encyclopedia of New York City. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 1226.
- ^ a b "Urban Development". spotlightonbroadway.com. Archived from the original on June 7, 2020. Retrieved November 3, 2017.
- ^ a b "Longest Running Plays in London and New York" Archived March 3, 2016, at the Wayback Machine dgillan.screaming.net (stagebeauty.net), copyright 2007, accessed August 26, 2011
- ^ a b Sheridan, Morley. Spread A Little Happiness:the First Hundred Years of the British Musical, New York: Thames and Hudson, 1987, ISBN 0-500-01398-5, p.15
- ^ Kenrick, John. "Kenrick's summary of New York theatre from 1865–1900" Archived November 13, 2007, at the Wayback Machine Musicals101.com, accessed August 26, 2011
- ^ Midkoff, Neil. "Discovering Dorothy". home.earthlink.net. Archived from the original on April 25, 2009.
- ^ Kenrick, John (2003). "Theatre in NYC: History – Part IV". Musicals101.com. Archived from the original on September 15, 2007. Retrieved January 24, 2008.
- ^ Lubbock, Mark (1962). The Complete Book of Light Opera. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. pp. 807–8.
- ^ Atkinson, Brooks (April 2, 1941). "Lillian Hellman's Watch on the Rhine Acted With Paul Lukas in the Leading Part" (PDF). The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 21, 2022. Retrieved October 18, 2012.
- ^ Kenrick, John. "History of The Musical Stage. 1950s I: When Broadway Ruled" Archived November 25, 2012, at the Wayback Machine musicals101.com, accessed December 2, 2012
- ^ Kenrick, John. "History of The Musical Stage.1960s II: Long Running Hits" Archived March 18, 2013, at the Wayback Machine musicals101.com, accessed December 2, 2012
- ^ Kenrick, John. "History of The Musical Stage. 1970s Part V: Change" Archived March 18, 2013, at the Wayback Machine musicals101.com, accessed December 2, 2012
- ^ Bloom, Ken. "Introduction" Archived April 5, 2023, at the Wayback Machine Broadway: Its History, People, and Places (2004) (books.google.com) Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0-415-93704-3, p.xvi
- ^ "Productions Opening During the Season 1950–1951". InternetBroadwayDatabase. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved February 13, 2020.
- ^ "Productions Opening During the Season 1969–1970". InternetBroadwayDatabase. Archived from the original on October 29, 2013.
- ^ "Broadway 1950–1970" Archived October 29, 2013, at the Wayback Machine mapsites.net, December 2, 2012
- ^ The name of the organization was "Save the Theatres, Inc., as noted in court papers. See Shubert Organization, Inc. v. Landmarks Preservation Commission of the City of New York and Save the Theatres, Inc. Archived May 21, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, Supreme Court of New York, Appellate Division, First Department, May 16, 1991, accessed March 10, 2013
- ^ "Proposal to Save Morosco and Helen Hayes Theaters". LHP Architects. Archived from the original on May 20, 2015.
- ^ a b c Helen Epstein (March 1, 1996). Joe Papp: An American Life. ISBN 0-306-80676-2. Retrieved February 22, 2013.[permanent dead link]
- ^ "City Panel Near Vote on Save-The-Theaters Proposals". The New York Times. New York City. April 15, 1984. Archived from the original on August 28, 2020. Retrieved February 22, 2013.
- ^ Corwin, Betty "Theatre on film and tape archive" Archived September 21, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, International Association of Libraries and Museums of the Performing Arts, accessed May 10, 2013
- ^ a b "Bill Summary & Status – 97th Congress (1981–1982) – H.R.6885". Thomas.loc.gov. Retrieved February 22, 2013.[permanent dead link]
- ^ Lynne B. Sagalyn (2003). Times Square Roulette: Remaking the City Icon. MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-69295-3. Archived from the original on April 25, 2023. Retrieved February 26, 2013.
- ^ a b Peter Bosselmann (August 28, 1985). Representation of Places – Imprimé: Reality and Realism in City Design. ISBN 978-0-520-91826-9. Archived from the original on April 25, 2023. Retrieved February 26, 2013.
- ^ Paulson, Michael (October 9, 2020). "Broadway Will Remain Closed at Least Through May". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 9, 2020. Retrieved October 9, 2020.
- ^ "Broadway League Extends Shutdown Until June 2021". Spectrum News. October 9, 2020. Archived from the original on October 12, 2020. Retrieved October 9, 2020.
- ^ Evans, Greg (May 5, 2021). "Broadway To Reopen Sept. 14, Says Gov. Andrew Cuomo; Broadway League "Cautiously Optimistic"". Deadline. Archived from the original on May 5, 2021. Retrieved May 27, 2021.
- ^ Corasaniti, Nick (June 27, 2021). "Bruce Springsteen Reopens Broadway, Ushering In Theater's Return". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on June 28, 2021. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
- ^ Dilella, Frank (August 5, 2021). ""Pass Over" becomes first new play on Broadway since COVID shutdown". NY1. Archived from the original on August 23, 2021. Retrieved August 23, 2021.
- ^ Meyer, Dan (August 22, 2021). "Antoinette Chinonye Nwandu's Pass Over Opens on Broadway August 22". Playbill. Archived from the original on August 23, 2021. Retrieved August 23, 2021.
- ^ Paulson, Michael (September 3, 2021). "Musicals Return to Broadway With 'Waitress' and 'Hadestown'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on December 28, 2021. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
- ^ Moynihan, Caitlin (October 8, 2020). "2020 Tony Awards Nominations Will Be Announced on October 15". Broadway.com. Archived from the original on January 16, 2021. Retrieved October 9, 2020.
- ^ McPhee, Ryan (May 26, 2021). "Tony Awards, Sidelined by the Pandemic, Sets September Date for 4-Hour Celebration". Playbill. Archived from the original on May 26, 2021. Retrieved May 27, 2021.
- ^ "Broadway Toughens Vaccine Rule for Kids Under 12, Extends Mask Policy Through April". NBC News New York. January 10, 2022. Archived from the original on January 12, 2023. Retrieved January 12, 2023.
- ^ "Broadway Adjusts COVID Vaccine Requirements, Extends Mask Policy". NBC News New York. April 15, 2022. Archived from the original on January 12, 2023. Retrieved January 12, 2023.
- ^ Paulson, Michael (April 15, 2022). "Most Broadway Theaters Will Drop Vaccine Checks, but Not Mask Mandate". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 9, 2023. Retrieved January 9, 2023.
- ^ Paulson, Michael (June 21, 2022). "Broadway Will Drop Mask Mandate Beginning July 1". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 9, 2023. Retrieved January 9, 2023.
- ^ Paulson, Michael (August 23, 2021). "Broadway Power Brokers Pledge Diversity Changes as Theaters Reopen". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 6, 2022. Retrieved March 6, 2022.
- ^ a b Paulson, Michael (June 9, 2022). "In a First for Broadway, a Theater Will Be Renamed for Lena Horne". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on June 10, 2022. Retrieved June 10, 2022.
- ^ Paulson, Michael (March 2, 2022). "Broadway's Cort Theater Will Have a New Name: James Earl Jones". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on February 3, 2023. Retrieved March 2, 2022.
- ^ "James Earl Jones honored in renaming of historic N.Y. Broadway theater". NBC News. March 2, 2022. Archived from the original on February 3, 2023. Retrieved March 3, 2022.
- ^ Evans, Greg (June 9, 2022). "Broadway Theater To Be Renamed For Icon Lena Horne In Historic First". Deadline. Archived from the original on June 9, 2022. Retrieved June 10, 2022.
- ^ "Broadway's Brooks Atkinson Theatre will be renamed in honor of stage and screen star Lena Horne". CBS News. June 9, 2022. Archived from the original on June 10, 2022. Retrieved June 10, 2022.
- ^ "Broadway's Cort Theatre renamed to honor actor James Earl Jones". CBS News. September 12, 2022. Archived from the original on September 12, 2022. Retrieved September 12, 2022.
- ^ Carlin, Dave (November 1, 2022). "Lena Horne becomes first Black woman to have Broadway theater named after her". CBS News. Archived from the original on November 1, 2022. Retrieved November 1, 2022.
- ^ a b Blank, Matthew (August 21, 2011). "Weekly Schedule of Current Broadway Shows". Playbill. Archived from the original on September 5, 2011.
- ^ Simonson, Robert (April 4, 2011). "Ask Playbill.com: When Did Broadway Shows Start Offering Sunday Performances?". Playbill. Archived from the original on August 14, 2022. Retrieved August 14, 2022.
- ^ Healy, Patrick. "Time Is Short to See Tony Winners" Archived June 25, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. The New York Times, June 14, 2010
- ^ Shenton, Mark. "Rewarded today, gone tomorrow..." Archived June 26, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. The Stage, June 17, 2010
- ^ "Local 802 Agreement" Archived July 28, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. local802afm.org. p. 10. Retrieved August 10, 2013.
- ^ "Take Me Out Extends Run Through June 11th". BroadwayWorld.com. April 8, 2022. Archived from the original on April 9, 2022. Retrieved April 28, 2022.
- ^ Playbill Staff. "Long Runs on Broadway" Archived October 6, 2014, at the Wayback Machine Playbill.com, November 20, 2011
- ^ Gans, Andrew. "More 'Music of the Night': The Phantom of the Opera Sets New Closing Date on Broadway". PlayBill.com. Archived from the original on December 4, 2022. Retrieved December 3, 2022.
- ^ Kennedy, Mark (April 17, 2023). "'The Phantom of the Opera' closes on Broadway after 35 years". apnews.com. Archived from the original on April 24, 2023. Retrieved April 28, 2023.
- ^ "TKTS Discount Booths in NYC, Theatre Development Fund". www.tdf.org. Archived from the original on May 10, 2015. Retrieved April 27, 2015.
- ^ Blank, Matthew. "Broadway Rush and Standing Room Only Policies" Archived May 10, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. Playbill.com, March 1, 2011
- ^ Hetrick, Adam (January 9, 2014). "Broadway League Announces 2012-13 Demographics; Young Theatregoers and International Tourists on the Rise". Playbill. Archived from the original on August 14, 2022. Retrieved August 14, 2022.
- ^ "Society of London Theatre Box Office Figures, 2018" Archived December 18, 2020, at the Wayback Machine solt.co.uk, Date Published: March 1, 2019
- ^ Ginia Bellafante (December 27, 2019). "9 Ways New York Changed That We Didn't See Coming". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 27, 2019. Retrieved December 27, 2019.
- ^ Sondheim, Stephen (2010). Finishing the Hat: Collected Lyrics (1954–1981) with Attendant Comments, Principles, Heresies, Grudges, Whines and Anecdotes. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 382. ISBN 978-0679439073. Archived from the original on April 5, 2023. Retrieved December 5, 2021.
- ^ Harrison, Thomas (2011). Music in the 1980s. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. p. 136. ISBN 9780313366000. Archived from the original on April 5, 2023. Retrieved December 5, 2021.
- ^ a b c d e Slaton, Shannon (2012). Mixing a Musical: Broadway Theatrical Sound Mixing Techniques. Waltham: Focal Press. p. 51. ISBN 9781136111815. Archived from the original on April 5, 2023. Retrieved March 18, 2023.
- ^ "Tony Awards History" Archived May 7, 2010, at the Wayback Machine tonyawards.com, accessed February 25, 2011
- ^ McKinley, Jesse. "Tony Awards Finish Up With a Fuzzy Surprise; Puppet Musical Wins Big, as Does 'My Own Wife'" Archived January 21, 2022, at the Wayback Machine The New York Times, June 7, 2004
- ^ "Venues at the Internet Broadway Database Archived November 24, 2010, at the Wayback Machine InternetBroadwayDatabase.com, accessed August 26, 2011
- ^ Culwell-Block, Logan. "Pulitzer-Winning Fat Ham Sets 2023 Broadway Bow" Archived December 5, 2022, at the Wayback Machine Playbill.com, December 5, 2022
- ^ McPhee, Ryan. "Ramin Karimloo, Jane Lynch, Jared Grimes Join Beanie Feldstein in Funny Girl Broadway Revival" Archived October 7, 2021, at the Wayback Machine Playbill.com, October 6, 2021
- ^ Gans, Andrew. "Sean Hayes to Return to Broadway in Doug Wright's Good Night, Oscar" Archived September 19, 2022, at the Wayback Machine Playbill.com, September 19, 2022
- ^ Culwell-Block, Logan. "Ben Platt, Micaela Diamond Bringing Parade Back to Broadway" Archived January 10, 2023, at the Wayback Machine Playbill.com, January 10, 2023
- ^ Culwell-Block, Logan. "Kimberly Akimbo to Play Broadway's Booth Theatre, Reveals Full Creative Team" Archived May 20, 2022, at the Wayback Machine Playbill.com, May 20, 2022
- ^ Putnam, Leah. "Neil Diamond Musical A Beautiful Noise Sets Broadway Dates" Archived May 18, 2022, at the Wayback Machine Playbill.com, May 18, 2022
- ^ Hall, Margaret. "David Byrne-Fatboy Slim Musical Here Lies Love Sets Broadway Dates" Archived January 12, 2023, at the Wayback Machine Playbill.com, January 12, 2023
- ^ Culwell-Block, Logan. "Peter Pan Goes Wrong Will Fly on Broadway This Season" Archived January 5, 2023, at the Wayback Machine Playbill.com, January 5, 2023
- ^ Putnam, Leah. "Olivier-Winning Life of Pi Will Cross the Ocean to Broadway in 2023" Archived October 24, 2022, at the Wayback Machine Playbill.com, October 24, 2022
- ^ Culwell-Block, Logan (June 2, 2022). "Larissa FastHorse's The Thanksgiving Play Sets Broadway Run With Second Stage; Bess Woh's Camp Siegfried Joins Off-Broadway Season". Playbill. Archived from the original on June 3, 2022. Retrieved June 3, 2022.
- ^ Gans, Andrew. "A Doll's House Revival, Starring Jessica Chastain, Finds Broadway Home; Dates Set" Archived November 30, 2022, at the Wayback Machine Playbill.com, November 29, 2022
- ^ Gans, Andrew & Culwell-Block, Logan. "Linedy Genao Will Star in Andrew Lloyd Webber's Bad Cinderella on Broadway" Archived October 6, 2022, at the Wayback Machine Playbill.com, October 3, 2022
- ^ Putnam, Leah. "Oscar Isaac, Rachel Brosnahan Bringing The Sign in Sidney Brustein's Window to Broadway; Will Be Eligible for 2023 Tonys" Archived April 5, 2023, at the Wayback Machine Playbill.com, April 4, 2023
- ^ Culwell-Block, Logan. "Prima Facie, Starring Killing Eve's Jodie Comer, Sets Broadway Theatre, Dates" Archived November 15, 2022, at the Wayback Machine Playbill.com, November 15, 2022
- ^ Putnam, Leah. "Tom Stoppard's Leopoldstadt Sets Dates and Theatre for Broadway Transfer" Archived June 7, 2022, at the Wayback Machine Playbill.com, June 7, 2022
- ^ Culwell-Block, Logan. "Josh Groban and Annaleigh Ashford to Lead Broadway Revival of Sweeney Todd" Archived October 4, 2022, at the Wayback Machine Playbill.com, September 6, 2022
- ^ Gans, Andrew. "Laurie Metcalf, Tatiana Maslany, Sophia Anne Caruso Will Star in Broadway Thriller Grey House" Archived March 5, 2023, at the Wayback Machine Playbill.com, February 21, 2023
- ^ Harms, Talaura. "Britney Spears Jukebox Musical Will Open On Broadway in 2023" Archived December 3, 2022, at the Wayback Machine Playbill.com, December 2, 2022
- ^ Culwell-Block, Logan. "Alex Newell, John Behlmann, Andrew Durand, More to Bring New Musical Shucked to Broadway This Season" Archived November 14, 2022, at the Wayback Machine Playbill.com, November 14, 2022
- ^ Culwell-Block, Logan. "John Kander, Fred Ebb, and Lin-Manuel Miranda's New York, New York Sets Broadway Dates, Theatre" Archived October 26, 2022, at the Wayback Machine Playbill.com, October 26, 2022
- ^ Brunner, Raven. "Laura Linney to Star in World Premiere of Summer, 1976 on Broadway at Manhattan Theatre Club" Archived August 30, 2022, at the Wayback Machine Playbill.com, August 30, 2022
- ^ Culwell-Black, Logan. "Christian Borle, J. Harrison Ghee, Adrianna Hicks to Star in Some Like It Hot on Broadway" Archived April 20, 2022, at the Wayback Machine Playbill.com, April 20, 2022
- ^ Culwell-Block, Logan. "West End's & Juliet Musical Sets Fall Broadway Bow With Betsy Wolfe, Paulo Szot, More" Archived July 7, 2022, at the Wayback Machine Playbill.com, July 7, 2022
- ^ Wild, Stephi. "New Broadway Dates Announced For Camelot at Lincoln Center Theater" Archived June 29, 2022, at the Wayback Machine BroadwayWorld.com, June 29, 2022
- ^ Culwell-Block, Logan. "Back to the Future: The Musical Sets Broadway Bow; Roger Bart and Hugh Coles to Lead the Cast" Archived October 21, 2022, at the Wayback Machine Playbill.com, October 21, 2022
- ^ Paulson, Michael (May 12, 2023). "Jeremy Strong to Star in Broadway Revival of 'An Enemy of the People'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 15, 2023.
- ^ Culwell-Block, Logan & Gans, Andrew. "SNL's Alex Moffat, Nehal Joshi, Dana Steingold Join Broadway's The Cottage" Archived April 3, 2023, at the Wayback Machine Playbill.com, March 13, 2023
- ^ Culwell-Block, Logan. "Barry Manilow and Bruce Sussman's Harmony Sets Broadway Bow" Archived April 28, 2023, at the Wayback Machine Playbill.com, April 28, 2023
- ^ a b Harms, Talaura. "Danny DeVito Will Return to Broadway With Daughter Lucy in Theresa Rebeck's I Need That" Archived April 8, 2023, at the Wayback Machine Playbill.com, March 21, 2023
- ^ Brunner, Raven. "Jocelyn Bioh's Jaja's African Hair Braiding to Launch Manhattan Theatre Club's 2023-24 Broadway Season" Archived September 7, 2022, at the Wayback Machine Playbill.com, September 7, 2022
- ^ Putnam, Leah. "Alex Edelman is Bringing Just For Us to Broadway" Archived April 5, 2023, at the Wayback Machine Playbill.com, April 5, 2023
- ^ Putnam, Leah. "Illusionist Antonio Díaz's El Mago Pop Will Come to Broadway This Summer" Archived March 29, 2023, at the Wayback Machine Playbill.com, March 27, 2023
- ^ Culwell-Block, Logan. "Merrily We Roll Along Revival Finds Its Broadway Theatre, Sets Dates" Archived March 15, 2023, at the Wayback Machine Playbill.com, March 15, 2023
- ^ Wiegand, Chris. "The Mousetrap: Agatha Christie's West End hit to make Broadway debut after 70 years Archived November 25, 2022, at the Wayback Machine TheGuardian.com, November 25, 2022
- ^ Culwell-Block, Logan. "Jaws Behind-the-Scenes Play The Shark is Broken Will Make Broadway Bow" Archived April 25, 2023, at the Wayback Machine Playbill.com, April 25, 2023
- ^ Paulson, Michael (February 1, 2023). "Leslie Odom Jr. Plans Return to Broadway in 'Purlie Victorious'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on February 16, 2023. Retrieved February 16, 2023.
- ^ Paulson, Michael (March 22, 2023). "A Stage Adaptation of 'Smash' Is Setting Its Sights on Broadway". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 22, 2023. Retrieved March 22, 2023.
- ^ Culwell-Block, Logan. "The Wiz Will Ease on Back to Broadway in 2024" Archived December 1, 2022, at the Wayback Machine Playbill.com, December 1, 2022
- Ackerman, Alan. "Liberalism, Democracy, and the Twentieth-Century American Theater," American Literary History (2005) 17#4 pp. 765–780.
- Bordman, Gerald. American Musical Comedy (Oxford University Press, 1982)
- Bordman, Gerald. American Operetta (Oxford University Press, 1981)
- Knapp, Raymond. The American Musical and the Formation of National Identity (Princeton University Press, 2005)
- Middeke, Martin, et al. The Methuen Drama Guide to Contemporary American Playwrights (2013)
- Mordden, Ethan. Anything Goes: A History of American Musical Theatre (2013)
- Roudane, Matthew Charles. American Drama Since 1960: A Critical History (1996)
- Shiach, Don. American Drama 1900–1990 (2000)
- Stempel, Larry. Showtime: A History of the Broadway Musical Theater (WW Norton, 2010) 826 pp.
- Weales, Gerald Clifford. American drama since World War II (1962)
- White, Timothy R. Blue-Collar Broadway: The Craft and Industry of American Theater (2014)
- Wolf, Stacy. Changed for Good: A Feminist History of the Broadway Musical (2010)
- The Internet Broadway Database
- The Houses of Broadway, The New York Times, April 30, 2010