In Ireland and Scotland broken men were clansmen who no longer had any allegiance to their original clan, and might be outlaws.
- Adam, Frank; Innes, Thomas (2004). The Clans, Septs and Regiments of the Scottish Highlands 1934 (reprint ed.). Kessinger Publishing. pp. 27. ISBN 1-4179-8076-1.
- Campbell of Airds, Alastair (2002). A History of Clan Campbell: From Flodden to the Restoration: (Volume 2 of A History of Clan Campbell) (illustrated ed.). Edinburgh University Press. p. 94. ISBN 1-902930-18-5.
- Fox, Richard Gabriel (1971). Kin, clan, raja, and rule: statehinterland relations in preindustrial India (reprint ed.). University of California Press. pp. 146.
- Roberts, John Leonard (2000). Clan, king, and covenant: history of the Highland clans from the Civil War to the Glencoe Massacre (illustrated ed.). Edinburgh University Press. p. 134.