3D model (JSmol)
|Molar mass||166.96 g·mol−1|
|Melting point||79 to 82 °C (174 to 180 °F; 352 to 355 K) (hydrate)|
|S-phrases (outdated)||S25 S36/37/39 S45|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
The characteristics of bromopyruvate in vitro and in vivo have been reported in the scientific literature since the 1940s. Because it is a highly reactive alkylating agent and it is inherently unstable, it had been described as a metabolic poison.
In 1993, researchers at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine reported that a pyruvate transporter system could be used to deliver bromopyruvate inside trypanosomal cells where its primary target is glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, which is highly sensitive to inhibition by bromopyruvate. The pyruvate transporter system, which is known to be overexpressed in cancer cells, was later identified to be a monocarboxylate transporter called monocarboxylate transporter 1.
- Barnard, JP; Reynafarje, B; Pedersen, PL (1993). "Glucose catabolism in African trypanosomes. Evidence that the terminal step is catalyzed by a pyruvate transporter capable of facilitating uptake of toxic analogs". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 268 (5): 3654–3661. PMID 8429041.
- Liu, Zhe; Sun, Yiming; Hong, Haiyu; Zhao, Surong; Zou, Xue; Ma, Renqiang; Jiang, Chenchen; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Huabin (2015-08-15). "3-bromopyruvate enhanced daunorubicin-induced cytotoxicity involved in monocarboxylate transporter 1 in breast cancer cells". American Journal of Cancer Research. 5 (9): 2673–2685. ISSN 2156-6976. PMC . PMID 26609475.
- Mathupala, Saroj P.; Ko, Young H.; Pedersen, Peter L. (2010). "The pivotal roles of mitochondria in cancer: Warburg and beyond and encouraging prospects for effective therapies". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Bioenergetics. 1797 (6–7): 1225–1230. doi:10.1016/j.bbabio.2010.03.025.
- Mathupala, Saroj P.; Ko, Young H.; Pedersen, Peter L. (2009). "Hexokinase-2 bound to mitochondria: Cancer's stygian link to the "Warburg effect" and a pivotal target for effective therapy". Seminars in Cancer Biology. 19 (1): 17–24. PMC . PMID 19101634. doi:10.1016/j.semcancer.2008.11.006.
- Ko, Young H.; Smith, Barbara L.; Wang, Yuchuan; Pomper, Martin G.; Rini, David A.; Torbenson, Michael S.; Hullihen, Joanne; Pedersen, Peter L. (2004). "Advanced cancers: Eradication in all cases using 3-bromopyruvate therapy to deplete ATP". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 324 (1): 269–75. PMID 15465013. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.09.047.
- Mathupala, S P; Ko, Y H; Pedersen, P L (2006). "Hexokinase II: Cancer's double-edged sword acting as both facilitator and gatekeeper of malignancy when bound to mitochondria". Oncogene. 25 (34): 4777–86. PMC . PMID 16892090. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1209603.
- The cancer cell's "power plants" as promising therapeutic targets: An overview, by Peter Pederson