|a radiograph of bronchopulmonary dysplasia|
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD; formerly chronic lung disease of infancy) is a chronic lung disease in which premature infants, usually those who were treated with supplemental oxygen, require long-term oxygen. It is more common in infants with low birth weight (LBW) and those who receive prolonged mechanical ventilation to treat respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). It results in significant morbidity and mortality. The definition of BPD has continued to evolve primarily due to changes in the population, such as more survivors at earlier gestational ages, and improved neonatal management including surfactant, antenatal glucocorticoid therapy, and less aggressive mechanical ventilation.
Currently the description of BPD includes the grading of its severity into mild, moderate and severe. This correlates with the infant's maturity, growth and overall severity of illness. The new system offers a better description of underlying pulmonary disease and its severity.
- crackles, wheezing, & decreased breath sounds;
- increased bronchial secretions;
- frequent lower respiratory infections;
- delayed growth & development;
- cor pulmonale;
- CXR shows with hyperinflation, low diaphragm, atelectasis, cystic changes.
Prolonged high oxygen delivery in premature infants causes necrotizing bronchiolitis and alveolar septal injury, with inflammation and scarring. This results in hypoxemia. Today, with the advent of surfactant therapy and high frequency ventilation and oxygen supplementation, infants with BPD experience much milder injury without necrotizing bronchiolitis or alveolar septal fibrosis. Instead, there are usually uniformly dilated acini with thin alveolar septa and little or no interstitial fibrosis. It develops most commonly in the first 4 weeks after birth.
The classic diagnosis of BPD may be assigned at 28 days of life if the following criteria are met:
- Positive pressure ventilation during the first 2 weeks of life for a minimum of 3 days.
- Clinical signs of abnormal respiratory function.
- Requirements for supplemental oxygen for longer than 28 days of age to maintain PaO2 above 50 mm Hg.
- Chest radiograph with diffuse abnormal findings characteristic of BPD.
- Breathing room air at 36 weeks' post-menstrual age or discharge (whichever comes first) for babies born before 32 weeks, or
- breathing room air by 56 days' postnatal age, or discharge (whichever comes first) for babies born after 32 weeks' gestation.
- Need for <30% oxygen at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age, or discharge (whichever comes first) for babies born before 32 weeks, or
- need for <30% oxygen to 56 days' postnatal age, or discharge (whichever comes first) for babies born after 32 weeks' gestation.
- Need for >30% oxygen, with or without positive pressure ventilation or continuous positive pressure at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age, or discharge (whichever comes first) for babies born before 32 weeks, or
- need for >30% oxygen with or without positive pressure ventilation or continuous positive pressure at 56 days' postnatal age, or discharge (whichever comes first) for babies born after 32 weeks' gestation.
There is evidence to show that steroids given to babies less than 8 days old can prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia. However, the risks of neurodevelopmental sequelae may outweigh the benefits. It is unclear if starting steroids more than 7 days after birth is harmful or beneficial. It is thus recommended that they only be used in those who cannot be taken off of a ventilator. Evidence suggests that vitamin A in LBW babies is associated with a reduction in mortality and bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
The rate of BPD varies among institutions, which may reflect neonatal risk factors, care practices (e.g., target levels for acceptable oxygen saturation), and differences in the clinical definitions of BPD.
- Merck Manual, Professional Edition, Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD).
- Northway Jr, WH; Rosan, RC; Porter, DY (Feb 16, 1967). "Pulmonary disease following respirator therapy of hyaline-membrane disease. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia". The New England Journal of Medicine. 276 (7): 357–68. doi:10.1056/NEJM196702162760701. PMID 5334613.
- Sahni, R; Ammari, A; Suri, MS; Milisavljevic, V; Ohira-Kist, K; Wung, JT; Polin, RA (Jan 2005). "Is the new definition of bronchopulmonary dysplasia more useful?". Journal of Perinatology. 25 (1): 41–6. doi:10.1038/sj.jp.7211210. PMID 15538399.
- Ehrenkranz, RA; Walsh, MC; Vohr, BR; Jobe, AH; Wright, LL; Fanaroff, AA; Wrage, LA; Poole, K; National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research, Network (Dec 2005). "Validation of the National Institutes of Health consensus definition of bronchopulmonary dysplasia". Pediatrics. 116 (6): 1353–60. doi:10.1542/peds.2005-0249. PMID 16322158.
- Gaining & Growing. "Bronchopulmonary dysplasia", Gaining & Growing, March 20, 2007. (Retrieved June 12, 2008.)
- Kinsella, JP; Greenough, A; Abman, SH (Apr 29, 2006). "Bronchopulmonary dysplasia". Lancet. 367 (9520): 1421–31. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68615-7. PMC 462022. PMID 16650652.
- "Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia". Patient.info. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- Jobe, AH; Bancalari, E (June 2001). "Bronchopulmonary dysplasia". Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 163 (7): 1723–9. doi:10.1164/ajrccm.163.7.2011060. PMID 11401896.
- Doyle, Lex W; Cheong, Jeanie L; Ehrenkranz, Richard A; Halliday, Henry L (2017-10-24). "Early (< 8 days) systemic postnatal corticosteroids for prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 10: CD001146. doi:10.1002/14651858.cd001146.pub5. ISSN 1465-1858. PMC 6485683. PMID 29063585.
- Doyle, Lex W; Cheong, Jeanie L; Ehrenkranz, Richard A; Halliday, Henry L (2017-10-24). "Late (> 7 days) systemic postnatal corticosteroids for prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 10: CD001145. doi:10.1002/14651858.cd001145.pub4. ISSN 1465-1858. PMC 6485440. PMID 29063594.
- Guimarães, Hercília; Guedes, Maria Beatriz; Rocha, Gustavo; Tomé, Teresa; Albino-Teixeira, António (2012). "Vitamin A in prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia". Current Pharmaceutical Design. 18 (21): 3101–3113. ISSN 1873-4286. PMID 22564302.
- Hayes D, Jr; Wilson, KC; Krivchenia, K; Hawkins, SMM; Balfour-Lynn, IM; Gozal, D; Panitch, HB; Splaingard, ML; Rhein, LM; Kurland, G; Abman, SH; Hoffman, TM; Carroll, CL; Cataletto, ME; Tumin, D; Oren, E; Martin, RJ; Baker, J; Porta, GR; Kaley, D; Gettys, A; Deterding, RR (1 February 2019). "Home Oxygen Therapy for Children. An Official American Thoracic Society Clinical Practice Guideline". American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 199 (3): e5–e23. doi:10.1164/rccm.201812-2276ST. PMID 30707039.
- Fanaroff AA, Stoll BJ, Wright LL, Carlo WA, Ehrenkranz RA, Stark AR, et al. (2007). "Trends in neonatal morbidity and mortality for very low birthweight infants". Am J Obstet Gynecol. 196 (2): 147.e1–8. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2006.09.014. PMID 17306659.
- Van Marter LJ, Allred EN, Pagano M, Sanocka U, Parad R, Moore M, et al. (2000). "Do clinical markers of barotrauma and oxygen toxicity explain interhospital variation in rates of chronic lung disease? The Neonatology Committee for the Developmental Network". Pediatrics. 105 (6): 1194–201. doi:10.1542/peds.105.6.1194. PMID 10835057.
- Ellsbury DL, Acarregui MJ, McGuinness GA, Eastman DL, Klein JM (2004). "Controversy surrounding the use of home oxygen for premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia". J Perinatol. 24 (1): 36–40. doi:10.1038/sj.jp.7211012. PMID 14726936.
- Bhandari, A; Bhandari, V (Jan 2007). "Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: an update". Indian Journal of Pediatrics. 74 (1): 73–7. doi:10.1007/s12098-007-0032-z. PMID 17264460.
- Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia on National Institutes of Health