Brood X

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An adult Brood X cicada in Princeton, New Jersey (June 7, 2004)

Brood X (Brood 10), the Great Eastern Brood, is one of 15 broods of periodical cicadas that appear regularly throughout the eastern United States.[1][2] The brood's first major emergence after 2021 is predicted to occur during 2038.[1][3]

Characteristics[edit]

Every 17 years, Brood X cicada nymphs tunnel upwards en masse to emerge from the surface of the ground. The insects then shed their exoskeletons on trees and other surfaces, thus becoming adults. The mature cicadas fly, mate, lay eggs in twigs, and then die within several weeks. The combination of the insects' long underground life, their nearly simultaneous emergence from the ground in vast numbers and their short period of adulthood allows the brood to survive even massive predation.[1]

Brood X is endemic in Indiana, southeastern Pennsylvania, Maryland, New Jersey, Delaware, East Tennessee, Virginia, Washington, DC, and other areas throughout the eastern United States.[4] The brood contains three species, Magicicada septendecim, Magicicada cassinii and Magicicada septendecula, that congregate on different trees and have different male songs.[5]

History[edit]

1700s emergences[edit]

The first known description of an emergence of Brood X appeared in a May 9, 1715, entry in the journal of Rev. Andreas Sandel, the pastor of Philadelphia's "Gloria Dei" Swedish Lutheran Church.[6] In 1737, botanist John Bartram wrote a letter that described the periodicity of the brood's emergences and his 1732 observations of the insect's insertion of their eggs into the small branches of trees northwest of Philadelphia.[7] Bartram later recorded in greater detail within two manuscripts the brood's May 1749 emergence.[8]

Pehr Kalm, a Finnish naturalist visiting Pennsylvania and New Jersey in 1749 on behalf of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, observed in late May that year's emergence of Brood X.[9][10] When reporting the event in a paper that a Swedish academic journal published in 1756, Kalm wrote:

The general opinion is that these insects appear in these fantastic numbers in every seventeenth year. Meanwhile, except for an occasional one which may appear in the summer, they remain underground.
There is considerable evidence that these insects appear every seventeenth year in Pennsylvania.[10]

Kalm then described Rev. Sandel's report and one that he had obtained from Benjamin Franklin that had recorded in Philadelphia the emergence from the ground of large numbers of cicadas during early May 1732. He noted that the people who had prepared these documents had made no such reports in other years.[10]

Kalm further noted that others had informed him that they had seen cicadas only occasionally before the insects emerged from the ground in Pennsylvania in large swarms on May 22, 1749.[10] He additionally stated that he had not heard any cicadas in Pennsylvania and New Jersey in 1750 in the same months and areas in which he had heard many in 1749.[10] The 1715 and 1732 reports, when coupled with his own 1749 and 1750 observations, supported the previous "general opinion" that he had cited.

Kalm summarized his findings in a book translated into English and published in London in 1771,[11] stating:

There are a kind of Locusts which about every seventeen years come hither in incredible numbers .... In the interval between the years when they are so numerous, they are only seen or heard single in the woods.[12]

Moses Bartram, a son of John Bartram, described the 1766 emergence of Brood X in an article entitled Observations on the cicada, or locust of America, which appears periodically once in 16 or 17 years that a London journal published in 1768. Bartram noted that upon hatching from eggs deposited in the twigs of trees, the young insects ran down to the earth and "entered the first opening that they could find". He reported that he had been able to discover them 10 feet (3 m) below the surface, but that others had reportedly found them 30 feet (9 m) deep.[13]

A Brood X cicada with abdominal Massospora cicadina infection in Bethesda, Maryland (May 31, 2021)

In April 1800, Benjamin Banneker, who lived near Ellicott's Mills, Maryland, wrote in his record book that he recalled a "great locust year" in 1749, a second in 1766 during which the insects appeared to be "full as numerous as the first", and a third in 1783. He predicted that the insects (Brood X) "may be expected again in they year 1800 which is Seventeen Since their third appearance to me".[14] Describing an effect that the pathogenic fungus, Massospora cicadina, has on its host,[15] Banneker's record book stated that the insects:

.... begin to Sing or make a noise from first they come out of the Earth till they die. The hindermost part rots off, and it does not appear to be any pain to them, for they still continue on Singing till they die.[16]

1902 emergence[edit]

Brood X was present in Nassau and Suffolk counties on New York's Long Island, which was the easternmost territory for the brood.[17]

1919 emergence[edit]

Nassau County farmers in Massapequa and Farmingdale reported cicada damage to fruit trees from the brood's emergence.[17]

1936 emergence[edit]

The Nassau County Farm Bureau warned drivers that the brood's emergence in the area might be heavy enough to clog radiators as the brood began to emerge in mid-June.[17][18]

1970 emergence[edit]

Long Island homeowners described the noise from Brood X as "tremendous."[19]

1987 emergence[edit]

Brood X was present on Long Island.[17] A horticultural expert from New York's extension office predicted that the brood's territory on Long Island would decrease because of development.[19]

2004 emergence[edit]

The brood had a major emergence during the spring of 2004. The Baltimore region's emergence began around May 11 and was falling silent by June 5.[5][20] Emergences began in the Washington, D.C., area and in Ohio around May 13.[21][22] The D.C. area's emergence was peaking by May 21.[21]

Long Island's population of Brood X had nearly disappeared by the time of the 2004 emergence.[17][23] An entomologist with Cornell University’s integrated pest management program suggested that widespread tree removal during development and pesticide use on the island had caused the brood's extirpation there.[24]

2021 emergence[edit]

A Brood X cicada on a growing blackberry fruit near Baltimore (May 22, 2021)

The brood's 2021 expected emergence in 15 states (Delaware, Illinois, Georgia, Indiana, New York, Kentucky, Maryland, North Carolina, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia, and Michigan), as well as in Washington, D.C., began in April.[5][17][25] Emergent cicadas were observed in western North Carolina during mid-April.[26]

Although a cold snap delayed emergences, more of the insects appeared as temperatures rose into the 60s. By May 6, large numbers of the insects had emerged there, while others had been reported in Maryland near Washington, D.C., and on the Tennessee-North Carolina border.[26][27]

By May 7 the brood was emerging in the Philadelphia area, in Pittsburgh, and in Allentown, Pennsylvania.[28] By May 10, people were reporting emergences in Washington, D.C., Bethesda, Maryland, Knoxville, Tennessee, Cincinnati, Detroit, Chicago and St. Louis and by May 19 in Baltimore.[29] By May 20 the emergence was reaching its peak in Washington, D.C. and its inner suburbs.[30] On June 8, small numbers of cicadas were heard in Connetquot River State Park Preserve in Suffolk County on New York's Long Island.[31]

On June 8, while the press corps was preparing to cover Joe Biden's first trip abroad of his presidency, its chartered plane was grounded at Washington Dulles International Airport in Virginia after cicadas clogged the plane’s auxiliary power unit.[32] The next day, Biden swatted a cicada that had landed on his neck while he was standing on the tarmac at Joint Base Andrews in Maryland before boarding Air Force One to begin his flight to England.[33]

By June 16, the population of living cicadas was declining and dead cicadas were accumulating in the Washington, D.C., area.[34] The cicadas were gone from the Washington-Baltimore area by June 21.[35] On July 26, the eggs that the cicadas had laid in the area were hatching.[36]

Off-cycle emergences[edit]

Significant numbers of periodical cicadas, believed to be Brood X emergents that were four years early, appeared throughout the brood's range in 2000 and in the Baltimore, Maryland-Washington, D.C. area in May 2017.[37]

Popular culture[edit]

During a year that Brood X emerged and Ogden Nash was living in Baltimore, The New Yorker magazine published Nash's June 12, 1936, poem Locust-Lovers, Attention!.[38] Nash's 1938 collection I'm a Stranger Here Myself reprinted the humorous verse.[39] His poem The Sunset Years of Samuel Pride mentions the 17–year cyclical swarms of the "locusts".[40]

Bob Dylan's song Day of the Locusts in his 1970 album New Morning refers to the Brood X cicadas that were noisily present in Princeton, New Jersey in June 1970 when Dylan received an honorary degree from Princeton University.[41]

When Brood X re-emerged in 1987, President Ronald Reagan proclaimed in a radio address: "Like the cicadas, the big spenders are hatching out again and threatening to overrun Congress." He then asked his listeners to support a balanced budget amendment and the line item veto to “make the cicadas in Congress go back underground.”[42]

Brood X next emerged in 2004. During that year's presidential election campaign, the Republican National Committee placed on the web an advertisement that compared Democratic candidate John Kerry to a periodical cicada. The ad portrayed a cicada’s face changing into a picture of a confused-looking Kerry while stating:

Every 17 years, cicadas emerge, morph out of their shell, and change their appearance. Like a cicada, Senator Kerry would like to shed his Senate career and morph into a fiscal conservative, a centrist Democrat opposed to taxes, strong on defense.”[43]

Nate Powell's 2008 graphic novel Swallow Me Whole thanks "brood X cicadae of 2004" on its acknowledgments page.[44] His book's front cover and last page contain cartoons depicting cicada swarms.[45]

In 2015, singer-songwriter Keith M. Lyndaker Schlabach recorded the song Cicadance at the Rolling Ridge Study Retreat Community (RRSRC) near Harpers Ferry, West Virginia. The song's background contains a field recording of the sound that Brood X produced at the RRSRC during its 2004 emergence. The song, which celebrates the brood, also references the brood's most recent prior emergence in 1987.[46]

During the brood's 2021 emergence, country singer Toby T. Swift released the novelty song Cicada Love Call in Nashville, Tennessee. The song, which Swift first wrote during the brood's 2004 emergence, compares to a cicada a woman who is trying to re-join her reluctant ex-husband after leaving him for another man 17 years earlier.[47]

Also during the brood's 2021 emergence, singer-songwriter Sue Fink released her Cicada Suite, which contains two songs entitled Don't Berate a Cicada and Hymn of the Cicada. The first song begins with a recording of the insect's sound. Fink issued Cicada Suite on cicada-shaped flash drives.[48]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Post, Susan L. (Summer 2004). "A Trill of a Lifetime: More Information About the Periodical Cicada". Illinois Natural History Survey. Michael R. Jeffords (photos). University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign: Prairie Research Institute. Archived from the original on May 11, 2012. Retrieved July 1, 2011.
  2. ^ "Periodical Cicadas". Knoxville, Tennessee: University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture: Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology. Archived from the original on March 4, 2021. Retrieved March 11, 2021.
  3. ^ Moore, Thomas E.; Walker, Thomas J. (April 27, 2001). "Genus Magicicada periodical cicadas". Singing Insects of North America. University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Archived from the original on September 30, 2008. Retrieved July 1, 2011.
  4. ^ (1) Van Allen, Fox (December 11, 2020). "What is Brood X, the U.S. cicada infestation coming in 2021?". CBS News. Archived from the original on January 26, 2021. Retrieved January 26, 2021.
    (2) "Brood X: The Great Eastern Brood". Cicadas. Storrs, Connecticut: University of Connecticut. February 21, 2017. Archived from the original on March 29, 2021. Retrieved March 30, 2021.
  5. ^ a b c Fears, Darryl (March 9, 2021). "Brood X cicadas are about to put on one of the wildest shows in nature. And D.C. is the main stage". Climate and Environment. The Washington Post. Archived from the original on March 9, 2021. Retrieved March 11, 2021.
  6. ^ "Extracts from the Journal of Rev. Andreas Sandel, Pastor of "Gloria Dei" Swedish Lutheran Church, Philadelphia, 1702-1719: May 9, 1715". The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography. Vol. 30, No. 117. Philadelphia: The Historical Society of Pennsylvania. January 1906. pp. 448–449. ISSN 0031-4587. JSTOR 20085357. OCLC 1762062. Retrieved October 7, 2020 – via Google Books.
  7. ^ (1) Kritsky, Gene (July 1, 2001). "Periodical revolutions and the early history of the "Locust" in American Cicada terminology". American Entomologist. 47 (2, Fall 2001): 3. doi:10.1093/ae/47.3.186. ISSN 2155-9902. OCLC 904754185.
    (2) Kritsky, 2004, pp. 44-46.
  8. ^ (1) Kritsky, 2004, pp. 46-47.
    (2) Bartram, John. "On the Locusts of North America: XVI. Additional Observations on the Cicada Septendecim. By the late Mr. John Bartram. From a MS. in the possession of the Editor.". In Bartram, Benjamin Smith (1805) (ed.). The Philadelphia Medical and Physical Journal. Vol. 1. Philadelphia: J. Conrad & Co. pp. 56–59. LCCN sf88091541. OCLC 565367549. Retrieved October 7, 2020 – via HathiTrust Digital Library.
  9. ^ Kalm, Peter (1772). "Preface". Travels into North America; Containing Its Natural History, and a Circumstantial Account of Its Plantations and Agriculture in General, with the Civil, Ecclesiastical and Commercial State of the Country, the Manners of the Inhabitants, and Several Curious and Important Remarks on Various Subjects. Translated into English by John Reinhold Forster. Vol. 1 (2nd ed.). London: Printed for T. Lowndes, No. 77, in Fleet-street. pp. v–vii. ISBN 9780665515019. LCCN 02013569. OCLC 1042021758. Retrieved August 24, 2021 – via Internet Archive.
  10. ^ a b c d e Davis, J.J. (May 1953). "Pehr Kalm's Description of the Periodical Cicada, Magicicada septendecim L., from Kongl. Svenska Vetenskap Academiens Handlinger, 17:101-116, 1756, translated by Larson, Esther Louise (Mrs. K.E. Doak)" (PDF). The Ohio Journal of Science. 53: 139–140. hdl:1811/4028. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 29, 2019. Republished by "Knowledge Bank". The Ohio State University Libraries and Office of the Chief Information Officer. Archived from the original on January 26, 2021. Retrieved October 2, 2012.
  11. ^ Kalm, 1771, pp. 212-213.
  12. ^ (1) Kalm, 1771, pp. 6-7.
    (2) Marlatt, C.L (1898). "The Periodical Cicada in Literature". The Periodical Cicada: An Account of Cicada Septendecim, Its Natural Enemies and the Means of Preventing its Injury, Together with a Summary of the Distribution of the Different Broods. United States Department of Agriculture: Division of Entomology: Bulletin No. 14 - New Series. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. p. 113. OCLC 1039550735. Retrieved July 29, 2021 – via Internet Archive.
  13. ^ Bartram, Moses (1766). "Observations on the cicada, or locust of America, which appears periodically once in 16 or 17 years. Communicated by the ingenious Peter Collinson, Esq.". The Annual Register, or a View of the History, Politicks, and Literature, for the Year 1767. London: Printed for J. Dodsley (1768). pp. 103–106. OCLC 642534652. Retrieved May 21, 2017 – via Google Books.
  14. ^ (1) Latrobe, pp. 11–12.
    (2) Barber, Janet E.; Nkwanta, Asamoah (2014). "Benjamin Banneker's Original Handwritten Document: Observations and Study of the Cicada". Journal of Humanistic Mathematics. 4 (1): 112–122. doi:10.5642/jhummath.201401.07. ISSN 2159-8118. OCLC 700943261. Archived from the original on August 27, 2014. Retrieved August 26, 2014. Page 115, Fig. 3: Image of page in Benjamin Banneker's Astronomical Journal, 1791-1806. Manuscript written by Benjamin Banneker (MS 2700). Special Collection. Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore, Maryland: "The first great Locust year that I can Remember was 1749. ....".
  15. ^ Cooley, John R.; Marshall, David C.; Hill, Kathy B. R. (January 23, 2018). "A specialized fungal parasite (Massospora cicadina) hijacks the sexual signals of periodical cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Magicicada)" (PDF). Scientific Reports. Springer Nature. 8 (1432): 1–6. Bibcode:2018NatSR...8.1432C. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-19813-0. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 5780379. PMID 29362478. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 29, 2021. Retrieved August 29, 2021.
  16. ^ (1) Latrobe, p. 12.
    (2) Barber, Janet E.; Nkwanta, Asamoah (2014). "Benjamin Banneker's Original Handwritten Document: Observations and Study of the Cicada". Journal of Humanistic Mathematics. 4 (1): 112–122. doi:10.5642/jhummath.201401.07. ISSN 2159-8118. OCLC 700943261. Archived from the original on August 27, 2014. Retrieved August 26, 2014. Page 115, Fig. 3: Image of page in Benjamin Banneker's Astronomical Journal, 1791-1806. Manuscript written by Benjamin Banneker (MS 2700). Special Collection. Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore, Maryland: "I like to forget that I inform to report that if their lives are Short they are merry, they begin to Sing or make a noise from first they come out of the Earth till they die. The hindermost part rots off, and it does not appear to be any pain to them, for they still continue on Singing till they die.".
  17. ^ a b c d e f Giaimo, Cara (May 19, 2021). "The Case of the Disappearing Cicadas". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 22, 2021.
  18. ^ "LOCUST SWARMS OPEN LONG ISLAND ATTACK; 17-Year Variety Appears Widely in Suffolk -- Motorists Told to Guard Radiators". timesmachine.nytimes.com. Retrieved May 22, 2021.
  19. ^ a b "THE 17-YEAR CICADA RETURNS NOISILY TO L.I." timesmachine.nytimes.com. Retrieved May 22, 2021.
  20. ^ Roylance, Frank D. (June 5, 2004). "Brood X falls into silence". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved March 11, 2021..
  21. ^ a b (1) Fenston, Jacob (March 5, 2021). "Periodical Cicadas Will Overrun D.C. This Spring". dcist. Washington, D.C.: WAMU 88.5, American University Radio. Retrieved May 22, 2021.
    (2) Block, Melissa (May 21, 2004). "Roar of the Cicada: Brood X Is Above Ground and Screaming for Love". Washington, D.C.: National Public Radio (NPR). Archived from the original on March 8, 2016. Retrieved May 6, 2021.
  22. ^ Rall, Brittany (January 27, 2021). "Brood X Cicadas expected to emerge in Ohio this spring, first time since 2004". Fox 8 (Cleveland, Ohio). Nexstar Media Group, Inc.
  23. ^ (1) Nelson, Bryn (July 13, 2004). "Fearing the worst for cicada brood". Newsday. Archived from the original on July 13, 2004. After two false alarms and countless scouting expeditions, enthusiasts and experts are facing a sad truth: the periodical cicadas of Brood X haven't re-emerged en masse on Long Island, and likely never will.
    (2) Cohen, L.S. (January 29, 2021). "Cicada Brood X Probably a Bust on Long Island". LongIsland.com. LongIsland.com & Long Island Media, Inc. Archived from the original on May 17, 2021. Retrieved June 12, 2021.
  24. ^ Karlin, Rick (April 20, 2021). "NY missing out on emergence of billions of cicadas". Times Union. Retrieved April 20, 2021.
  25. ^ (1) Van Allen, Fox (December 11, 2020). "What is Brood X, the U.S. cicada infestation coming in 2021?". CBS News. Archived from the original on January 26, 2021. Retrieved January 26, 2021.
    (2) Rosane, Olivia (January 22, 2021). "Trillions of Brood X Cicadas to Emerge in 15 States This Spring". EcoWatch. Archived from the original on January 26, 2021. Retrieved January 26, 2021.
    (3) Matheny, Keith; Kovanis, Georgea (January 26, 2021). "These bugs have been underground for 17 years. This year, they'll resurface in 15 states". USA TODAY. Detroit Free Press. Archived from the original on January 26, 2021. Retrieved January 26, 2021.
    (4) Condon, Christine (March 4, 2021). "Get ready, Maryland: The 17-year Brood X cicadas are coming in May". Environment. The Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on March 9, 2021. Retrieved March 11, 2021.
    (5) Fowler, Hayley; Jasper, Simone (May 6, 2021). "'The whole yard was full.' Thousands of Brood X cicadas invade NC woman's property". Charlotte, North Carolina: The Charlotte Observer. Archived from the original on May 16, 2021. Retrieved May 24, 2021. You cannot walk through my yard without stepping on something — either a live one, one that just emerged from the ground, or the molted shell from one,” she told McClatchy News on Thursday, a week after the cicadas took over her yard.
    Her 13-year-old daughter first spotted a few coming out of the ground in mid-April, but a sudden cold snap kept most nestled beneath the soil.
  26. ^ a b Fowler, Hayley; Jasper, Simone (May 6, 2021). "'The whole yard was full.' Thousands of Brood X cicadas invade NC woman's property". Charlotte, North Carolina: The Charlotte Observer. Archived from the original on May 16, 2021. Retrieved May 24, 2021.
  27. ^ Raupp, Michael J., University of Maryland (May 10, 2021). "Just A Trickle, Not A Flood, So When Will The Main Event Happen? And How Do You Tell The Guts From The Gals? Periodical Cicadas, Magacica spp". Bug of the Week. College Park, Maryland: bugoftheweek.com. Archived from the original on May 11, 2021. Retrieved August 3, 2021.
  28. ^ Heinze, Justin (May 7, 2021). "1st Cicadas Have Emerged In PA, Billions More Expected Soon". Montgomeryville-Lansdale, Pennsylvania Patch. Retrieved May 22, 2021.
  29. ^ (1) Whitt, Kelly Kizer (May 11, 2021). "The Brood X Cicadas Are Emerging Now". EarthSky. EarthSky Communications, Inc. Archived from the original on May 31, 2021. Retrieved June 8, 2021.
    (2) Ambrose, Kevin (May 14, 2021). "Cicadas are increasing in D.C. area and are poised to erupt next week". Capital Weather Gang. The Washington Post. Retrieved May 22, 2021.
    (3) CBS Baltimore Staff (May 19, 2021). "'Cicada Tsunami' Expected This Week As Temperatures Near 90, Up To 750K Can Fit In An Acre". Baltimore: WJZ-TV. Archived from the original on May 21, 2021. All over social media, people are sharing photos of the cicadas emerging from the ground all over Maryland.
  30. ^ Ambrose, Kevin (May 20, 2021). "As we enter cicada peak bloom, here's where they've already emerged". Capital Weather Gang. The Washington Post. Retrieved May 22, 2021.
  31. ^ "'Like magic': small emergence of cicadas thought to be extinct found in New York". Reuters. June 11, 2021. Archived from the original on June 14, 2021. Retrieved June 18, 2021.
  32. ^ (1) Shear, Michael D. (June 9, 2021). "Cicadas Took On Biden's Press Plane. They Won". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 9, 2021.
    (2) Josephs, Leslie (June 9, 2021). "Swarm of cicadas ground White House press corps charter, delaying flight to Europe". CNBC. Archived from the original on June 10, 2021. Retrieved June 11, 2021.
  33. ^ (1) Forgey, Quint (June 9, 2021). "'Watch out for the cicadas': Biden takes a hit to the neck as he departs for foreign trip". Politico. Archived from the original on June 10, 2021. Retrieved June 11, 2021.
    (2) "President Biden Swats Cicada Crawling On His Neck" (video). NBC News. June 9, 2021. Retrieved June 11, 2021 – via YouTube. (0:53 minutes)
  34. ^ Ambrose, Kevin (June 16, 2021). "Cicadas are dying off, but leaving behind a stench". Capital Weather Gang. The Washington Post. Retrieved June 18, 2021.
  35. ^ Raupp, Michael J., University of Maryland (June 21, 2021). "Auf Wiedersehen Brood X: Cicadas, Magicicada spp". Bug of the Week. College Park, Maryland: bugoftheweek.com. Retrieved August 3, 2021.
  36. ^ (1) Raupp, Michael J., University of Maryland (July 26, 2021). "Greet the Class of 2038 As Periodical Cicadas Hatch in the DMV: Magicada spp". Bug of the Week. College Park, Maryland: bugoftheweek.com. Archived from the original on July 30, 2021. Retrieved August 3, 2021.
    (2) Ambrose, Kevin (July 30, 2021). "They're hatching! Next generation of cicadas begins 17-year life cycle.: Cicada nymphs are hatching and falling from the trees. They'll bury underground, and we'll next see them in 2038". Capital Weather Gang. The Washington Post. Archived from the original on August 3, 2021. Retrieved August 3, 2021.
  37. ^ Dance, Scott (May 16, 2017). "As cicadas emerge four years early, scientists wonder if climate change is providing a nudge". The Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on July 11, 2020. Retrieved May 21, 2017.
  38. ^ (1) Nash, Ogden (June 12, 1936). "Locust-Lovers, Attention!". The New Yorker (June 20, 1936). Retrieved April 18, 2021.
  39. ^ (1) Nash, Ogden (1938). "Locust-Lovers, Attention!". I'm a Stranger Here Myself. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. pp. 242–243. LCCN unk82047212. OCLC 654970019. Retrieved April 18, 2021 – via Internet Archive.
    My attention has been recently focussed
    Upon the seventeen year locust.
    This is the year
    When the seventeen–year locusts are here,
    Which is the chief reason my attention has been focussed
    Upon the seventeen–year locust. ....

    (2) Dennies, Nathan (November 27, 2018). "Ogden Nash at 4300 Rugby Road". Explore Baltimore Heritage. Archived from the original on January 21, 2021. Retrieved April 18, 2021.
  40. ^ "The Sunset Years of Samuel Pride" (poem). PoemHunter.com. Retrieved April 18, 2021.
    .... The sound of their kisses
    is loud in my ears
    Like the locusts that swarm every 17 years. ....
  41. ^ (1) Big Sky Music (1970). "Day of the Locusts: Written by Bob Dylan" (song lyrics). Bob Dylan Newsletter. Sony Music Entertainment. Archived from the original on April 30, 2021. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
    (2) Barron, James (June 4, 1996). "Cicadas: They're Back!". The New York Times. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
    (3) Barr, Cameron W. (March 28, 2004). "In D.C. Area. It's the Day Of the Cicada". The Washington Post. p. A1. Archived from the original on March 2, 2021. Retrieved May 26, 2021. During Brood X's 1970 emergence, Bob Dylan visited Princeton University in New Jersey, part of X's vast patch, to collect an honorary degree. Musical lore says he wasn't impressed with the university or the degree. But he added to the immortality of cicadas with a song he wrote about the occasion, "Day of the Locusts." ....
    (4) Scaggs, Austin (August 21, 2008). "Dylan gets a Degree, Calls It Day of the Locusts". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on January 19, 2021. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
    (5) Attwood, Tony (May 11, 2013). "Day of the Locusts; Bob Dylan and his two degrees". Untold Dylan: The meaning behind the music and words of Bob Dylan. Archived from the original on March 3, 2021. Retrieved May 26, 2021 – via WordPress.
    (6) Weir, David (August 21, 2015). "Bob Dylan Song Analysis: Day of the Locusts". Archived from the original on January 31, 2021. Retrieved May 26, 2021 – via WordPress.
    (7) Markhorst, Jochen (December 4, 2019). "Dylan's Day Of The Locusts: the revenge of the grasshopper". Untold Dylan: The meaning behind the music and words of Bob Dylan. Archived from the original on February 27, 2021. Retrieved May 27, 2021 – via WordPress.
    (8) "Day Of The Locusts by Bob Dylan". Songfacts. 2021. Archived from the original on May 26, 2021. Retrieved May 26, 2021. In 1970 Dylan was awarded an honorary Doctorate of Music from Princeton University. Dylan became very uncomfortable at the event, especially when he was asked to wear a cap and gown. Adding a dramatic biblical flourish, the Princeton campus was in the throes of a locust infestation that day, something the occurs every 17 years.
    The song title is a reference to the 1939 novel by American author Nathanel West (1903-40), The Day of the Locust. West had worked for a time in Hollywood as a scriptwriter and the book explores the seamy underside of the American movie industry. The novel's title is thought to be a biblical allusion to certain passages in the Old Testament such as in the Book of Joel 2: 25, "I will restore to you the years that the locust hath eaten."
  42. ^ Suebsaeng, Asawin (May 10, 2013). "A Political History of the Cicadas". Mother Jones. Archived from the original on May 23, 2021. Retrieved June 26, 2021.
  43. ^ Suebsaeng, Asawin (May 10, 2013). "A Political History of the Cicadas" (includes video of the Republican National Committee's advertisement). Mother Jones. Archived from the original on May 23, 2021. Retrieved June 26, 2021.
  44. ^ Powell, p. 218.
  45. ^ (1) Powell, front cover
    (2) Powell, p. 219.
  46. ^ (1) Lyndaker Schlabach, Keith M. (May 22, 2021). "Cicadance" (audio: 5:26 minutes). Retrieved May 23, 2021 – via Internet Archive. Celebrating Brood X, recorded live at RRSRC in 2015. Added field recording of 2004 Brood as background.
    (2) "About Rolling Ridge Study Retreat". Harpers Ferry, West Virginia: Rolling Ridge Study Retreat Community. 2021. Archived from the original on January 21, 2021. Retrieved May 23, 2021.
  47. ^ (1) Swift, Toby T. (May 5, 2021). "Cicada Love Call" (music video). Toby Swift Music. Provided to YouTube by The Orchard Enterprises. Retrieved May 25, 2021 – via YouTube.
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    (3) Henderson, F., publicist, Toby Swift Music (May 12, 2021). "'Cicada Love Call' is a Different Kind of Mating Song: Country Singer Toby T. Swift Releases Debut Single". KVTN: 2 News: Press Release – Sponsored advertising content. Sarkes Tarzian, Inc. Archived from the original on May 13, 2021. Retrieved May 25, 2021.
  48. ^ Fink, Sue. "Cicada Suite" (includes excerpts from songs). Sue Fink. Archived from the original on June 26, 2021. Retrieved June 26, 2021.

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