Brothers of Jesus
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The New Testament describes James, Joseph (Joses), Judas (Jude), and Simon as brothers of Jesus (Greek: ἀδελφοί, romanized: adelphoi, lit. 'brothers'). Also mentioned, but not named, are sisters of Jesus.
Catholic, Assyrian, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Lutherans believe in the perpetual virginity of Mary, as did the Protestant leaders Martin Luther, Huldrych Zwingli, John Wesley and their respective movements; John Calvin believed it was possible Mary remained a virgin, but believed the scriptural evidence was inconclusive. Those who hold this belief reject the claim that Jesus had biological siblings and maintain these brothers and sisters received this designation because of their close association with the nuclear family of Jesus, as either children of Joseph from a previous marriage, or as cousins of Jesus.
The literal translation of the words "brother" and "sister" is an objective problem because there are few quotations and because the words have various meanings in the family of Semitic languages, while the Koine Greek in which the New Testament is written likewise uses the words more broadly.
In the 3rd century, biological relatives with a connection to the nuclear family of Jesus, without explicit reference to brothers or sisters, were called the desposyni, from the Greek δεσπόσυνοι, plural of δεσπόσυνος, meaning "of or belonging to the master or lord". The term was used by Sextus Julius Africanus, a writer of the early 3rd century.
Jesus' brothers and sisters
The Gospel of Mark (6:3) and the Gospel of Matthew (13:55–56) mention James, Joseph/Joses, Judas/Jude and Simon as brothers of Jesus, the son of Mary. The same verses also mention unnamed sisters of Jesus. Mark (3:31–32) tells about Jesus' mother and brothers looking for Jesus. A verse in the Epistle to the Galatians (1:19) mentions seeing James, "the Lord's brother", and none other of the apostles except Peter, when Paul went to Jerusalem after his conversion. The "brothers of the Lord" are also mentioned, alongside (but separate from) Cephas and the apostles in 1 Corinthians (9:5), in which it is mentioned they had wives. Some scholars claim Jesus' relatives may have held positions of authority in the Jerusalem area until Trajan excluded Jews from the new city he built on its ruins.
That the brothers were children of both Mary and Joseph was held by some in the early centuries. The 3rd-century Antidicomarianites ("opponents of Mary") maintained that, when Joseph became Mary's husband, he was a widower with six children, and he had normal marital relations with Mary, but they later held Jesus was not born of these relations. Bonosus was a bishop who in the late 4th century held Mary had other children after Jesus, for which the other bishops of his province condemned him. Jovinian, and various Arian teachers such as Photinus held a similar view. When Helvidius proposed it, again in the late 4th century, Jerome, representing the general opinion of the Church, maintained Mary remained always a virgin; he held those who were called the brothers and sisters of Jesus were actually children of Mary's sister, another Mary, whom he considered the wife of Clopas. The terms "brothers" and "sisters" as used in this context are open to different interpretations, and have been argued to refer to children of Joseph by a previous marriage (the view of Epiphanius of Salamis), Mary's sister's children (the view of Jerome), or children of Clopas, who according to Hegesippus was Joseph's brother, and of a woman who was not a sister of Mary, the mother of Jesus (a modern proposal).
As church leaders
Robert W. Funk, founder of the Jesus Seminar, says that according to the Gospel of Mark Jesus' mother and brothers were at first skeptical of Jesus' ministry but later became part of the Christian movement. James, "the Lord's brother", presided over the Jerusalem church after the apostles dispersed and other kinsmen probably exercised some leadership among the Christians in the area until the emperor Hadrian built Aelia Capitolina on the ruins of Jerusalem and banished all Jews from there (c. 135), after which point the Jerusalem Christians were entirely of Gentile origin. Traditionally it is believed the Jerusalem Christians waited out the Jewish–Roman wars (66–135) in Pella in the Decapolis. The Jerusalem Sanhedrin relocated to Jamnia sometime c. 70.
According to The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, when Peter the Apostle left Jerusalem, it was James who became leader of the church in Jerusalem and was held in high regard by the Jewish Christians. Hegesippus reports James was executed by the Sanhedrin in 62.
For the relatives of our Lord according to the flesh, whether with the desire of boasting or simply wishing to state the fact, in either case truly, have handed down the following account... But as there had been kept in the archives up to that time the genealogies of the Hebrews as well as of those who traced their lineage back to proselytes, such as Achior the Ammonite and Ruth the Moabitess, and to those who were mingled with the Israelites and came out of Egypt with them, Herod [the Great], inasmuch as the lineage of the Israelites contributed nothing to his advantage, and since he was goaded with the consciousness of his own ignoble extraction, burned all the genealogical records, thinking that he might appear of noble origin if no one else were able, from the public registers, to trace back his lineage to the patriarchs or proselytes and to those mingled with them, who were called Georae. A few of the careful, however, having obtained private records of their own, either by remembering the names or by getting them in some other way from the registers, pride themselves on preserving the memory of their noble extraction. Among these are those already mentioned, called Desposyni, on account of their connection with the family of the Saviour. Coming from Nazara and Cochaba, villages of Judea, into other parts of the world, they drew the aforesaid genealogy from memory and from the book of daily records as faithfully as possible. Whether then the case stand thus or not no one could find a clearer explanation, according to my own opinion and that of every candid person. And let this suffice us, for, although we can urge no testimony in its support, we have nothing better or truer to offer. In any case the Gospel states the truth." And at the end of the same epistle he adds these words: "Matthan, who was descended from Solomon, begat Jacob. And when Matthan was dead, Melchi, who was descended from Nathan begat Eli by the same woman. Eli and Jacob were thus uterine brothers. Eli having died childless, Jacob raised up seed to him, begetting Joseph, his own son by nature, but by law the son of Eli. Thus Joseph was the son of both.— Eusebius of Caesarea, Historia Ecclesiae, 1:7:11, 1:7:13–14
Eusebius has also preserved an extract from a work by Hegesippus (c.110–c.180), who wrote five books (now lost except for some quotations by Eusebius) of Commentaries on the Acts of the Church. The extract refers to the period from the reign of Domitian (81–96) to that of Trajan (98–117), and includes the statement that two Desposyni brought before Domitian later became leaders of the churches:
There still survived of the kindred of the Lord the grandsons of Judas, who according to the flesh was called his brother. These were informed against, as belonging to the family of David, and Evocatus brought them before Domitian Caesar: for that emperor dreaded the advent of Christ, as Herod had done.
So he asked them whether they were of the family of David; and they confessed they were. Next he asked them what property they had, or how much money they possessed. They both replied that they had only 9000 denaria between them, each of them owning half that sum; but even this they said they did not possess in cash, but as the estimated value of some land, consisting of thirty-nine plethra only, out of which they had to pay the dues, and that they supported themselves by their own labour. And then they began to hold out their hands, exhibiting, as proof of their manual labour, the roughness of their skin, and the corns raised on their hands by constant work.
Being then asked concerning Christ and His kingdom, what was its nature, and when and where it was to appear, they returned answer that it was not of this world, nor of the earth, but belonging to the sphere of heaven and angels, and would make its appearance at the end of time, when He shall come in glory, and judge living and dead, and render to every one according to the course of his life.
Thereupon Domitian passed no condemnation upon them, but treated them with contempt, as too mean for notice, and let them go free. At the same time he issued a command, and put a stop to the persecution against the Church.
When they were released they became leaders of the churches, as was natural in the case of those who were at once martyrs and of the kindred of the Lord. And, after the establishment of peace to the Church, their lives were prolonged to the reign of Trajan.— Eusebius of Caesarea, Historia Ecclesiae, 3:20
Degree of consanguinity between Jesus and his brothers
The etymology of the Greek word for "brother" (adelphos) is “of the same womb,” a-delphys, although in New Testament usage, the Christian and Jewish meaning of "brother" is wider, and is applied even to members of the same religious community. In the Bible, the Greek words adelphos and adelphe were not restricted to their literal meaning of a "full brother" or "sister," and nor were their plurals.
From an early date, there were varied discussions to interpret whether the Greek term adelphos—applied in these circumstances to people described as adelphoi (brothers) of Jesus—meant that they were full brothers, half-brothers, stepbrothers, or cousins. To support his view, the fourth-century Christian writer, Helvidius, quoted Tertullian, and claimed the adelphoi were children of Mary and Joseph born after Jesus; yet, Jerome rebutted that Tertullian did “not belong to the Church,” and argued that the adelphoi were Jesus' cousins. In the perspective where James was the son of Joseph (from a previous marriage) is asserted through the occasional mention of James (Jacob Iakobos), the oldest of the brothers, who acquired the name of Joseph's father (also James, Iakobos in the Solomonic genealogy of Jesus in Matthew). This appeared contrary to conventional Biblical-era practices, where the grandson periodically received the name of the grandfather.
The term adelphos (brother in general) is distinct from anepsios (cousin, nephew, niece). In his Christian writings from the second century, Hegesippus differentiated between those who were the anepsioi or adelphoi of Jesus. However, the native language of Jesus and his disciples was Aramaic (as in Matthew 27:46; Mark 5:41), which could not distinguish between a blood brother or sister and a cousin. Aramaic, like Biblical Hebrew, does not contain a word for "cousin."
In Aramaic and Hebrew, which were inclined to use circumlocutions to indicate blood relationships, people who were referred to as “brothers of Jesus” would not have always implied the same biological mother. This perception is asserted by scholars and theologians, who observe that Jesus was called “the son of Mary,” rather than “a son of Mary” in his birthplace (Mark 6:3).
In the Hebrew Book of Genesis, all the other sons of Jacob are repeatedly called brothers of Joseph, although they were children of different mothers. Similarly, Abram (of Terah) called his nephew Lot a brother. Also, the Second Book of Samuel describes Tamar as a sister both of Amnon and of Absalom, two of David's sons by different mothers.
Relationship of Jesus' brothers to Mary
By the 3rd century, the doctrine of the perpetual virginity of Mary had become well established; important early Christian theologians such as Hippolytus (170–235), Eusebius (260/265–339/340) and Epiphanius (c. 310/320–403) defended it. By then the early church did not accept Mary had any children apart from Jesus. Eusebius and Epiphanius held these children were Joseph's children from a previous marriage. Epiphanius adds Joseph became the father of James and his three brothers (Joses, Simeon, Judah) and two sisters (a Salome and a Mary or a Salome and an Anna) with James being the elder sibling. James and his siblings were not children of Mary but were Joseph's children from a previous marriage. Joseph's first wife died; many years later, at the age of eighty, "he took Mary (mother of Jesus)". According to Epiphanius the Scriptures call them "brothers of the Lord" to confound their opponents. Origen (184–254) also wrote "according to the Gospel of Peter the brethren of Jesus were sons of Joseph by a former wife, whom he married before Mary".
The apocryphal History of Joseph the Carpenter, written in the 5th century and framed as a biography of Joseph dictated by Jesus, describes how Joseph had with his first wife four sons and two daughters. His sons' names were Judas, Justus, James, and Simon, and the names of the two daughters were Assia and Lydia. Years after his first wife died, he took Mary. Therefore, the brothers of Jesus would be the children of Joseph by his first wife.
When forty years of age, Joseph married a woman called Melcha or Escha by some, Salome by others; they lived forty-nine years together and had six children, two daughters and four sons, the youngest of whom was James (the Less, "the Lord's brother"). A year after his wife's death, as the priests announced through Judea that they wished to find in the tribe of Juda a respectable man to espouse Mary, then twelve to fourteen years of age. Joseph, who was at the time ninety years old, went up to Jerusalem among the candidates; a miracle manifested the choice God had made of Joseph, and two years later the Annunciation took place.
Jerome (c. 347–420), another important early theologian, also held the perpetual virginity doctrine, but argued these adelphoi were sons of Mary's sister, whom Jerome identified as Mary of Cleopas. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church mentions a modern scholar, whom it does not identify, has proposed these men were the sons of Clopas (Joseph's brother according to Hegesippus) and of Mary, the wife of Cleopas (not necessarily referring to Jesus' mother's sister).
According to the surviving fragments of the work Exposition of the Sayings of the Lord of the Apostolic Father Papias of Hierapolis, who lived circa 70–163 AD, "Mary the wife of Cleophas or Alphaeus" would be the mother of James the Just, Simon, Judas (identified as Jude the Apostle), and Joseph (Joses). Papias identifies this "Mary" as the sister of Mary, mother of Jesus, and thus as the maternal aunt of Jesus. The Anglican theologian J.B. Lightfoot dismissed Papias' evidence as spurious.
Roman Catholic and Eastern Christianity maintained the doctrine of Origen of Alexandria that Mary was a perpetual virgin; early Protestant leaders, including the Reformer Martin Luther, and Reformed theologian Huldrych Zwingli, also held this view, as did John Wesley, one of the founders of Methodism. Eine Christliche Lehrtafel (A Christian Catechism), issued by Anabaptist leader Balthasar Hubmaier, teaches the perpetual virginity of the Virgin Mary too. The Catholic Church, following Jerome, conclude that the adelphoi were Jesus' cousins, while Eastern Orthodox Church, following Eusebius and Epiphanius, argue they were Joseph's children from a previous marriage. Anglicans, Lutherans, and Methodists concur with this view.
Other Christian denominations, such as Baptists, view the adelphoi as Jesus' half-brothers or do not specify, since the accounts in the Gospels do not speak of Mary's relationship to them but only to Jesus. Certain critical scholars of the Jesus Seminar say the doctrine of perpetual virginity has obscured recognition that Jesus had full brothers and sisters.
Family trees and pedigrees
Explanations of the true relationship of the "brothers" of Jesus within his immediate nuclear family fall primarily into several categories. The first, called "the most natural inference from the New Testament" by the Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, is that the brothers of Jesus may have been sons of Mary and Joseph, born after Christ:
|Bishop Judah Kyriakos|
fl. c. 148–49
Because of the conflict of this reconstruction with the doctrine of the perpetual virginity of Mary, several alternatives are common. Epiphanius made them children of Joseph by a former marriage:
Other reconstructions would make them more distant relatives, the children of 'Mary, mother of James and Joses' by Clophas, though these are linked to Mary and Joseph in different ways. St. Jerome would have this Mary be a sister of the Virgin Mary:
Rejection of Jesus
According to the Synoptic Gospels, and particularly the Gospel of Mark, Jesus was once teaching a large crowd near the home of his own family, and when this came to their attention, his family went to see him and "they" (not specified) said that Jesus was "…out of his mind."
Then he went home; and the crowd came together again, so that they could not even eat. When his family heard it, they went out to restrain him, for people were saying, "He has gone out of his mind."
And He came home, and the crowd gathered again, to such an extent that they could not even eat a meal. When His own people heard of this, they went out to take custody of Him; for they were saying, "He has lost His senses."
In the narrative of the Synoptic Gospels, and of the Gospel of Thomas, when Jesus' mother and adelphoi are outside the house that Jesus is teaching in, Jesus tells the crowd that whoever does what God wills would constitute his mother and adelphoi. According to Kilgallen, Jesus' answer was a way of underlining that his life had changed to the degree that his family were far less important than those that he teaches about the Kingdom of God. The Gospel of John states that Jesus' adelphoi did not believe in him, because he would not perform miracles with them at the Feast of Tabernacles.
Some scholars have suggested the portrayal in the Gospel of Mark of the initial rejection of Jesus by his family may be related to the tension between Paul and Jewish Christians, who – according to them – held Jesus' family in high regard, for example at the Council of Jerusalem.[page needed][page needed]
Karl Keating says that in Jewish culture younger brothers (blood siblings) never rebuked, or even advised, their elders, for it was considered great disrespect to do so; but in Mark 3:21, also in John 7:3–4, Jesus' brothers are shown doing that.
Absence of Jesus' brothers
There are some events in scripture where brothers or sisters of Jesus are not shown, e.g., when Jesus was lost in the Temple and during his crucifixion. This is argued to support the view that "brothers" of Jesus are not blood brothers or siblings, although some reject this.
Luke 2:41–51 reports the visit of Mary, Joseph, and Jesus to the Temple in Jerusalem when Jesus was 12 years old but does not mention any siblings. Robert Eisenman is of the belief Luke sought to minimise the importance of Jesus' family by whatever means possible, editing James and Jesus' brothers out of the Gospel record. Keating argues Mary and Joseph rushed without hesitation straight back to Jerusalem when they realized Jesus was lost, which they would surely have thought twice about doing if there were other children (Jesus' blood brothers or sisters) to look after.
The Gospel of John records the sayings of Jesus on the cross, i.e., the pair of commands "Woman, behold your son!" and "Behold, thy mother!" (John 19:26–27), then states "from that hour the disciple took her unto his own home". Since the era of the Church Fathers this statement has been used to reason that after the death of Jesus there were no other biological children to look after Mary, and she had to be entrusted to the disciple. Constantine Zalalas argues it would have been against Jewish custom for Jesus to give his mother to the care of the disciple if Mary had other living sons, because the eldest son would always take responsibility for his mother. Karl Keating says, "It is hard to imagine why Jesus would have disregarded family ties and made this provision for his Mother if these four [James, Joseph/Joses, Simon, Jude] were also her sons". Pope John Paul II also says the command "Behold your son!" was the entrustment of the disciple to Mary in order to fill the maternal gap left by the death of her only son on the cross. Vincent Taylor points out difficulties in this interpretation of the text: it ignores both the fact that Jesus' brothers opposed his claims, and the position of honour of John, the beloved disciple.
- Greek New Testament, Sacred texts, Matthew 13:55: "οὐχ οὖτός ἐστιν ὁ τοῦ τέκτονος υἱός; οὐχ ἡ μήτηρ αὐτοῦ λέγεται μαριὰμ καὶ οἱ ἀδελφοὶ αὐτοῦ ἰάκωβος καὶ ἰωσὴφ καὶ σίμων καὶ ἰούδας;"
- Calvin, John (2009). Commentary on Matthew, Mark, Luke. 2. Grand Rapids, MI: Christian Classics Ethereal Libra #. ASIN B002C1BMTI.
- Cross, FL, ed. (2005), "Brethren of the Lord", The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, New York: Oxford University Press.
- Giuseppe Ricciotti, Vita di Gesu Cristo, 3rd ed., Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, Milan, 1962: ‘in Hebraic language there is no specific word for our "cousin". Also, in Hebraic Bible the words "brother" and "sister" are frequently used referring to people with very different degree of kinship.’
- The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia p281 ed. Geoffrey W. Bromiley
- Strong's Greek: 80. ἀδελφός (adelphos) -- a brother. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
- Africanus, Julius, The Epistle to Aristides, p. 242.
- δεσπόσυνος. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project.
- Cross, FL, ed. (2005), "Jerusalem", The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, Oxford University Press.
- William H. Brackney, Historical Dictionary of Radical Christianity (Scarecrow Press 2012 ISBN 978-0-8108-7179-3), p. 31
- Brackney 2012, p. 57
- Painter, John (2004), Just James: The Brother of Jesus in History and Tradition, University of South Carolina Press, p. 326.
- Brown, Raymond Edward; Achtemeier, Paul J (1978), Mary in the New Testament: A Collaborative Assessment by Protestant and Roman Catholic Scholars, Paulist Press, pp. 65–68, ISBN 978-0-8091-2168-7.
- of Salamis, Epiphanius. The Panarion Book I (Sects 1–46) Part 29:3:9 and 29:4:1. Masseiana. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 11 September 2015.
- of Caesarea, Eusebius, "11", Church History, Book III.
- Funk 1998, pp. 527–34.
- Cross, FL, ed. (2005), "James, St", The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, Oxford University Press.
- of Cæsarea, Eusebius, "Ecclesiastical history", Bibliotheca Augustana, DE: HS Augsburg, 1.
- of Cæsarea, Eusebius, "Ecclesiastical history", Bibliotheca Augustana, DE: HS Augsburg, 3.
- Segal, Charles (1999), Tragedy and civilization: an interpretation of Sophocles, p. 184,
word for ‘brother,’ adelphos, from a- (‘same,’ equivalent to homo-) and delphys (‘womb,’ equivalent to splanchna).
- "Matthew". Bible hub. 12:50.
For whoever does the will of my Father in heaven is my brother and sister and mother.
- Bethel (1907)
- Lawler, T. C.; Burghardt, Walter J., eds. (1951), Tertullian, Treatises on marriage and remarriage, p. 160
- Jerome (c. 383) [Christian Literature Publishing Co.], "The Perpetual Virginity of Blessed Mary – Against Helvidius", in Schaff, Philip; Wace, Henry; Knight, Kevin (eds.), Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, 6, transl. by W.H. Fremantle, G. Lewis and W.G. Martley, Buffalo, NY: New Advent
- Hastings (1927), "Part 4", Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, p. 653,
In later Biblical periods, the grandson was often given the name of the grandfather.
- M. Miller (1953), "Greek Kinship Terminology", The Journal of Hellenic Studies, 73: 46–52, doi:10.2307/628235, JSTOR 628235
- 431. anepsios, Bible Hub
- Shanks, Hershel; Witherington III, Ben, The Brother of Jesus – The Dramatic Story & Meaning of the First Archaeological Link to Jesus & His Family, pp. 94–95, retrieved 4 August 2014,
There was indeed a word for cousin in Greek, anepsios, and it is never used of James or the other siblings of Jesus. It is interesting how the second-century Christian writer Hegesippus distinguishes [page 95] between those who were cousins of Jesus (anepsioi), and James and Jude, who are called brothers of Jesus (cited in the fourth-century historian Eusebius, Hist. Eccl. 4.22.4; see 2.23.4, 3.20.1).
- Myers, Allen C., ed. (1987). "Aramaic". The Eerdmans Bible Dictionary. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-8028-2402-8.
- Schihl, Robert, "The Perpetual Virginity of Mary", A Biblical Apologetic of the Catholic Faith, EWTN
- Saward, John (2002), Cradle of Redeeming Love: the Theology of the Christmas Mystery, San Francisco: Ignatius Press, p. 18, ISBN 978-0-89870-886-8
- Camerlynck, Achille (1910) [Robert Appleton Co.], "St. James the Less", The Catholic Encyclopedia, 8, New York: New Advent
- For instance, in 16 of the 36 verses of the chapter Genesis 37.
- For instance, in 8 of the 18 verses of the chapter Genesis 13.
- 2 Samuel 13.
- 2 Samuel 3:2–3.
- of Rome, Hippolytus. Against Beron and Helix: Fragment VIII. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
- College, St. Epiphanius of Cyprus; translated by Young Richard Kim, Calvin (2014). Ancoratus 60:1. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press. p. 144. ISBN 978-0-8132-2591-3. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- Williams, translated by Frank (1994). The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis : Books II and III (Sects 47–80, De Fide). Leiden: E.J. Brill. p. 607. ISBN 9789004098985. Retrieved 18 September 2015.
- Williams, translated by Frank (2013). The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis (Second, revised ed.). Leiden [u.a.]: Brill. p. 36. ISBN 9789004228412. Retrieved 18 September 2015.
- Origen, Commentary on Matthew, Newadvent, § 17.
- Church Fathers: The History of Joseph the Carpenter. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
- Infancy Gospel of James. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
- P. Thomas, Joseph. "St. Joseph". Catholic Encyclopedia. New Advent. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
- Harrison, Everett F (1968), A Short Life of Christ, p. 58,
In opposition to Helvidius, Jerome (Hierony- mus, hence the name Hieronymian for his view) insisted that the brethren were kinsmen, specifically first cousins, being sons of Mary's sister, namely, that Mary who was the wife of Clopas.
- of Hierapolis, Papias. "Fragment X". Exposition of the Sayings of the Lord. Peter Kirby. Retrieved 10 September 2015.
- Lightfoot, J.B. (1865). "The Brethren of the Lord". Philo logos. Archived from the original on 2018-06-18. Retrieved 2016-05-31.
The testimony of Papias is frequently quoted at the head of the patristic authorities, as favouring the view of Jerome… It is strange that able and intelligent critics should not have seen through a fabrication which is so manifestly spurious… [T]he passage was written by a mediaeval namesake of the Bishop of Hierapolis, Papias… who lived in the 11th century.
- "Papias of Hierapolis". Text excavation. Archived from the original on 2015-11-16.
- Kennedy, Jon; Schroedel, Jenny; Schroedel, John (2010), Jesus and Mary, Adams Media, ISBN 978-1-57215749-1
- Martin Luther on Mary's Perpetual Virginity, archived from the original on 2008-12-21.
- Zwingli, Ulrich (1905), "Eini Predigt von der ewig reinen Magd Maria", in Egli, Emil; Finsler, Georg; Zwingli-Verein, Georg (eds.), Huldreich Zwinglis sämtliche Werke (in German), 1, Zürich: C. A. Schwetschke & Sohn, p. 385, retrieved 2008-07-01,
I firmly believe that [Mary], according to the words of the gospel as a pure Virgin brought forth for us the Son of God and in childbirth and after childbirth forever remained a pure, intact Virgin
- Wesley, John (1812), Benson, Joseph (ed.), The Works of the Rev. John Wesley, p. 112,
I believe that He was made man, joining the human nature with the divine in one person; being conceived by the singular operation of the Holy Ghost, and born of the blessed Virgin Mary, who, as well after as before she brought Him forth, continued a pure and unspotted virgin.
- Yarnell, Malcolm B. (2013). The Anabaptists and Contemporary Baptists. B&H Publishing. p. 130. ISBN 978-1-43368174-5.
Question 53 of the Kinderfragen posed, "What do you believe about the Virgin Mary?" It parallesls questions 68 of the Lehrtafel, which solicited, "What do you believe regarding Our Lady? Both catechisms spoke of her perpetual virginity. The Kindergragen proclaimed "that she was pure before the birth, during the birth, and after the birth, a humble maiden," while the Lehrtafel declared that "she was a pure, chaste, and spotless Virgin before, during, and after the birth."
- Longenecker, Dwight; Gustafson, David (2003). Mary. Gracewing Publishing. p. 64. ISBN 9780852445822.
- Erasmus, Desiderius (1998). Disputatiuncula de Taedio, Pavore, Tristicia Iesu. University of Toronto Press. p. 187. ISBN 9780802043092.
The Lutherans accepted the perpetual virginity of Mary, while rejecting the invocation of the saints.
- Radano, John A. (30 April 2012). Celebrating a Century of Ecumenism: Exploring the Achievements of International Dialogue. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 278. ISBN 9780802867056.
Baptists do not find a scriptural basis for Catholic beliefs about her perpetual virginity, immaculate conception, and bodily assumption.
- Witherington, Ben III, "Jesus' Extended Family", Bible Review, 19 (3): 30–31,
So James, according to this view, would be Jesus' younger half-brother.
- The Nelson Study Bible (NKJV), pp. 2102, 2156,
James, the half brother of Jesus, traditionally called 'the Just' [...] Jude the brother of James and the half brother of the Lord Jesus. The term "half brother" is used[by whom?] to denote parentage, not genetics. In this view, the other brothers and sisters listed in the Gospel passages would have the same relationship to Jesus. However, some Protestants reject the term "half brother" because it is too specific; the Gospel accounts refer to these relatives as brothers and sisters of Jesus, without specifying their parents, and refer to Mary only in relation to Jesus.
- Funk 1998, pp. 51–161.
- "Jesus' Family Tree", Frontline, PBS
- S. Shearer (1953). "The 'Bretheren of the Lord'". In Orchard, Orchard (ed.). A Catholic Commentary on Holy Scripture. § 673f. New York: Thomas Nelson & Sons.
- Wilson, AN (1992), Jesus: A Life, New York: Norton & Co, p. 86,
…it would not be surprising if other parts of the church, particularly the Gentiles, liked telling stories about Jesus as a man who had no sympathy or support from his family.
- Butz, Jeffrey (2005), The brother of Jesus and the lost teachings of Christianity, Rochester, VT: Inner Traditions, p. 44,
...by the time Mark was writing in the late 60s, the Gentile churches outside of Israel were beginning to resent the authority wielded by Jerusalem where James and the apostles were leaders, thus providing the motive for Mark’s anti-family stance…
- Crosson, John Dominic (1973), "Mark and the relatives of Jesus", Novum Testamentum, 15.
- Mack, Burton (1988), A myth of innocence: Mark and Christian origins, Philadelphia: Fortress.
- Painter, John (1999), Just James: The brother of Jesus in history and tradition, Minneapolis: Fortress.
- Keating, Karl (1988), Catholicism and Fundamentalism: The Attack on "Romanism" by "Bible Christians", Ignatius Press, p. 284, ISBN 978-0-89870-177-7
- Eisenman, Robert (2002), James, the Brother of Jesus, Watkins.
- Arthur B. Calkins, "Our Lady's Perpetual Virginity," in Mark Miravalle, ed. (2008), Mariology: A Guide for Priests, Deacons, Seminarians, and Consecrated Persons ISBN 978-1-57918-355-4 pp. 308–309
- Mark Miravalle, 1993, Introduction to Mary, Queenship Publishing ISBN 978-1-882972-06-7, pp. 62–63
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