Brown County, Kansas

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Brown County
Brown County Courthouse in Hiawatha (2011)
Brown County Courthouse in Hiawatha (2011)
Map of Kansas highlighting Brown County
Location within the U.S. state of Kansas
Map of the United States highlighting Kansas
Kansas's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 39°48′N 95°35′W / 39.800°N 95.583°W / 39.800; -95.583Coordinates: 39°48′N 95°35′W / 39.800°N 95.583°W / 39.800; -95.583
Country United States
State Kansas
FoundedAugust 25, 1855
Named forAlbert Gallatin Brown
SeatHiawatha
Largest cityHiawatha
Area
 • Total572 sq mi (1,480 km2)
 • Land571 sq mi (1,480 km2)
 • Water1.2 sq mi (3 km2)  0.2%%
Population
 • Total9,508
 • Density16.7/sq mi (6.4/km2)
Time zoneUTC−6 (Central)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
Area code785
Congressional district2nd
Websitebrcoks.org

Brown County (county code BR) is a county located in the northeast portion of the U.S. state of Kansas. As of the 2020 census, the county population was 9,508.[1] Its county seat and most populous city is Hiawatha.[2] Brown County is the location of the Kickapoo Indian Reservation of Kansas, the majority of the Sac and Fox Reservation and the majority of the Iowa Reservation of Kansas and Nebraska.

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

For many millennia, the Great Plains of North America was inhabited by nomadic Native Americans. From the 16th century to 18th century, the Kingdom of France claimed ownership of large parts of North America. In 1762, after the French and Indian War, France secretly ceded New France to Spain, per the Treaty of Fontainebleau.

19th century[edit]

In 1802, Spain returned most of the land to France, but keeping title to about 7,500 square miles. In 1803, most of the land for modern day Kansas was acquired by the United States from France as part of the 828,000 square mile Louisiana Purchase for 2.83 cents per acre.

In 1854, the Kansas Territory was organized, then in 1861 Kansas became the 34th U.S. state. Brown County was founded in 1855,[3] was named for Albert G. Brown.[4]

Geography[edit]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 572 square miles (1,480 km2), of which 571 square miles (1,480 km2) is land and 1.2 square miles (3.1 km2) (0.2%) is water.[5] The Wolf River has its source in the county.[6] Brown State Fishing Lake, formerly known as "Brown County State Park" is in the county, 8 miles (13 km) east of Hiawatha.

Adjacent counties[edit]

Major highways[edit]

Sources: National Atlas,[7] U.S. Census Bureau[8]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
18602,607
18706,823161.7%
188012,81787.8%
189020,31958.5%
190022,36910.1%
191021,314−4.7%
192020,949−1.7%
193020,553−1.9%
194017,395−15.4%
195014,651−15.8%
196013,229−9.7%
197011,685−11.7%
198011,9552.3%
199011,128−6.9%
200010,724−3.6%
20109,984−6.9%
20209,508−4.8%
U.S. Decennial Census[9]
1790-1960[10] 1900-1990[11]
1990-2000[12] 2010-2020[1]

As of the 2000 census,[13] there were 10,724 people, 4,318 households, and 2,949 families residing in the county. The population density was 19 people per square mile (7/km2). There were 4,815 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile (3/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 86.87% White, 1.56% Black or African American, 8.82% Native American, 0.21% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.73% from other races, and 1.81% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.32% of the population.

There were 4,318 households, out of which 31.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.80% were married couples living together, 9.20% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.70% were non-families. 28.80% of all households were made up of individuals, and 15.70% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.99.

In the county, the population was spread out, with 26.40% under the age of 18, 7.40% from 18 to 24, 24.00% from 25 to 44, 22.70% from 45 to 64, and 19.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 93.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.80 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $31,971, and the median income for a family was $39,525. Males had a median income of $29,163 versus $19,829 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,163. About 10.60% of families and 12.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.40% of those under age 18 and 11.80% of those age 65 or over.

Government[edit]

Presidential elections[edit]

United States presidential election results for Brown County, Kansas[14]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 3,262 72.96% 1,104 24.69% 105 2.35%
2016 2,906 72.00% 863 21.38% 267 6.62%
2012 2,829 70.85% 1,076 26.95% 88 2.20%
2008 2,985 68.21% 1,317 30.10% 74 1.69%
2004 3,092 69.99% 1,268 28.70% 58 1.31%
2000 2,985 63.63% 1,512 32.23% 194 4.14%
1996 2,688 56.58% 1,529 32.18% 534 11.24%
1992 2,203 41.61% 1,476 27.88% 1,615 30.51%
1988 3,059 63.57% 1,719 35.72% 34 0.71%
1984 3,894 73.97% 1,303 24.75% 67 1.27%
1980 3,598 67.61% 1,370 25.74% 354 6.65%
1976 3,407 64.96% 1,745 33.27% 93 1.77%
1972 4,314 78.92% 1,038 18.99% 114 2.09%
1968 3,748 69.15% 1,199 22.12% 473 8.73%
1964 3,213 57.01% 2,386 42.33% 37 0.66%
1960 4,707 72.25% 1,773 27.21% 35 0.54%
1956 5,138 76.95% 1,519 22.75% 20 0.30%
1952 6,031 80.51% 1,440 19.22% 20 0.27%
1948 4,518 67.98% 2,060 31.00% 68 1.02%
1944 4,947 72.98% 1,817 26.80% 15 0.22%
1940 6,008 69.18% 2,633 30.32% 43 0.50%
1936 5,814 62.38% 3,495 37.50% 11 0.12%
1932 5,005 57.73% 3,604 41.57% 60 0.69%
1928 6,692 76.77% 2,005 23.00% 20 0.23%
1924 5,647 68.94% 1,866 22.78% 678 8.28%
1920 5,249 72.28% 1,937 26.67% 76 1.05%
1916 4,282 52.86% 3,503 43.25% 315 3.89%
1912 1,512 31.24% 1,774 36.65% 1,554 32.11%
1908 2,778 56.31% 2,044 41.44% 111 2.25%
1904 3,158 68.62% 1,244 27.03% 200 4.35%
1900 3,137 57.10% 2,298 41.83% 59 1.07%
1896 2,879 51.65% 2,618 46.97% 77 1.38%
1892 2,562 52.03% 0 0.00% 2,362 47.97%
1888 2,696 55.58% 1,803 37.17% 352 7.26%


Like all of Kansas outside the eastern cities, Brown County is overwhelmingly Republican, although its history of Yankee settlement means it has been thus for longer than certain other parts of the state. Brown was Alf Landon’s strongest county in his home state during his disastrous 1936 presidential campaign. FDR was never to win so much as 42 percent of the vote in any of his four Presidential elections; indeed no Democratic presidential nominee has ever won a majority in Brown County, with the highest percentage being 47 percent by William Jennings Bryan in 1896. A mortally divided Republican Party allowed Woodrow Wilson to win a plurality in 1912 with under 37 percent of the county’s vote – nonetheless since 1968 no Democrat has reached even that percentage.

Laws[edit]

Following amendment to the Kansas Constitution in 1986, the county remained a prohibition, or "dry", county until 2000, when voters approved the sale of alcoholic liquor by the individual drink without a food sales requirement.[15]

Education[edit]

Unified school districts[edit]

Communities[edit]

2005 KDOT Map of Brown County (map legend)

Cities[edit]

Census-designated places[edit]

Unincorporated communities[edit]

Townships[edit]

Brown County is divided into ten townships. The cities of Hiawatha, Horton, and Sabetha are considered governmentally independent and are excluded from the census figures for the townships. In the following table, the population center is the largest city (or cities) included in that township's population total, if it is of a significant size.

Township FIPS Population
center
Population Population
density
/km2 (/sq mi)
Land area
km2 (sq mi)
Water area
km2 (sq mi)
Water % Geographic coordinates
Hamlin 29725 344 3 (8) 106 (41) 0 (0) 0.18% 39°57′1″N 95°36′40″W / 39.95028°N 95.61111°W / 39.95028; -95.61111
Hiawatha 31700 739 4 (12) 164 (63) 0 (0) 0.18% 39°50′25″N 95°31′59″W / 39.84028°N 95.53306°W / 39.84028; -95.53306
Irving 34500 311 2 (6) 137 (53) 0 (0) 0.04% 39°57′24″N 95°23′36″W / 39.95667°N 95.39333°W / 39.95667; -95.39333
Mission 47200 645 3 (8) 219 (84) 2 (1) 0.73% 39°43′14″N 95°32′12″W / 39.72056°N 95.53667°W / 39.72056; -95.53667
Morrill 48325 Morrill 503 5 (12) 105 (41) 0 (0) 0.24% 39°56′23″N 95°43′20″W / 39.93972°N 95.72222°W / 39.93972; -95.72222
Padonia 54025 259 2 (6) 107 (41) 0 (0) 0.14% 39°57′2″N 95°31′4″W / 39.95056°N 95.51778°W / 39.95056; -95.51778
Powhattan 57375 874 4 (10) 232 (90) 0 (0) 0.06% 39°43′49″N 95°41′59″W / 39.73028°N 95.69972°W / 39.73028; -95.69972
Robinson 60350 Robinson 452 4 (10) 116 (45) 0 (0) 0.25% 39°48′29″N 95°23′49″W / 39.80806°N 95.39694°W / 39.80806; -95.39694
Walnut 74875 Fairview 665 4 (11) 161 (62) 1 (0) 0.46% 39°50′53″N 95°42′27″W / 39.84806°N 95.70750°W / 39.84806; -95.70750
Washington 75525 Everest 541 5 (12) 116 (45) 0 (0) 0.17% 39°41′43″N 95°24′41″W / 39.69528°N 95.41139°W / 39.69528; -95.41139
Sources: "Census 2000 U.S. Gazetteer Files". U.S. Census Bureau, Geography Division. Archived from the original on August 2, 2002.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "QuickFacts; Brown County, Kansas; Population, Census, 2020 & 2010". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 15, 2021. Retrieved August 15, 2021.
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  3. ^ Blackmar, Frank Wilson (1912). Kansas: A Cyclopedia of State History, Embracing Events, Institutions, Industries, Counties, Cities, Towns, Prominent Persons, Etc. Standard Publishing Company. pp. 237.
  4. ^ History of the State of Kansas: Containing a Full Account of Its Growth from an Uninhabited Territory to a Wealthy and Important State. A. T. Andreas. 1883. p. 710.
  5. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
  6. ^ DeLorme (2003). Kansas Atlas & Gazetteer. p. 26. Yarmouth, Maine: DeLorme. ISBN 0-89933-342-7.
  7. ^ National Atlas Archived December 5, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau TIGER shape files". Archived from the original on May 23, 2017. Retrieved December 5, 2017.
  9. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 21, 2014.
  10. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved July 21, 2014.
  11. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 21, 2014.
  12. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 21, 2014.
  13. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  14. ^ "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections".
  15. ^ "Map of Wet and Dry Counties". Alcoholic Beverage Control, Kansas Department of Revenue. November 2006. Archived from the original on October 8, 2007. Retrieved December 28, 2007.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

County
Maps