Chemicals structures of the dye components of Brown FK
Kipper Brown; Chocolate Brown FK; C.I. Food Brown 1
|E number||E154 (colours)|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Brown FK, also called Kipper Brown, Chocolate Brown FK, and C.I. Food Brown 1, is a brown mixture of six synthetic azo dyes, with addition of sodium chloride, and/or sodium sulfate. It is very soluble in water. When used as a food dye, its E number is E154.
It is currently not approved for use in the European Union (but was allowed to color kippers to produce orange kippers), Australia, Austria, Canada, United States, Japan, Switzerland, New Zealand, Norway, and Russia.
In 2011, a review by the European Food Safety Authority concluded that Brown FK was no longer used and the Authority could not conclude on the safety of the substance due to the deficiencies in the available toxicity data. Therefore, it should not be included in the Union list of approved food additives.
The dyes it contains are:
- 4-(2,4-diaminophenylazo)benzenesulfonate, sodium salt
- 4-(4,6-diamino-m-tolylazo)benzenesulfonate, sodium salt
- 4,4'-(4,6-diamino-1,3-phenylenebisazo)-di(benzenesulfonate), disodium salt
- 4,4'-(2,4-diamino-1,3-phenylenebisazo)-di(benzenesulfonate), disodium salt
- 4,4'-(2,4-diamino-5-methyl-1,3-phenylenebisazo)-di(benzenesulfonate), disodium salt
- 4,4',4''-(2,4-diaminobenzene-1,3,5-trisazo)-tri(benzenesulfonate), trisodium salt
- "Standard 1.2.4 - Labelling of ingredients". Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code. Retrieved 2011-10-27.
- "E154 Brown FK". ukfoodguide.net.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-12-03. Retrieved 2010-09-11.
- "Commission Regulation (EU) No 1129/2011 establishing a Union list of food additives".