Kodak Brownie

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2014-365-233 The Basic Brownie Camera (14809795240).jpg
Kodak Brownie No.2 Model F (1924)
MakerEastman Kodak
Typebox camera
ReleasedFebruary 1900
Intro price$1 (equivalent to $33 in 2021)
LensMeniscus Achromat lens
Film formatEastman No. 117 rollfilm
Film size2 1/4-inch square
ShutterRotary, 1/40 second
Body featuresLeatherette covered cardboard
Made inRochester, NY
SuccessorNo. 2 Brownie (1901)
Brownie (original model)

The Brownie was a series of cameras made by Eastman Kodak. Released in 1900,[1] it introduced the snapshot to the masses. It was a basic cardboard box camera with a simple convex-concave lens that took 2 1/4-inch square pictures on No. 117 roll film. It was conceived and marketed for sales of Kodak roll films. Because of its simple controls and initial price of $1 (equivalent to $33 in 2021) along with the low price of Kodak roll film and processing, the Brownie camera surpassed its marketing goal.[2]

Invention and etymology[edit]

It was invented by George Eastman.[3] The name comes from the brownies (spirits in folklore) in Palmer Cox cartoons. Over 150,000 Brownie cameras were shipped in the first year of production.[4] An improved model, called No. 2 Brownie came in 1901, which produced larger 2-1/4 by 3-1/4 inch photos and cost $2 and was also a huge success.[2]

Marketing and notable uses[edit]

Kodak Brownie advertisement

Brownies were extensively marketed to children, with Kodak using them to popularise photography. They were also taken to war by soldiers. As they were ubiquitous, many iconic shots were taken on Brownies.[2]

On 15 April 1912, Bernice Palmer used a Kodak Brownie 2A, Model A[5] to photograph the iceberg that sunk RMS Titanic and her survivors hauled aboard RMS Carpathia, the ship she was travelling on.[6]

Having written an article in the 1940s for amateur photographers suggesting an expensive camera was unnecessary for quality photography, Picture Post photographer Bert Hardy used a Brownie camera to stage a carefully posed snapshot of 17-year-old Pat Stewart,[7] a Tiller Girls dancer, with her friend, Wendy Clarke, sitting on railings of North Pier,[7] Blackpool, for the cover of Picture Post.[8][9][10][11]


The cameras continued to be popular, and spawned many varieties, such as a Boy Scout edition in the 1930s. In 1940, Kodak released the Six-20 Flash Brownie,[4] Kodak's first internally synchronized flash camera, using General Electric bulbs. In 1957, Kodak produced the Brownie Starflash, Kodak's first camera with a built-in flash.[4]

The Brownie 127 was popular,[12] selling in the millions between 1952 and 1967. It was a bakelite camera with a simple meniscus lens and a curved film plane to compensate for the deficiencies of the lens.[citation needed] Another model was the Brownie Cresta sold between 1955 and 1958. It used 120 film and had a fixed-focus lens.[13][14]

The last official Brownie camera made was the Brownie II Camera, a 110 cartridge film model produced in Brazil for one year, 1986.[15]

The Kodak Brownie Number 2 is a box camera that was manufactured by the Eastman Kodak Company from 1901 to 1935.[4] There were five models, A through F, and it was the first camera to use 120 film. It also came with a viewfinder and a handle.[16] The Brownie Number 2 was made of a choice of three materials: cardboard, costing US$2.00, aluminum, costing US$2.75, and a color model which cost US$2.50. It was a very popular and affordable camera, and many are still in use by film photographers.[17]



  1. ^ List of Brownie models at George Eastman House Archived April 2, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ a b c Lothrop, Eaton S. (January 1978). "The Brownie camera". History of Photography. 2 (1): 1–10. doi:10.1080/03087298.1978.10442948.
  3. ^ U.S. Patent 725,034
  4. ^ a b c d Gustavson, Todd (2011). 500 Cameras 170 years of photographic innovation. Sterling Signature. ISBN 978-1-4027-8086-8.
  5. ^ "No.2A Brownie". The Brownie Camera Page. BCG Film & Photography. Retrieved 29 January 2022.
  6. ^ "Bernie Palmer's Story". Because of Her Story. Smithsonian. Retrieved 29 January 2022.
  7. ^ a b "OBITUARY: Pat Stewart". The Times. May 20, 2017. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
  8. ^ "Film Cameras: A Brief History, And Stellar Images Created With It | THE BROWNIE TARGET Six-20 (1946-1952)". Forbes India. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
  9. ^ "Photography Masterclass : Bert Hardy". Galerie Prints. 13 November 2015. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
  10. ^ "Blackpool Railings Bert Hardy". Getty Images. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
  11. ^ "The Story of Pat Stewart, the Blackpool Belle in the Polka Dot Dress, 1951". VINTAGE EVERYDAY. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
  12. ^ "Brownie 127"
  13. ^ "Brownie Cresta". The Brownie Camera Page. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
  14. ^ "Brace Yerself– The Kodak Brownie Cresta II Review". Canny Cameras. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
  15. ^ "Brownie II (110 Cartridge) The Last Brownie Camera". The Brownie Camera Page. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
  16. ^ Gustavson, Todd (2009). Camera A history of photography from Daguerreotype to Digital. Sterling Signature. ISBN 978-1-4027-5656-6.
  17. ^ "No.2 Brownie". The Brownie Camera Page. Retrieved 9 May 2021.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]