Brown spotted reef cod
||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (August 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
|Brown spotted reef cod|
|Epinephelus chlorostigma from New Caledonia|
The brown spotted reef cod (Epinephelus chlorostigma), known as Souman or Hamour-e Khaldar-e Qahvei in Persian and commonly as brownspotted grouper in English, is a fish belonging to the family Serranidae.
E. chlorostigma can reach a length of 12–75 cm and a weight up to 7 kg. It is one of the largest coral dwelling fish. It has large pectoral and caudal fins that enable it to move and maneuver quickly through the water. It has a pale green gray body covered with small circular brown blotches, except for its belly which is lighter in color. When aroused, the fish is able to change its body shading according to its surroundings. Five dark brown vertical bands appear along the body. Its mouth is very large and capable of being opened to the width of the body diameter.
It feeds on crabs, cuttle fish and almost any other small fish. It is shy and lazy in its habits. When feeding, E. chlorostigma hides in its cave opening or in between corals and waits for some unsuspecting prey to pass by close enough to be pounced upon and swallowed whole. Predators are usually warned off by an impressive display of mouth gaping.
Cooked hamour in all its forms (stew, grilled, or fried) is a highly prized dish in Southern parts of the Persian Gulf and "baby hamour" is a delicacy found numerous upscale restaurants.
It is a reef-dwelling fish and prefers coral caves or rock crevices in which to live, at a depth of 4 to 280 m.
As other fish, the brown spotted reef cod has many parasites, including nematodes in its intestine, such as Cucullanus epinepheli, and several species of monogeneans on its gills, including Pseudorhabdosynochus epinepheli, and the digenean Neidhartia lochepintade in its intestine. This parasite species was named for the New Caledonian name of the fish, "loche pintade".
- Cuvier, G. & A. Valenciennes. 1828. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome second. Livre Troisième. Des poissons de la famille des perches, ou des percoïdes. Historie naturelle des poissons. Tome Sixième. v. 2: i-xxi + 2 pp. + 1-490, Pls. 9-40.
- Heemstra, P.C. i Randall, J.E., 1993, Groupers of the World (Family Serranidae, Subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. FAO Species Catalogue Vol. 16., FAO Fish. Synop. Núm. 125, 125:I-viii, 1-382.
- Helfman, G., B. Collette i D. Facey: The diversity of fishes. Blackwell Science, Malden, Massachusetts, United States, 1997.
- Moyle, P. i J. Cech.: Fishes: An Introduction to Ichthyology, 4a. edició, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, United States: Prentice-Hall. Any 2000.
- Nelson, J.: Fishes of the World, 3rd ed. New York, United States: John Wiley and Sons. Any 1994.
- Wheeler, A.: The World Encyclopedia of Fishes, 2nd. Ed., London: Macdonald. Any 1985.
- Bray, RA.; Justine, JL. (2013). "Bucephalidae (Digenea) from epinephelines (Serranidae: Perciformes) from the waters off New Caledonia, including Neidhartia lochepintade n. sp.". Parasite. 20: 56. PMC . PMID 24351242. doi:10.1051/parasite/2013055.
- Moravec, František; Justine, Jean-Lou (2017). "Two new species of nematode parasites, Cucullanus epinepheli sp. n. (Cucullanidae) and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sinespinis sp. n. (Camallanidae), from marine serranid and haemulid fishes off New Caledonia". Folia Parasitologica. 64. ISSN 0015-5683. doi:10.14411/fp.2017.011.
- Justine, JL.; Henry, E. (Oct 2010). "Monogeneans from Epinephelus chlorostigma (Val.) (Perciformes: Serranidae) off New Caledonia, with the description of three new species of diplectanids.". Syst Parasitol. 77 (2): 81–105. PMID 20852982. doi:10.1007/s11230-010-9263-x.
- Schoelinck, C., Cruaud, C. & Justine, J.-L. 2012: Are all species of Pseudorhabdosynochus strictly host specific? – a molecular study. Parasitology International, 61, 356-359.doi:10.1016/j.parint.2012.01.009
- Justine, JL. (Jan 2009). "A redescription of Pseudorhabdosynochus epinepheli (Yamaguti, 1938), the type-species of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958 (Monogenea: Diplectanidae), and the description of P. satyui n. sp. from Epinephelus akaara off Japan.". Syst Parasitol. 72 (1): 27–55. PMID 19048406. doi:10.1007/s11230-008-9171-5.
- Media related to Epinephelus chlorostigma at Wikimedia Commons