|Neighborhood of Brooklyn|
The Samuel J. Tilden Houses, one of many NYCHA public housing developments located in Brownsville
|Country||United States of America|
|City||New York City|
|• Total||3.01 km2 (1.163 sq mi)|
|• Density||19,000/km2 (50,000/sq mi)|
|ZIP codes||11212, 11233|
|Area code||917, 718, 347|
Brownsville is a residential neighborhood located in eastern Brooklyn, New York City. The total land area is 1.163 square miles (3.01 km2), and the ZIP codes for the neighborhood are 11212 and 11233. Brownsville is bordered by Atlantic Avenue to the north, on the Bedford–Stuyvesant and Bushwick border; East 98th Street/Ralph Avenue to the west, on the Flatbush, Weeksville, and Crown Heights borders; the freight rail Bay Ridge Branch of the Long Island Rail Road and Linden Boulevard to the south, adjacent to the neighborhood of Canarsie; and Van Sinderen Avenue to the east, next to East New York. It is part of Brooklyn Community Board 16.
Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the population of Brownsville was 58,300, a decrease of 799 (1.4%) from the 59,099 counted in 2000. Covering an area of 750.44 acres (303.69 ha), the neighborhood had a population density of 77.7 inhabitants per acre (49,700/sq mi; 19,200/km2).
The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 76.1% (44,364) African American, 0.8% (471) White, 0.3% (165) Native American, 0.7% (416) Asian, 0.0% (18) Pacific Islander, 0.3% (180) from other races, and 1.2% (703) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 20.6% (11,983) of the population. 29.9% of the population were High School graduates and 8.4% had a Bachelor's degree or higher.
Land use and public housing
Brownsville is dominated by public housing developments of various types. There is also a significant concentration of semi-detached multi-unit row houses similar to those found in East New York and Soundview surrounding the public housing developments. Many have been torn down and replaced by vacant lots or newly constructed subsidized attached multi-unit rowhouses. There is also a small number of tenements in the area. The neighborhood contains the highest concentration of New York City Housing Authority developments in New York City; NYCHA controls more than one-third of all of the neighborhood’s housing units.
- 104–14 Tapscott Street; one 4-story building.
- Brownsville Houses; 27 buildings, 6- and 7-stories tall.
- Glenmore Plaza; four buildings, 10-, 18- and 24-stories tall.
- Howard Avenue; five buildings, 3-stories tall.
- Howard Avenue-Park Place; eight buildings, 3-stories tall.
- Howard Houses; ten buildings, 7- and 13-stories tall.
- Hughes Apartments; three 22-story buildings.
- Marcus Garvey (Group A); three buildings, 6- and 14-stories tall.
- Prospect Plaza Houses; three vacant 12-story buildings in the process of being rehabilitated. (really in the Ocean Hill section of Brooklyn Community Board 16)
- Ralph Avenue Rehab; five 4-story buildings.
- Reverend Randolph Brown; two 6-story buildings.
- Seth Low Houses; four buildings, 17- and 18-stories tall.
- Sutter Avenue-Union Street; three rehabilitated tenement buildings, 4- and 6-stories tall.
- Tapscott Street Rehab; eight 4-story rehabilitated tenement buildings.
- Tilden Houses; eight 16-story buildings.
- Van Dyke I; 22 buildings, 3- and 14-stories tall.
- Van Dyke II; one 14-story building.
- Woodson Houses; two buildings, 10- and 25-stories tall.
The area that would become Brownsville was first used by the Dutch for farming. It was also a source of stone and other building-materials. William Suydam parcelled the land in 1860, laying out 262 lots, but he soon defaulted on his mortgages. Charles S. Brown of Esopus won the land in an auction. By 1883, there were 250 houses in "Brown's Village".
Brownsville was predominantly Jewish from the 1880s until the 1950s. Elias Kaplan led the first large Jewish immigrant contingent to the area in 1887, selling it as an alternative to the poor conditions of migrant workers on the Lower East Side and advertising it as an alternative to the Lower East Side’s unions. Brownsville was also a place for radical political causes during this time. In 1916, Margaret Sanger set up the first birth control clinic in America on Amboy Street. Throughout the 1920s and 1930s, the neighborhood elected Socialist and American Labor Party candidates to the state assembly. As of the 1930s it was considered the most densely populated district in all of Brooklyn. The population remained heavily Jewish, and the neighborhood boasted some seventy Orthodox synagogues.
Poverty and crime
Originally a landlocked area of flood-prone marshes, Brownsville was inconvenient as a place for the affluent to live due to its distance from Manhattan, but convenient as a place to put up large projects for those of lesser means. The area was used as a dump, and awful stenches wafted north from the glue factories of Jamaica Bay. As early as the 1910s, the area had acquired a reputation as a vicious slum and breeding ground for crime, and by 1907, 96% of the neighborhood’s housing units were in tenements. It has been known throughout the years for its criminal gangs and in the 1930s and 1940s achieved notoriety as the birthplace of Murder, Inc. It was a predominantly Jewish neighborhood until the 1960s, when its population had become largely African American and Brownsville's unemployment rate was 17 percent. Half of all families in the district lived on less than $5,000 a year.
The social problems associated with poverty, from crime to drug addiction, have plagued the area for decades. Despite the decline of crime compared to its peak during the crack and heroin epidemics, violent crime continues to be a serious problem in the community. Brownsville has significantly higher dropout rates and incidents of violence in its schools. Students must pass through metal detectors and swipe ID cards to enter the buildings. Other problems in local schools include low test scores and high truancy rates.
Many riots and violent crimes have marked Brownsville's bad reputation. In September 1967, a riot occurred following the death of an 11-year-old African American boy named Richard Ross, who was killed by an African American NYPD detective, John Rattley, at the corner of St. Johns Place and Ralph Avenue. Rattley believed Ross had mugged a 73-year-old Jewish man. The riot was led in part by Brooklyn militant Sonny Carson and was quelled after Brooklyn North Borough Commander Lloyd Sealy deployed a squad of 150 police officers. Officer Rattley was not indicted by the grand jury.
In 1968, Brownsville was the setting of a protracted and highly contentious teachers' strike. The Board of Education had experimented with giving the people of the neighborhood control over the school. The new administration laid off several teachers in violation of union contract rules. The teachers were all white and mostly Jewish, and the resulting strike served to badly divide the whole city. The resulting strike dragged on for half a year, becoming known as one of John Lindsay's "Ten Plagues".
After a wave of arson throughout the 1970s ravaged the low-income communities of New York City, many of the residential structures in Brownsville were left seriously damaged or destroyed. The city began to rehabilitate many formally abandoned tenement-style apartment buildings and designate them low-income housing, beginning in the late 1970s. Also, many subsidized multi-unit townhouses and newly constructed apartment buildings have been or are being built on vacant lots across the neighborhood.
Even in 2009, when Brooklyn's crime rate became the lowest in many years, crime and poverty were still relatively high in Brownsville. Crime rates in Brownsville had declined in the same manner that they had elsewhere in the city, but the declines were not as severe as in other areas of the city, and as a result, Brownsville was considered to be the murder capital of New York City in 2012.
In 2008, the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission designated the Betsy Head Play Center a landmark, making it the first and only individual landmark in Brownsville. A large swimming pool with bathhouses and other facilities, the Center was one of 11 expansive outdoor swimming pools opened in the summer of 1936 by Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia and City Parks Commissioner Robert Moses and funded largely by the Works Progress Administration (WPA).
The NYPD's 65th Precinct, built in the 1900s, covered most of the area until its closure in the mid-1980s. Originally, there were two precincts prior to its closure; the area is now patrolled solely by the 73rd Precinct located at 1470 East New York Avenue. New York City Housing Authority property in the area is patrolled by Police Service Area #2 (P.S.A. 2). It is part of Brooklyn Community Board 16.
Public schools are operated by the New York City Department of Education.
Until 2001, Brownsville was the only Brooklyn school district without a high school. There are now three; two are housed in the same building at 226 Bristol Street. Teachers Preparatory opened in September 2001. FDA VII opened in September 2004. Teachers Preparatory School serves 6th through 12th graders. It received a grade of "A" on both its middle school and high school report cards for 2008. There also is a transfer school Brownsville Academy, which is a Diploma Plus transfer school. It received a "Well Developed" score for 2008–2009. It also received a grade of B on its 2007–2008 report card.
- Masta Ace (born 1966), rapper.
- Albert Anastasia (1902-1957), mobster.
- Maurice Ashley (born 1966), chess grandmaster.
- Ralph Bakshi (born 1938), film director.
- Daniel Benzali (born 1950), Golden-Globe nominated actor
- Riddick Bowe (born 1967), boxer.
- Shannon Briggs (born 1971), boxer.
- Originoo Gunn Clappaz, hip hop group.
- Andrew Dice Clay (born 1957), comedian.
- Mickey Cohen (1913-1976), gangster.
- Aaron Copland (1900-1990), composer.
- Bummy Davis (1920-1945), boxer.
- Vince Edwards, actor
- Melech Epstein, journalist and historian
- Fyvush Finkel, actor
- Max Fleischer, animator
- John Forté, rapper
- World B. Free, former NBA player
- Nelson George, author
- Marty Glickman, sportscaster
- Don Goldstein, All American and Pan American champion basketball player
- Sid Gordon, baseball player
- Solomon Grayzel, historian
- Arnold Greenberg, co-founder of Snapple
- Henry Hill, mobster associated with the Vario Crew and Lucchese crime family
- Red Holzman, NBA player and coach
- Moe, Curly, and Shemp Howard who were brothers and members of The Three Stooges
- Gregory "Jocko" Jackson, community leader and NBA player
- Daniel Jacobs, boxer
- Charles Jenkins, NBA player
- Zab Judah, boxer
- KA, rapper
- Donald Kagan, historian
- Danny Kaye, entertainer
- Alfred Kazin, writer and literary critic
- Larry King, television and radio host
- Alvin Klein (c. 1938 - 2009), theater critic for The New York Times.
- Jack Knight, songwriter, music producer, motivational speaker
- Meyer Lansky, noted underworld figure
- Steve Lawrence, singer
- Leonard Marsh, co-founded the Snapple Beverage Corporation
- Duane Martin, actor
- Zero Mostel, actor
- M.O.P., hip hop duo
- Eddie Mustafa Muhammad, former boxer
- Alex B. Novikoff, scientist
- Abe Osheroff, political activist
- Bruce Pasternack, business author
- Norman Podhoretz, writer
- Sean Price (1972-2015), rapper.
- Killah Priest, rapper
- Isidor Isaac Rabi (1898-1988), physicist and 1944 Nobel Prize Laureate for his discovery of nuclear magnetic resonance.
- Paul Rand, graphic designer
- Willie Randolph, former baseball player, manager, and coach
- Abe Reles, mobster
- Representativz, hip hop duo
- RZA, rapper, member of the Wu-Tang Clan
- Meyer Schapiro, art historian on faculty at Columbia University for 45 years
- Phil Sellers, former NBA player
- Al Sharpton, minister
- Phil Silvers, comic
- Jimmy Smits, actor
- Bern Nadette Stanis, actress
- Steele, hip hop artist
- Heltah Skeltah, hip hop group
- Mike Tyson, boxer 
- Dwayne "Pearl" Washington, former professional basketball player
- James "Fly" Williams, former NBA player
- Nicole Willis, singer-songwriter
- Otis Wilson (born 1957), former NFL linebacker
- Terry Winters (born 1949), artist
- Max Zaslofsky (1925-1985), professional basketball player and coach
- Howard Zinn (1922-2010), historian
- "Brownsville neighborhood in New York". Retrieved June 4, 2014.
- Table PL-P5 NTA: Total Population and Persons Per Acre - New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas*, 2010, Population Division - New York City Department of City Planning, February 2012. Accessed June 15, 2016.
- "Brownsville Long Island New York". Longislandexchange.com. December 22, 2006. Retrieved January 24, 2011.
- Table PL-P3A NTA: Total Population by Mutually Exclusive Race and Hispanic Origin - New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas*, 2010, Population Division - New York City Department of City Planning, March 29, 2011. Accessed June 14, 2016.
- Median household income from census records, nyc.gov; accessed October 30, 2014.
- Williams, Keith. "Brownsville and the curse of geography". The Weekly Nabe. Retrieved June 15, 2012.
- "NYCHA locations in Brownsville". Nyc.gov. September 28, 2010. Retrieved January 24, 2011.
- "New York city guide; a comprehensive guide to the five boroughs of the metropolis: Manhattan, Brooklyn, the Bronx, Queens, and Richmond". archive.org. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
- Pritchett, Wendell E. Brownsville, Brooklyn: Blacks, Jews, and the changing face of the ghetto Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002; ISBN 0-226-68446-6
- "New York city guide; a comprehensive guide to the five boroughs of the metropolis: Manhattan, Brooklyn, the Bronx, Queens, and Richmond". archive.org. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
- "73rd Precinct CompStat Report" (PDF). Retrieved January 24, 2011.
- "NYC Dropout Rates". Gothamgazette.com. March 20, 2006. Retrieved January 24, 2011.
- Ortega, Tony (March 11, 2010). "Absolutely Nothing To Get Alarmed About Village Voice September 14, 1967". Blogs.villagevoice.com. Retrieved January 24, 2011.
- Cannato, Vincent "The Ungovernable City: John Lindsay and his struggle to save New York" Better Books, 2001; ISBN 0-465-00843-7
- Staff (January 2, 2011). "Negro Policemen Sent to Patrol Scene of Disorders in Brooklyn - Article - NYTimes.com". Select.nytimes.com. Retrieved January 24, 2011.
- Berube, Maurice R. and Marilyn Gittell. Confrontation at Ocean Hill-Brownsville; the New York school strikes of 1968 New York, Praeger  OCLC: 19279
- "John Lindsay'S Ten Plagues". TIME. November 1, 1968. Retrieved January 24, 2011.
- Sun, Feifei (January 31, 2012). "Brownsville: Inside One of Brooklyn's Most Dangerous Neighborhoods". TIME.com.
- Long, Colleen and Tom Hays. "Crime is down, but decline lags in NY neighborhood." Associated Press at Houston Chronicle. December 30, 2013. Retrieved on December 30, 2013.
- NYC Landmarks Preservation Commission (September 16, 2008). "Designation Report-Betsy Head Play Center" (PDF). Retrieved March 10, 2014.
- 73rd Precinct, NYPD.
- "Housing Bureau".
- "Statistics – Teachers Preparatory High School – K697 – New York City Department of Education". Schools.nyc.gov. August 9, 2007. Retrieved January 24, 2011.
- "Report: New York City Walmart jobs would lower wages". Abclocal.go.com. January 13, 2011. Retrieved October 11, 2012.
- NYC subway map
- Robinson, Stewart. "Masta Ace Speaks On His New Album The Falling Season & More In This Exclusive Interview", The Hip Hop Crib, February 19, 2016. Accessed June 15, 2016. "Masta Ace, a hip hop artist from Brownsville, has been in the game for almost 30 years now."
- McLoughlin, Tim. Brooklyn Noir 3: Nothing But the Truth, p. 66. Akashic Books, 2008. ISBN 9781933354149. Accessed June 15, 2016. "The proprietor of Murder Inc. was a Brownsville homeboy by the name of Albert Anastasia, a.k.a. 'Lord High Executioner.'"
- Stewart, Barbara. "From Kings County, First Black Grandmaster", The New York Times, March 17, 1999. Accessed June 15, 2016. "Twenty years ago, when Maurice Ashley was 14 and living in Brownsville, Brooklyn, he was soundly defeated in an offhand game of chess."
- Glinter, Ezra. "Inventor of X-Rated Animation Ralph Bakshi Makes a Comeback", The Forward, January 14, 2014. Accessed June 15, 2016. "Bakshi knows a thing or two about grime. Born in Haifa in 1938, he left Palestine with his parents at age 1 and settled in the Brooklyn neighborhood of Brownsville."
- "Daniel Benzali". Suckers. Retrieved December 13, 2006.
- Vadukul, Alex. "Ex-HeavyweightChampion Riddick BoweSteps Into a New Arena; After two boxing world titles, prison and bankruptcy, Mr.Bowe hopes to cement another legacy: as a restaurateur.", The New York Times, August 21, 2015. Accessed June 15, 2016. "When Mr. Bowe first held his title belt aloft, his bleak childhood in Brownsville, Brooklyn, must have felt incomprehensibly far away."
- Alvarado, Francisco. "Shannon Briggs Returns to Boxing, Hosts Fight Celebration at Wonderland Saturday", Miami New Times, April 10, 2014. Accessed June 15, 2016. "Briggs was born on Dec. 4, 1971 in Brownsville, back then 'the worst hood in America,' the ex-champ relates."
- Roura, Phil. "It's potty time: Foulmouthed funnyman Andrew Dice Clay on the comeback trail", New York Daily News, Juky 23, 2011. Accessed June 15, 2016. "Born in Brownsville, Brooklyn, 53 years ago, Andrew Clay Silverstein patterned himself after the outrageous humor of Lenny Bruce and Richard Pryor."
- Kirsch, Jonathan. "Mickey Cohen’s colorful life of crime", The Jewish Journal of Greater Los Angeles, August 22, 2012. Accessed June 15, 2016. "Meyer Harris Cohen was born in the Jewish Pale of Settlement in imperial Russia, immigrated with his family to the Brownsville neighborhood of Brooklyn and reached Los Angeles’ Jewish point of entry in Boyle Heights in 1915."
- Krajicek, David J. "As NYC's murder rate soared in 1945, noted lightweight boxer Al (Bummy) Davis is gunned down during bar robbery", New York Daily News, September 12, 2015. Accessed June 15, 2016. " He was better known as Al (Bummy) Davis, a lightweight boxer of note. He grew up in the Jewish ghetto of Brownsville, Brooklyn, delivering knuckle sandwiches to his family’s pushcart competitors along Blake Ave."
- Fox, Margalit (October 30, 2012). "Arnold Greenberg, a Founder of Snapple, Dies at 80". New York Times. Retrieved November 18, 2012.
- Salamon, Julie. "Toil, Tears and Sweat in Brooklyn", The New York Times, February 6, 2004. Accessed November 19, 2007. "The words of a native son, Alfred Kazin, spoken by an actor evoking the writer's Brownsville childhood in the 1920s, resonate today."
- Staff. "Alvin Klein, Times Theater Reviewer, Dies at 73", The New York Times, March 6, 2009. Accessed June 7, 2016. "The son of immigrants from Poland, Mr. Klein was born in Brownsville, Brooklyn, and grew up in Flatbush."
- Podhoretz, Norman (February 1963). "My Negro Problem — And Ours" (PDF). Commentary. Retrieved May 14, 2010.
- Caramanica, Jon. "Sean Price, Rapper With Deep Brooklyn Roots, Dies at 43", The New York Times, August 9, 2015. Accessed June 15, 2016. "Sean Price, a rapper who for two decades embodied the rugged essence of peak-era Brooklyn hip-hop, died in his sleep on Saturday morning at his home in the Brownsville section of Brooklyn.... 'The best rapper in Brownsville,' he boasted in a 2009 song, as if that were still the most important thing to him."
- Berger, Marilyn. "Isidor Isaac Rabi, a Pioneer In Atomic Physics, Dies at 89", The New York Times, January 12, 1988. Accessed July 29, 2016. "'I'm an omnivorous reader,' he said, looking back at his discovery of the local branch of the Brooklyn Public Library after moving to the Brownsville section of Brooklyn when he was a child."
- "Mike Tyson Biography". BookRags.
- Vecsey, George. "SPORTS OF THE TIMES; The Pearl Fits In At Syracuse", The New York Times, March 9, 1984. Accessed December 5, 2007. "This part of the legend does survive: Washington admits that when he was 8 years old at the Howard Housing Project in Brownsville, his elders asked him: Who do you think you are, the Pearl?"
- Staff. "SPORTS WORLD SPECIALS; Ego Boost", The New York Times, January 27, 1986. Accessed July 29, 2016. "Wilson grew up in Brownsville and went to Thomas Jefferson High School, then attended the University of Louisville before the Bears drafted him on the first round in 1980."
- Rosenthal, Nan; and Winters, Terry. Terry Winters: Printed Works, p. 6. Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2001. ISBN 9780300090833. Accessed July 29, 2016. "Winters was born in 1949 and grew up in Brooklyn, for the first decade of his life in Brownsville, then a large lower-middle-class Jewish community, and later in the slightly more upscale neighborhoods of Midwood and Flatbush."
- Cromie, Robert. "Zalofsjy -- the Dizzy Dean of Basketball Minus Sound", Chicago Tribune, February 14, 1949. Accessed July 29, 2016. "Zaslofsky was born in the Brownsville section of Brooklyn and at 6 got a basketball from his father."