|Brownsville, Cameron County, Texas|
|City of Brownsville|
|Nickname(s): "The Green City"|
|Motto: On the border by the sea...|
Location in Cameron County
|Country||United States of America|
|• City Council||Mayor: Antonio "Tony" Martinez
Commissioner At-Large "A": Cesar de Leon
Commissioner At-Large "B": Rose M. Z. Gowen
Commissioner District 1: Ricardo Longoria, Jr.
Commissioner District 2: Jessica Tetreau-Kalifa
Commissioner District 3: Deborah Portillo
Commissioner District 4: John Villarreal
|• City Manager||Charlie Cabler|
|• City||146.3 sq mi (378.9 km2)|
|• Land||132.3 sq mi (342.7 km2)|
|• Water||13.9 sq mi (36.1 km2)|
|Elevation||33 ft (10 m)|
|Population (2014 estimate)|
|• Density||1,383/sq mi (534.1/km2)|
|• Metro||420,392 (US)|
|Time zone||CST (UTC-6)|
|• Summer (DST)||CDT (UTC-5)|
|ZIP codes||78520, 78521, 78522, 78523, 78526|
|GNIS feature ID||1372749|
Brownsville is the sixteenth most populous city in the state of Texas, with a population at the 2010 census of 175,023 and an estimated population in 2014 of 183,046. It is located at the southernmost tip of Texas, on the northern bank of the Rio Grande, directly north and across the border from Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico. The 2014 U.S. Census Bureau estimate placed the Brownsville-Harlingen metropolitan area population at 420,392, making it the ninth most populous metropolitan area in the state of Texas. In addition, the international Matamoros–Brownsville Metropolitan Area was estimated to have a population of 1,136,995.[needs update] Brownsville has one of the highest poverty rates in the nation, and is frequently cited as having the highest percentage of residents below the federal poverty level out of all cities in the nation.
The Brownsville urban area is one of the fastest growing in the United States. The city's population dramatically increased after it experienced a boom in the steel industry during the first decade of the 1900s, when steel output tripled. In recent times, the Port of Brownsville has become a major economic hub for South Texas, where shipments arrive from other parts of the United States, from Mexico, and from around the world. Brownsville's economy is mainly based on its international trade with Mexico through the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and is home to one of the fastest growing manufacturing sectors in the nation. Brownsville has often been recognized as having one of the best pro-business climates in the United States, and the city has also been ranked among the least expensive places to live in the U.S.
Brownsville served as a site for several battles and events in the Texas Revolution, the Mexican–American War, and the American Civil War. Right across the U.S–Mexico border lies Matamoros, Tamaulipas, a city with a population of 500,000 people and a major site of the Mexican War of Independence, the Mexican Revolution, and the French Intervention.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Economy
- 5 Government
- 6 County Commission Representation
- 7 Education
- 8 Transportation
- 9 Art and culture
- 10 Sports
- 11 Entertainment and nightlife
- 12 Media
- 13 Points of interest
- 14 Notable people
- 15 Sister cities
- 16 See also
- 17 References
- 18 External links
In 1845, construction of a fort on the Mexican border was commissioned[by whom?] due to increased instability in the region on the eve of the Mexican-American War of 1846-1848. Before the completion of the construction, the Mexican Army began the Siege of Fort Texas, during the first active campaign in the Mexican–American War, between 3 and 9 May 1846. The first battle of the war occurred on 8 May 1846, when General Zachary Taylor received word of the siege of the fort. Taylor's forces rushed to help, but Mexican troops intercepted them, resulting in the Battle of Palo Alto about 5 miles (8.0 km) north of present-day Brownsville. The next morning the Mexican forces had retreated, and Taylor's troops caught up with them, resulting in the Battle of Resaca de la Palma, which took place within the present city limits. When Taylor finally arrived at the besieged Fort Texas, it was found that two soldiers had died, one of them the fort's commander, Major Jacob Brown. In his honor, General Taylor renamed the fort Fort Brown. An old cannon at the University of Texas at Brownsville and Texas Southmost College marks the spot where Major Brown received his fatal wound.
The city of Brownsville was originally established late in 1848 by Charles Stillman, and was made the county seat of the new Cameron County on 13 January 1849. The state originally incorporated the city on 24 January 1850. This was repealed on 1 April 1852, due to a land-ownership dispute between Stillman and the former owners. The state reincorporated the city on 7 February 1853, which remains in effect. The issue of ownership was not decided until 1879, when the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in favor of Stillman.
On July 13, 1859, the First Cortina War started. Juan Nepomuceno Cortina became one of the most important historical figures of the area, and continued to exert a decisive influence in the local events until his arrest in 1875. The First Cortina War ended on December 27, 1859. In May 1861, the brief Second Cortina War took place.
During the American Civil War Brownsville served as a smuggling point for Confederate goods into Mexico, most importantly cotton smuggled to European ships waiting at the Mexican port of Bagdad. Initially the Confederates controlled Fort Brown. In November 1863, Union troops landed at Port Isabel and marched for Brownsville to stop the smuggling. In the ensuing battle of Brownsville Confederate forces abandoned the fort, blowing it up with 8,000 pounds (3,600 kg) of explosives. In 1864 Confederate forces commanded by John Salmon 'Rip' Ford reoccupied the town. On May 15, 1865, a month after the surrender had been signed at Appomattox Court House, the Battle of Palmito Ranch (generally accepted as the war's last battle) was fought and won by the Confederates. Ulysses S. Grant sent Union General Frederick Steele to Brownsville to patrol the Mexican-American border after Civil War to aid the Juaristas with military supplies.
On 13 and 14 August 1906, Brownsville was the site of the Brownsville Affair. Racial tensions were high between white townsfolk and black infantrymen stationed at Fort Brown. On the night of 13 August, one white bartender was killed and a white police officer was wounded by rifle shots in the street. Townsfolk, including the mayor, accused the infantrymen of the murders. Without affording them a chance to defend themselves in a hearing, President Theodore Roosevelt dishonorably discharged the entire 167-member regiment due to their alleged "conspiracy of silence". Further investigations in the 1970s found that they were not at fault, and the Nixon Administration reversed all dishonorable discharges.
On September 8, 1926, The Junior College of the Lower Rio Grande Valley (later known as Texas Southmost College) admitted its first class. In 1945, Fort Brown was decommissioned and in 1948 the City and College acquired the land. Between 1945 and 1970, Brownsville's population continued to grow gradually, doubling from 25,000 to 52,000 people. In 1991, Brownsville received a university via the partnership with the University of Texas at Brownsville.
Brownsville was declared an All-America City in the year 2001 and again in 2014.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 146.3 square miles (378.9 km2), making it the largest American city by land area in the lower Rio Grande Valley and the third largest American city by land area along the U.S.-Mexico border, after San Diego, California and El Paso, Texas. 132.3 square miles (342.7 km2) of Brownsville's area is land, and 13.9 square miles (36.1 km2) of it (9.54%) is water.
Brownsville is among the southernmost of all contiguous U.S. cities. Within the contiguous United States, only a handful of municipalities in Florida's Miami-Dade and Monroe counties (plus Everglades City in Collier County) are further south than Brownsville, which lies at exactly the same latitude as North Miami Beach in northern Miami-Dade County.
Brownsville is now one of the first cities in the U.S. and Texas to ban the use of plastic shopping bags, reaching closer toward its goals of a greener, cleaner city. This has led other cities in the area to also consider such a ban. In addition, Forbes has identified Brownsville as one of 12 metropolitan areas in the U.S. with the cleanest air; Laredo was the only other Texas metropolitan area to be among the 12.
Broadleaf evergreen plants, including palms, dominate Brownsville neighborhoods to a greater degree than is seen elsewhere in Texas—even in nearby cities such as Harlingen and San Benito. Soils are mostly of clay to silty clay loam texture, moderately alkaline (pH 8.2) to strongly alkaline (pH8.5) and with a significant degree of salinity in many places.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Brownsville has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), just outside of a hot semi-arid climate. Yet the nearby ocean waters and winds of the Gulf of Mexico help keep Brownsville cooler during the summer relative to cities further inland such as Laredo and McAllen. Thus temperatures above 100 °F (37.8 °C) are uncommon, with an average of only 1.1 days reaching that level of heat. At the other extreme, there is an average of one to two nights per year with freezing temperatures. Average monthly rainfall demonstrates a strong September maximum; the next-wettest month is October, with a slight May–June peak across the rest of the year. The warmest month is March. Generally, November through April represents a marked drier season, and Brownsville can go for weeks with minimal, even negligible, rainfall, especially over the cooler season. However, the city at times can reach precipitation amounts as high as 38 inches in a year alone. Extreme temperatures range from 12 °F (−11 °C) on February 13, 1899 to 106 °F (41 °C) on March 27, 1984. The greatest snowfall in a day and a season was 1.5 inches (3.8 cm), which fell on December 25, 2004.
On December 25, 2004, Brownsville had its first instance of measurable snow in 109 years, with 1.5 inches (3.8 cm), and the first recorded White Christmas. This was part of the 2004 Christmas Eve Snowstorm.
Brownsville's location at the intersection of different climate regimes (subtropical, Chihuahuan desert, Gulf Coast plain, and Great Plains) causes it to be a birding location. Its unique network of resacas (distributaries of the Rio Grande and oxbow lakes) provide habitat for nesting / breeding birds of various types - most notably during the Spring and Fall migrations.
|Climate data for Brownsville, Texas (1981−2010 normals, extremes 1878−present)|
|Record high °F (°C)||93
|Average high °F (°C)||70.6
|Daily mean °F (°C)||61.1
|Average low °F (°C)||51.6
|Record low °F (°C)||18
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||1.27
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||7.3||5.5||4.4||4.0||4.9||5.9||5.3||6.6||10.0||7.5||6.0||7.0||74.4|
|Average relative humidity (%)||79.3||77.4||74.6||75.1||76.5||75.0||73.2||73.8||76.3||75.3||76.1||78.2||75.9|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||130.6||151.3||206.8||232.7||266.4||306.5||334.4||306.4||252.0||228.3||166.2||130.7||2,712.3|
|Percent possible sunshine||39||48||56||61||64||74||79||76||68||64||51||40||60|
|Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961−1990)|
|U.S. Decennial Census|
As of the census of 2010, there were 175,023 people, 38,174 households, and 32,180 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,207.1 people per square mile (466.0/km2). There were 53,936 housing units at an average density of 372.0 per square mile (143.6/km2). Hispanic or Latino of any race were 93.19% of the population.
There were 38,174 households out of which 50.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.3% were married couples living together, 20.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 15.7% were non-families. 13.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.62 and the average family size was 3.99.
In the city the population was spread out with 34.6% under the age of 18, 11.2% from 18 to 24, 27.5% from 25 to 44, 17.2% from 45 to 64, and 9.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females there were 89.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.5 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $24,468, and the median income for a family was $26,186. Males had a median income of $21,739 versus $17,116 for females.
An important pillar of the economy is the Port of Brownsville. The port, located 2 miles (3.2 km) from the city, provides an important link between the road networks of nearby Mexico, and the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway of Texas.
|#||Employer||# of Employees|
|1||Brownsville Independent School District||7,670|
|3||University of Texas Rio Grande Valley||1,734|
|6||Abundant Life Home Health||1,300|
|7||City of Brownsville||1,227|
|8||Caring For You Home Health||1,200|
Technology growth in the 2010s
SpaceX is building the South Texas Launch Site, a private space launch facility east of Brownsville on the Gulf Coast. The new launch facility is expected to draw US$85 million to the city of Brownsville and eventually generate approximately US$51 million in annual salaries from some 500 jobs created by 2024. The facility itself is projected to employ 75–100 full-time workers in the early years with up to 150 full-time employees/contractors by 2019.
As of October 2014[update], the University of Texas at Brownsville and the Brownsville Economic Development Council (BEDC), in collaboration with SpaceX, are building radio-frequency (RF) technology facilities for STARGATE—Spacecraft Tracking and Astronomical Research into Gigahertz Astrophysical Transient Emission. The facility is intended to provide students and faculty access to RF technologies widely used in spaceflight operations, and will include satellite and spacecraft tracking. BEDC purchased five lots in Boca Chica Village totaling 2.3 acres (0.93 ha) near the SpaceX launch site and renamed it as the STARGATE subdivision. The beach location will include a 12,000 square feet (1,100 m2) tracking center." STARGATE has received several startup grants including US$1.2 million from the US Economic Development Administration.
Brownsville has a council–manager style of government. The mayor and six city commissioners, two at-large and four district, serve staggered four-year terms. Elections are held for one at-large and two district seats every two years. Municipal elections are held on the first Saturday of May in odd numbered years. Once a winner is determined, the commissioner-elect will be seated at the next regular meeting of the Brownsville City Commission. City elected officials are non-partisan, meaning that they do not have a party affiliation. They may be personally affiliated with a political party but this has no bearing on the office.
As of 2015, the members of the commission were:
- Mayor: Antonio "Tony" Martinez (Since 2011)
- Commissioner At-Large "A": Vacant
- Commissioner At-Large "B": Dr. Rose M.Z. Gowen (Since 2009)
- Commissioner District 1: Ricardo Longoria Jr. (Since 2003)
- Commissioner District 2: Jessica Tetreau-Kalifa (Since 2011)
- Commissioner District 3: Deborah Portillo (Since 2013)
- Commissioner District 4: John Villarreal (Since 2011)
The next regular elections for the City will occur in the following years:
- Mayor: 2015
- At-Large "A": 2015
- At-Large "B": 2017
- District 1: 2015
- District 2: 2015
- District 3: 2017
- District 4: 2017
The City Commission appoints the City Manager. Since 2006, the City Manager is Charlie Cabler.
The City Commission also appoints a six-member Public Utilities Board for a four-year term. Members are limited to two consecutive or non-consecutive terms. The Mayor is an ex-officio member of the Board.
County Commission Representation
The majority of Brownsville is represented by two of the four Commission Precinct Commissioners. They have staggered four-year terms. County offices are partisan, thus the Democratic and Republican Parties will hold primaries in the March of the year of the year that office term expires. The Candidate who receives the highest amount of votes will then receive their party's nomination. The Libertarian Party selects their candidate by means of their County Convention. The nominees of each party will then run in a general election in November, the winner of which will become the Commissioner the following January.
The following Commissioners represent at least part of the City of Brownsville:
- South and East Brownsville are represented by Precinct 1 Commissioner, Sofia Benavides (D). (Since 2006)
- North, Central Brownsville are represented by Precinct 2 Commissioner, Alex Dominguez (D). (Since 2014)
- A sizable portion of Brownsville farm and scrub land north of FM 511 is represented by Precinct 3 Commissioner, David Garza (D). (Since 2001)
The Chief Executive of the County or the Cameron County Judge is Pete Sepulveda, Jr. (N/A) (Since 2015)
The next regular elections for the County Commission Precincts 1, 2, and 3 will occur in the following years:
- Precinct 1: 2016
- Precinct 2: 2018
- Precinct 3: 2016
- Judge: 2018
The City of Brownsville falls under two State House of Representatives districts. Each Representative has a two-year term and is elected in the same manner as other partisan elected officials.
- District 37: Rene O. Oliveira (D) (Since 1991)
- District 38: Eduardo "Eddie" Lucio, III (D) (Since 2007)
All of Brownsville is represented by Texas Senatorial District 27, the imcumbent Senator is Eduardo "Eddie" Lucio, Jr. (D) (Since 1991)
- Brazos Island Brazos Island State Scenic Park, also known as Brazos Island State Recreation Area which has 217 acres
- Boca Chica State Park
- Las Palomas Wildlife Management Area - Boca Chica Unit
- Resaca de la Palma, is a 1,200-acre (4.9 km2) State Park and World Birding Center site located to the northwest of Brownsville, Texas.
- Texas Department of Public Safety TxDPS located at 2901 Paredes Line Rd
- Texas Attorney General's Office, Child Support Division 1900 North Expressway, Ste, K
All of Brownsville is represented by U.S. Congressional District 34, the imcumbent Representative is Filemon Vela, Jr. (D) (Since 2013)
The United States Postal Service operates post offices in Brownsville. The Brownsville Main Post Office is located at 1535 East Los Ebanos Boulevard. Downtown Brownsville is served by the Downtown Brownsville Post Office at 1001 East Elizabeth Street.
There is also a National Weather Service office and doppler radar site in 20 South Vermillion Avenue Brownsville, Texas. They provide forecasts and radar coverage for Deep South Texas and the adjacent coastal waters.
Social Security Administration
- Social Security Administration located at 3115 Central Boulevard,
- The Reynaldo G. Garza - Filemon B. Vela United States Courthouse is located at 600 E. Harrison Street
- The Brownsville Armed Forces Reserve Center (AFRC) located at Woodruff Avenue host units from the U.S. Army Reserve and Texas Army National Guard.
- ROTC located at 80 Fort Brown
Universities and colleges
- University of Texas Rio Grande Valley
- Texas Southmost College
- The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, School of Public Health (UTSPH), Brownsville Regional Campus
The School of Public Health (UTSPH) opened in 2001 as part of the legislated Regional Academic Health Center program, or RAHC and is physically located on the campus of the University of Texas at Brownsville. UTSPH - Brownsville is a regional campus of the University of Texas School of Public Health statewide network which offer students a graduate certificate in public health and the Master of Public Health (M.P.H.) graduate degree. Starting in 2009, the Brownsville Regional Campus also began offering a PhD program in Epidemiology and a Doctorate in Public Health (DrPH) in Health Promotion, the only program's of their kind in South Texas. Major public health concerns of the faculty and researchers found here in the Lower Rio Grande Valley Texas include diabetes, tuberculosis, obesity, cardiovascular disease and hepatitis. Other areas of public health significance include physical activity, behavioral journalism, healthy living, diet and lifestyles activities. The Brownsville Regional Campus is also developing a strong research focus in genetics and its relationship to infectious and chronic disease.
- South Texas Vocational Technical Institute
- Kaplan College Brownsville Campus
- Southern Careers Institute Brownsville Campus
Primary and secondary schools
Most of Brownsville is served by Brownsville Independent School District. The BISD counted its total enrollment in the 2010-11 at 49,155 students in 57 schools. It is the 17th largest school district in Texas. A portion of northern Brownsville is served by the Los Fresnos Consolidated Independent School District.
In addition, Brownsville residents are allowed to apply to magnet schools operated by the South Texas Independent School District, as well as BISD magnet schools. Each BISD high school has a magnet school within the school, Gladys Porter High School is home to the High School for Engineering Professions. Homer Hanna High School is home of the Tech Med Magnet Program for Medical and Health Professions. Lopez High School houses the district's Fine Arts Academy, James Pace High School has a Criminal Justice Magnet School and Simon Rivera High School hosts the International Business Magnet School.
State charter schools
- Raul Yzaguirre School for Success
- Sentry Technology Prep Charter High School
- IDEA Public Schools Frontier Academy and College Prep
- IDEA Public Schools Brownsville Academy and College Prep
- Harmony Science Academy-Brownsville (K–12)
- Math and Science Academy-UTB
- Athlos Leadership Academy (K-9)
- Livingway Leadership Academy (Pre-K-5)
Private and parochial schools
- Brownsville SDA School
- Episcopal Day School
- First Baptist School
- Faith Christian Academy
- Guadalupe Regional Middle School
- Incarnate Word Academy (Brownsville, Texas) | Incarnate Word Academy
- Kenmont Montessori School
- St. Luke's Catholic School
- St. Mary's Catholic School
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Brownsville operates area Catholic schools.
- The Main Branch Library, located at 2600 Central Boulevard
- The Southmost Branch Library located at 4320 Southmost Boulevard.
- The Cameron County Law Library located at 974 E. Harrison Street
- Arnulfo L. Oliveira Memorial Library located at 80 Fort Brown
- University Boulevard Library located at 2035 University Blvd.
Several attempts were made to attract a railroad, but not until 1904 did the St. Louis, Brownsville and Mexico Railway reach the City of Brownsville. In 1910 a railroad bridge was constructed between Brownsville and Matamoros (Mexico) and regular service between the two towns began. The introduction of the rail link to Brownsville opened the area for settlement of northern farmers, who began arriving in the lower Rio Grande valley in large numbers after the turn of the century. The new settlers cleared the land of brush, built extensive irrigation systems and roads, and introduced large-scale truck farming. In 1904 H. G. Stillwell, Sr., planted the first commercial citrus orchard in the area, thus opening the way for citrus fruit culture, one of the Valley's leading industries. The expansion of farming in the area and the railroad link to the North brought new prosperity to Brownsville and spurred a host of civic improvements.
Today, the Brownsville and Rio Grande International Railroad (reporting mark BRG) Brownsville and Rio Grande International Railroad is a terminal switching railroad headquartered in Brownsville, Texas. BRG operates 42 mi (68 km) of line at the Port of Brownsville, and interchanges with Union Pacific and TFM. BRG traffic includes steel, agricultural products, food products, and general commodities.
Established in mid-Brownsville in 1978, with expanding bus service to rapidly developing North Brownsville. The Brownsville Urban System (BUS) consists of 14 buses running 11 routes covering a large portion of Brownsville.
- Interstate 69E/U.S. Route 77 to Kingsville, Corpus Christi (U.S. 77 is a proposed part of the North American Free Trade Agreement's future fully completed Interstate 69 corridor)
- U.S. Route 83 to Harlingen
- U.S. Route 281 to Pharr
- SH 550 from North Brownsville to the Port of Brownsville is a toll road around the central portions of Brownsville that forms a loop around the city. An interchange carries traffic from I-69E onto the highway.
- SH 4 from Southeast Brownsville to Boca Chica State Park
- SH 48 from Central Brownsville to Port Isabel
Brownsville has three international bridges:
- The Brownsville & Matamoros International Bridge (B&M), known locally as the "Old Bridge." The B&M International Bridge also serves as an international railway for Union Pacific.
- Gateway International Bridge, known locally as the "new bridge" despite the fact that it's no longer the city's newest international bridge.
- The Veterans' International Bridge at Los Tomates, or locally simply known as the "Los Tomates" or "Veterans'" bridge.
Brownsville has its own city-owned airport, the Brownsville/South Padre Island International Airport. The airport is used for general aviation and is served by United Airlines (service to Houston-Intercontinental), AeroMexico (service to Monterrey, Mexico) and Envoy Air (service to Dallas-Fort Worth).
Art and culture
The Brownsville area is full of well-established art galleries and museums that represent not only art of the region and Mexico but feature traveling exhibits from around the world.
Each year, Brownsville hosts the Jackie Robinson World Series for nine-year-old baseball players.
In 2011 & 2013 The University of Texas at Brownsville Ocelots Women's Volleyball team captured the NAIA National Championship in Sioux City, Iowa at the Tyson Events Center
Entertainment and nightlife
- Charro Days Fiesta - usually occurs the last week of February.
- CineSol Film Festival
- Sombrero Festival - created to enhance the spirit of Charro Days, this festival usually occurs the last week of February.
- Brownsville Latin Jazz Festival
- Fourth of July Parade
- Winter Break Parade
- Annual NewGen RapFest
- Fort Brown Memorial Gulf Course
- Valley International Country Club
- Rancho Viejo Resort and Country Club
The Brownsville area is served by numerous local television affiliates.
- XHRIO-TV 2 MundoFox - Matamoros, Tamaulipas
- KGBT-TV 4 CBS - Harlingen
- KRGV-TV 5 ABC - Weslaco
- XHAB 7 Televisa Regional Matamoros, Tamaulipas
- XERV 9 Canal de las Estrellas Matamoros, Tamaulipas
- XHOR 14 Azteca 7 Reynosa, Tamaulipas
- KXFX-CD 20 Fox - Brownsville
- KCWT-CD 21 The CW - McAllen
- KVEO-TV 23 NBC - Brownsville
- KMBH 38 PBS - Harlingen
- KTLM 40 Telemundo - McAllen
- KLUJ-TV 44 TBN - Harlingen
- KNVO-TV 48 Univision - McAllen
- KNWS-LP 64 Azteca America - Brownsville
- KVNS 1700 AM Fox Sports Radio
- KURV 710 AM News Talk
- KFRQ 94.5 FM Rock
- KKPS La Nueva 99.5 99.5 FM Tejano
- KNVO 101.1 FM
- KVLY 107.9 FM MIX FM
- KBFM Wild 104 104.1 FM Hip-Hop, R&B, Pop, Reggeton
- KBNR 88.3 FM Radio Manantial (Spanish Christian)
- KTEX 100.3 FM Country
- XHMLS Exa FM 91.3 FM Latin Pop
- XHAAA "La Caliente" 93.1 FM
- XHNA Mega 105.9 FM Regional Mexican
- KHKZ Kiss 106.3
- KVMV 96.9 FM Contemporary Christian
- KJJF/KHID 88.9 Public Radio 88 FM NPR and Performance Today
- KJAV 104.9 Jack FM Adult Hits
- UTB Radio (formerly UTB Sting Radio) Internet Radio with diverse DJ Shows e.g., Thinking Out Loud philosophy programming
Points of interest
Local attractions include the Gladys Porter Zoo, the Brownsville Museum of Fine Art, Camille Lightner Playhouse, a historical downtown with buildings over 150 years old, the Port of Brownsville, and the Children's Museum of Brownsville. There is also easy access to South Padre Island and the Mexican city of Matamoros, Tamaulipas.
Sunrise Mall is the largest shopping mall in the city of Brownsville. Since being remodeled in 2000 the mall has become the primary mall in the Brownsville-Harlingen metroplex. Brownsville previously had another shopping mall, Amigoland Mall by Simon, though the building has since been purchased by the University of Texas at Brownsville after many of its tenants moved from Amigoland to Sunrise.
- James Carlos Blake: award-winning novelist, received his elementary education at Saint Joseph Academy
- Shelbie Bruce: actress
- Oscar Casares: award-winning author and professor of creative writing at UT Austin, published two books about Brownsville, including an eponymous short story collection and the novel Amigoland (2009)
- Carlos Cascos: outgoing county judge of Cameron County; incoming Secretary of State of Texas
- Buddy Garcia: 2012 member of the Texas Railroad Commission; now resides in Austin
- Dr. Juliet V. García: president of the University of Texas at Brownsville and the first Hispanic woman to serve as a university president or rector
- Reynaldo G. Garza (1915–2004): Judge of Brownsville was first appointed to the United States District Court in 1961 by U.S. President John F. Kennedy, and to the United States Court of Appeals by President Jimmy Carter in 1978
- Tony Garza: former U.S. Ambassador to Mexico
- Gilberto Hinojosa: County judge of Cameron County from 1995 to 2007, unseated in 2006 by Republican Carlos Cascos; Texas Democratic Party chairman since 2012
- Mifflin Kenedy (1818-1895): South Texas rancher and steamboat businessman; interred at Buena Vista Burial Park in Brownsville
- Bernard L. Kowalski (1929-2007): film and television director
- Kris Kristofferson: country music star, singer and songwriter, 2004 Hall of Fame Inductee, and actor
- Eddie Lucio, Jr.: member of the Texas State Senate from Brownsville since 1991; pro-life activist
- Eddie Lucio, III: member of the Texas House of Representatives from Brownsville since 2007
- Kristian Menchaca (1983-2006): soldier, Iraqi War casualty.
- Domingo Martinez: author of The Boy Kings of Texas, a Memoir; born and raised in Brownsville
- Grace Napolitano: U.S. Representative for California's 32nd congressional district, was born in Brownsville, December 4, 1936
- Jim Thaxton: NFL player
- Americo Paredes (1915-1999): author of George Washington Gomez, was born in Brownsville on 3 September 1915.
- José David Saldívar: scholar of literature and culture, especially minoritized literatures and border studies, teaches at Stanford University
- Ramón Saldívar: scholar of Chicano literature and culture, awarded the National Humanities Medal by President Barack Obama in 2012, teaches at Stanford University
- Jaime Zapata (1979–2011): U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement agent who was ambushed, shot, and killed by Los Zetas in San Luis Potosí, Mexico. He was returning from a meeting in Mexico City; Victor Avila, another agent that accompanied him, was wounded.
- List of museums in the Texas Gulf Coast
- Nuevo Santander
- Virreinato de Nueva España
- José de Escandón y Helguera, 1st Count of Sierra Gorda
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Census Summary File 1 (G001): Brownsville city, Texas". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Retrieved July 8, 2015.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014 (PEPANNRES): Incorporated Places in Texas". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 8, 2015.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014 - United States -- Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico (GCT-PEPANNRES)". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 8, 2015.
- "Matamoros-Brownsville". World Gazetteer. Archived from the original on 13 May 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2011./
- "In America's Poorest City, a Housing Breakthrough - CityLab". Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Plume, Janet. "Boom time in Brownsville". Journal of Commerce. Retrieved 5 November 2011.[dead link]
- Plume, Janet (November 2004). "New Route from Asia?". Journal of Commerce 5 (44): 42. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
- "About Brownsville". City of Brownsville: Brownsville Public Library. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
- "Governor's ED Team Receives Leadership Award" (PDF). Brownsville's Economic Development Council. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
- Wong, Vanesa (2011-06-27). "Texas town is the cheapest place to live in US". MSN News. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
- Scribner, John. "The Texas Navy". Texas Military Forces Museum. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
- Thompson, Jerry D. (2007). Cortina: defending the Mexican name in Texas. Texas A&M University Press. p. 332.
- Delaney, Robert W. (April 1955). "Matamoros, Port for Texas during the Civil War" 58 (4). The Southwestern Historical Quarterly. p. 487. JSTOR 30241907.
- "Tamaulipas y la guerra de Independencia: acontecimientos, actores y escenarios" (PDF). Gobierno del Estado de Tamaulipas. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
- "The Mexican Revolution: Conflict in Matamoros". University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
- Yorke Stevenson, Sara (2004). Maximilian in Mexico: A Woman's Reminiscences of the French Intervention, 1862 to 1867. Kessinger Publishing. p. 168.
- The Brownsville Herald , accessed February 25, 2011.
- MSNBC.com "America's Cleanest Cities" , accessed February 25, 2011.
- "Web Soil Survey". Websoilsurvey.nrcs.usda.gov. Retrieved 2013-09-21.
- Peel, M. C., Finlayson, B. L., and McMahon, T. A.: Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1633-1644, 2007.
- "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
- Erdman, Jonathan (November 14, 2011). "Five Weirdest White Christmases: #1 South Texas...Snow Kidding! (2004)". The Weather Channel. Archived from the original on May 27, 2013.
- "Snow in Brownsville". National Weather Service.
- "TX Brownsville". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
- "WMO climate normals for Brownsville/INTL, TX 1961−1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014". Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- 2010 U.S. Census Facts as per The Houston Chronicle Data Explorer , accessed February 23, 2011.
- "About Us". Port of Brownsville.
- Brownsville Economic Development Council
- Foust, Jeff (2014-09-22). "SpaceX Breaks Ground on Texas Spaceport". Space News. Retrieved 2014-09-22.
- Martinez, Laura (2012-04-10). "Brownsville area candidate for spaceport". The Monitor. Retrieved 2012-05-12.
- Jervis, Rick (2014-10-06). "Texas border town to become next Cape Canaveral". USA Today. Retrieved 2014-11-17.
- Nield, George C. (April 2014). Draft Environmental Impact Statement: SpaceX Texas Launch Site (Report) 1. Federal Aviation Administration, Office of Commercial Space Transportation.
- Clark, Steve (2012-11-26). "'STARGATE' facility may be coming to Brownsville". The Monitor. Retrieved 2014-10-07.
- Perez-Treviño, Emma (2014-09-25). "SpaceX makes more moves". Valley Morning Star. Retrieved 2014-09-27.
- "STARGATE to receive $1.2 million EDA grant". Brownsville Herald. 2014-10-06. Retrieved 2014-10-07.
- "The Brownsville City Commission". City of Brownsville. Retrieved 1 January 2015.
- "Las Palomas Wildlife Management Area -Boca Chica Unit". GotParks.com. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- "Resaca de la Palma State Park Opens Near Brownsville". Texas State Parks Newsletter. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- "Child Support Local Field Offices". Texas Attorney General's Office. Retrieved 6 July 2012.
- "Post Office Location - BROWNSVILLE." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on May 5, 2009.
- "Post Office Location - DOWNTOWN BROWNSVILLE." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on May 5, 2009.
- "The Reynaldo G. Garza - Filemon B. Vela United States Courthouse". United States Courthouse. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- "Reserve Officers Training Corps". University of Texas at Brownsville. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- "Palo Alto National Historic Park". National Park Service. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- "Texas Southmost College". TSC. Retrieved 5 June 2012.
- "University of Texas School of Public Health – Brownsville". Sph.uth.tmc.edu. Retrieved 2013-09-21.
- "South Texas Vocational Technical Institute". South Texas Vocational Technical Institute. Retrieved 5 June 2012.
- "Kaplan College Brownsville Campus". Kaplan College. Retrieved 5 June 2012.
- "Southern Careers Institute". Southern Careers Institute. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
- "Visit Us". Brownsville Public Library System. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- "Library Locations and Hours of Operation." Brownsville Public Library System. Retrieved on May 9, 2010.
- "Brownsville Public Library System". Brownsbille Public Library System. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- "Cameron County Law Library". Cameron County. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- "County Law Library". Texas State Law Library. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- "Arnulfo L. Oliveira Memorial Library". Archive.org. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- "University Libraries". UTB. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- "American Eagle Airlines Launches Nonstop Jet Service Between Brownsville, Texas, and Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport" (Press release). American Eagle Airlines. 2009-06-11. Retrieved 2009-07-07.
- "The Brownsville Heritage Complex". Brownsvillehistory.org. Retrieved 2013-09-21.
- The ESPN Baseball Encyclopedia. Sterling Publishing. 2007. p. 1789. ISBN 1-4027-4771-3.
- "The Camille Lightner Playhouse". The Camille Lightner Playhouse. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- "The Arts Center". The University of Texas at Brownsville. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- "Charro Days Fiesta". Charros Days. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- "Sombrero Festival". Sombrero Festival. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- "Valley International Country Club". VICC. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- "Rancho Viejo Resort and Country Club". rvrcc. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
- "UTB Radio". The University of Texas at Brownsville. Retrieved 5 June 2012.
- "Thinking Out Loud". Philosophy Club at UTB. Retrieved 5 June 2012.
- "Sabal Palm Audubon Sanctuary". Audobun Texas. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- McMillan, Maura. "A Tribe of One," Firsts: the Book Collector's Magazine, May 2001
- "The 10 Best College Presidents". Time. 11 November 2009.
- "Kris Kristofferson Hall of Fame Induction". Country Music Hall of Fame and Museum. Retrieved 21 June 2012.
- "JIM THAXTON". profootballarchives.com. Retrieved November 17, 2014.
- "Américo Paredes: Biography". Lib.utexas.edu. 1915-09-03. Retrieved 2013-09-21.
- "6 Zetas arrested in death of agent". San Antonio News. February 24, 2011.
- "Jaime Zapata, U.S. Immigration And Customs Enforcement Agent, Killed In Mexico". TheHuffingtonPost. Feb 16, 2011.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Brownsville, Texas.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Brownsville.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Brownsville (Texas).|
- Official website
- Brownsville Convention and Visitors Bureau
- Brownsville Chamber of Commerce
- Brownsville Public Library System
- Brownsville, Texas in The Handbook of Texas Online
- National Weather Service - Brownsville