|Born||William Bruce Jenner
October 28, 1949
Mount Kisco, New York, United States
|Residence||Malibu, California, United States|
|Alma mater||Graceland University|
|Net worth||US$100 million (2014 estimate)|
|College team||Graceland Yellowjackets|
Caitlyn Jenner (born October 28, 1949), formerly known as Bruce Jenner, is an American television personality and retired Olympic gold medal-winning decathlete. Jenner was a college football player for the Graceland Yellowjackets before incurring a knee injury requiring surgery. Coach L. D. Weldon, who had coached Olympic decathlete Jack Parker, convinced Jenner to try the decathlon. After intense training, Jenner won the 1976 Olympics decathlon title at the Montreal Summer Olympics (after a Soviet athlete had won the title in 1972 during the Cold War), gaining fame as "an all-American hero". Jenner set a third successive world record while winning the Olympics. The winner of the Olympic decathlon is traditionally given the unofficial title of "world's greatest athlete." With that stature, Jenner subsequently established a career in television, film, writing, auto racing, business and as a Playgirl cover model.
Jenner has six children from marriages to ex-wives Chrystie Crownover, Linda Thompson, and Kris Jenner. Since 2007, Jenner has appeared on the reality television series Keeping Up with the Kardashians with Kris, their daughters Kendall and Kylie Jenner, and step-children Kourtney, Kimberley, Khloé, and Rob Kardashian. Previously identifying publicly as male, Jenner revealed her identity as a trans woman in April 2015, publicly announcing her name change from Bruce to Caitlyn in a July 2015 Vanity Fair cover story. Her name and gender change became official on September 25, 2015. She has been called the most famous openly transgender woman in the world. From 2015 to 2016, Jenner starred in the reality television series I Am Cait, which focused on her gender transition.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Olympic career
- 3 Post-Olympic career
- 4 Gender transition
- 5 Personal life
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Caitlyn Marie Jenner was born William Bruce Jenner on October 28, 1949, in Mount Kisco, New York, to Esther Ruth (née McGuire) and William Hugh Jenner. Her father was an arborist. She has two sisters, Lisa and Pam. Her younger brother, Burt, was killed in a car accident in Canton, Connecticut, in 1976, shortly after Jenner's success at the Olympic Games.
As a young child, Jenner was diagnosed with dyslexia. She attended Sleepy Hollow High School in Sleepy Hollow, New York for her freshman and sophomore years and Newtown High School in Newtown, Connecticut for her junior and senior years, graduating in 1968. Jenner earned a football scholarship and attended Graceland College (now Graceland University) in Lamoni, Iowa, but was forced to stop playing football because of a knee injury. Recognizing Jenner's potential, a switch to the decathlon was encouraged by Graceland track coach L. D. Weldon. Jenner debuted in the decathlon at the Drake Relays in Des Moines, Iowa in 1970, placing fifth. Jenner graduated from Graceland College in 1973 with a degree in physical education.
All Olympic events and medals are for men's events and prior to her public gender transition.
At the 1972 men's decathlon U.S. Olympic trials in Eugene, Oregon, Jenner was in fifth place behind Steve Gough and Andrew Pettes. Needing to make up a 19-second gap on Gough in the men's 1500 metres, Jenner ran a fast, last lap, finishing 22 seconds ahead of the other runners to make the Olympic team, prompting the Eugene Register-Guard to ask: "Who's Jenner?" A tenth-place finish in the decathlon event at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich followed. Watching Soviet Mykola Avilov win inspired Jenner to start an intense training regimen. "For the first time, I knew what I wanted out of life and that was it, and this guy has it. I literally started training that night at midnight, running through the streets of Munich, Germany, training for the Games. I trained that day on through the 1976 Games, 6–8 hours a day, every day, 365 days a year."
After graduating from Graceland, Jenner married girlfriend Chrystie Crownover and moved to San Jose, California. Chrystie provided most of the family income working as a flight attendant for United Airlines. Jenner sold insurance at night (earning US$9,000 a year), while training during the day. In the era before professionalism was allowed in Olympic sports, this kind of training was unheard of. During this period, Jenner trained at the San Jose City College (SJCC) and San Jose State University (SJSU) tracks. Centered around Bert Bonanno, the coach at SJCC, San Jose was, at the time, a hotbed for training and was called the "Track Capital of the World". Many other aspiring Olympic athletes such as Millard Hampton, Andre Phillips, John Powell, Mac Wilkins, and Al Feuerbach also trained there. Jenner's most successful events were the skill events of the second day: hurdles, discus, pole vault, javelin and 1500 meters.
Jenner was the American champion in the men's decathlon event in 1974, and was featured on the cover of Track & Field News magazine's August 1974 issue. While on tour in 1975, Jenner won the French national championship, and a gold medal at the 1975 Pan American Games, earning the tournament record with 8,045 points. This was followed by new world records of 8,524 points at the U.S.A./U.S.S.R./Poland triangular meet in Eugene, Oregon on August 9–10, 1975, breaking Avilov's record, and 8,538 points at the 1976 Olympic trials, also in Eugene. Between 1973 and 1976, of the 13 decathlons Jenner contested, her only loss was at the 1975 AAU National Championships when she "no heighted" in the pole vault.
At the 1976 Olympic Games in Montreal, Jenner achieved five personal bests on the first day of the men's decathlon – a "home run" – despite finishing in second place behind Guido Kratschmer of West Germany. Jenner was confident: "The second day has all my good events. If everything works out all right, we should be ahead after it's all over." On the second day, Jenner had a strong showing in the hurdles and discus, and personal bests in the pole vault and javelin. By that point, victory was virtually assured, but it remained to be seen by how much Jenner would improve the record. In the final event, the 1500 meters, seen live on national television, Jenner looked content to finish the long competition. Then Jenner sprinted the last lap, making up a 50-meter deficit, and nearly catching the event favorite Soviet Leonid Litvinenko who was already well out of contention for the overall title, but whose personal best had been eight seconds better than Jenner's before the race. Jenner set a new personal best time, taking the gold medal with a world-record score of 8,616 points.
Olympic world record performance:
|100m (wind)||Long jump (wind)||Shot put||High jump||400m||110H (wind)||Discus||Pole vault||Javelin||1500m|
|10.94 +0.0 PB
|7.22 +0.0 PB
After the event, Jenner took an American flag from a spectator and carried it during the victory lap, starting a tradition that is now common among winning athletes. Abandoning vaulting poles in the stadium, with no intention of ever competing again, Jenner stated that: "In 1972, I made the decision that I would go four years and totally dedicate myself to what I was doing, and then I would move on after it was over with. I went into that competition knowing that would be the last time I would ever do this." Jenner explained, "It hurts every day when you practice hard. Plus, when this decathlon is over, I got the rest of my life to recuperate. Who cares how bad it hurts?"
As a result of winning the Olympic decathlon, Jenner became a national hero receiving the James E. Sullivan Award as the top amateur athlete in the United States, and being named the Associated Press Male Athlete of the Year in 1976.
Jenner's 1976 world record was broken by four points by Daley Thompson in 1980. In 1985, Jenner's Olympic decathlon score was reevaluated against the IAAF's updated decathlon scoring table and was reported as 8,634 for comparative purposes. This converted mark stood as the American record until 1991, when it was surpassed by eventual gold medalist, and world record holder, Dan O'Brien of Dan & Dave fame. As of 2011[update], Jenner was ranked twenty-fifth on the world all-time list and ninth on the American all-time list. Including the 2012 emergence of a new world record holder Ashton Eaton, Jenner's mark has moved to No. 27 worldwide and No. 10 U.S.
Jenner was inducted into the United States National Track and Field Hall of Fame in 1980, the Olympic Hall of Fame in 1986, the Bay Area Sports Hall of Fame and the Connecticut Sports Hall of Fame in 1994, and the San Jose Sports Hall of Fame in 2010. For almost 20 years, San Jose City College hosted an annual Bruce Jenner Invitational competition.
Capitalizing on Olympic fame
In the 1970s, Olympic athletes were considered amateur and were not allowed to seek or accept payment for their positions as sports celebrities. In 1972, during the Cold War, three major Olympic titles that had a long history of American success – basketball, the 100 meter dash, and decathlon – were won by Soviet athletes. Winning back the decathlon title made Jenner an American hero. "After the Games were over," Jenner said, "I happened to be the right guy, at that right place, at that right time." Tony Kornheiser of The New York Times wrote: "Jenner is twirling the nation like a baton. He and wife, Chrystie, are so high up on the pedestal of American heroism, it would take a crane to get them down."
After the expected Olympic success, Jenner planned to cash in on whatever celebrity status could follow a gold medal in the same mold as Johnny Weissmuller and Sonja Henie, who had become major movie stars following their gold medals. This would require forgoing any future Olympic competition. At the time, Jenner's agent George Wallach felt there was a four-year window – until the next Olympics – upon which to capitalize. Wallach reported that Jenner was being considered for the role of Superman, which ultimately went to Christopher Reeve. "I really don't know how many offers we have," Wallach claimed. "There are still unopened telegrams back at the hotel and you just can't believe the offers that poured in during the first two days."
Jenner appeared on the cover of the August 9, 1976 issue of Sports Illustrated, the February 1979 issue of Gentleman's Quarterly, and on the cover of Playgirl magazine. Jenner became a spokesperson for Tropicana, Minolta, and Buster Brown shoes.
In 1977, Jenner became a spokesperson for Wheaties brand breakfast cereal and appeared on the iconic front of the cereal box. After taking over from Olympic champion Bob Richards, Jenner was second in a succession of athletes featured as spokespersons for the brand. Mary Lou Retton succeeded Jenner in 1984.
On November 22, 1977, Jenner went to San Francisco to refute charges filed by San Francisco district attorney, Joseph Freitas, that General Mills, the maker of Wheaties, had engaged in false advertising in its campaign featuring Jenner. Jenner liked Wheaties and ate the breakfast cereal two or three times a week, which supported the advertising campaign's claims. Two days later, Freitas withdrew the suit, saying that it was "a case of overzealousness" on the part of his staff.
When Jenner came out as a trans woman in 2015, General Mills stated that: "Bruce Jenner continues to be a respected member of Team Wheaties." After a negative response to this initial statement, Mike Siemienas, General Mills's brand media relations manager, clarified it by saying: "Bruce Jenner has been a respected member of Team Wheaties, and Caitlyn Jenner will continue to be."
Television and film career
Jenner starred in the disco-era Village People comedy Can't Stop the Music (1980). The movie was a flop. Jenner's performance was nominated for the 1980 Golden Raspberry Award for Worst Actor; the film won the Golden Raspberry Award for Worst Picture. It was Jenner's only theatrical release until 2011. Jenner had some success with a television career, starring in the made-for-TV movies The Golden Moment: An Olympic Love Story (1980) and Grambling's White Tiger (1981). During the 1981–1982 season, Jenner became a semi-regular cast member in the police series CHiPs, guest-starring as Officer Steve McLeish for six episodes, substituting for star Erik Estrada, who was locked in a contract dispute with NBC and MGM. Jenner also appeared in an episode of the sitcom Silver Spoons called "Trouble with Words", wherein her personal issues with dyslexia were revealed in a storyline about a recurring teenage character with the same problem. Jenner appeared in the series Learn to Read and in the video games Olympic Decathlon (1981) and Bruce Jenner's World Class Decathlon (1996). The iconic "hero shot", the finish of the final event of the 1976 Olympic decathlon, and the Wheaties cover, were parodied by John Belushi on Saturday Night Live, endorsing "Little Chocolate Donuts". In 1989, Jenner played herself in the comedy short Dirty Tennis written by James Van Patten.
Jenner has appeared in a variety of game shows and reality television programs, including starring with Grits Gresham in an episode of ABC's The American Sportsman. The program features Gresham hunting, fishing, or shooting in exotic areas with celebrities. In the early 1990s, Jenner was the host of an infomercial for a stair-climbing exercise machine called the Stair Climber Plus.
In January 2002, Jenner participated in an episode of the American series The Weakest Link, featuring Olympic athletes. In February and March 2003, Jenner was part of the cast of the American series I'm a Celebrity...Get Me Out of Here!. She made a cameo appearance in a season-three episode of The Apprentice, which aired in May 2005. She also partnered with Tai Babilonia for Skating with Celebrities in a series that aired January – March 2006 (they were eliminated during the fifth of seven episodes), served as a guest judge on Pet Star on Animal Planet, as well as (with the Kardashian family) on Celebrity Family Feud. In November 2010, a photograph of Jenner was shown in a janitor's resume in an episode of It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia.
Other television and talk show appearances by Jenner include: Nickelodeon's made-for-TV film Gym Teacher: The Movie as well as episodes of Murder, She Wrote, Family Guy, the Lingo Olympic Winners episode, and talk shows such as Hannity and season 1, episode 21 of The Bonnie Hunt Show in 2008.
Since late 2007, Jenner has starred in the E! reality series Keeping Up with the Kardashians along with wife Kris Jenner, stepchildren Kourtney, Kimberley, Khloé, and Rob Kardashian (from Kris's marriage to attorney Robert Kardashian), and daughters Kylie and Kendall.
In 2011, Jenner appeared in the Adam Sandler comedy Jack and Jill in a scene with Al Pacino as an actor in a play. Like Can't Stop the Music, the film won the Golden Raspberry Award for Worst Picture and swept every Razzie category.
Jenner was a successful race car driver in the IMSA Camel GT series (International Motor Sports Association) in the 1980s. Jenner's first victory came in the 1986 12 hours of Sebring in the IMSA GTO class driving the 7-Eleven Roush Racing Ford Mustang with co-driver Scott Pruett. The pair won their class and finished 4th overall in the 12-hour endurance race. 1986 was also the most successful year of Jenner's career, finishing second in the championship to Pruett. Jenner commented, "I was a lot more badass runner than I was a driver."
Jenner had licensed her previous name for Bruce Jenner's Westwood Centers for Nautilus & Aerobics in the early 1980s to David A. Cirotto, president of other local Nautilus & Aerobics Centers. She had no ownership in the licensed name centers, which were solely owned by Cirotto. Jenner's company, Bruce Jenner Aviation, sells aircraft supplies to executives and corporations. Jenner was the business development vice president for a staffing industry software application known as JennerNet, which was based on Lotus Domino technology.
In March 2016, Jenner announced she had been chosen as the face of H&M Sport. Later that year, H&M created a six-minute film featuring Jenner, called Caitlyn Jenner's Greatest Victories: A Timeline.
Coming out as a transgender woman
In a 20/20 interview with Diane Sawyer in April 2015, Jenner came out as a trans woman, saying that she had dealt with gender dysphoria since her youth and that: "for all intents and purposes, I'm a woman." Jenner cross dressed for many years and took hormone replacement therapy but stopped after her romance with Kris Kardashian in the early 1990s became more serious. Jenner recounts having permission to explore her gender identity on her own travels but not when they were coupled, and that not knowing the best way to talk about the many issues contributed to the deterioration of the 23-year-long marriage, which ended formally in 2015.
While she has undergone some cosmetic surgery, she has neither undergone sex reassignment surgery nor ruled it out; she stated that, for her, life as a woman is primarily a matter of mental state and lifestyle. She said she has never been sexually attracted to men, but has instead always been sexually attracted to women, and that, keeping in mind the difficulty people have understanding the difference between sexual orientation and gender identity, she will identify as asexual for now.
In June 2015, Jenner debuted her new name and image, and began publicly using feminine pronoun self-descriptors. Jenner held a renaming ceremony in July 2015, adopting the name Caitlyn Marie Jenner. Prior to her 20/20 interview, a two-part special titled Keeping Up with the Kardashians: About Bruce was filmed with the family in which she answered questions, and prepared her children for the personal and public aspects of the transition. In the special, which aired in May 2015, the point was emphasized that there is no one right way to transition. Jenner made it a priority to ensure that all her children were independent first before focusing on her transition. In September 2015, her name was legally changed to Caitlyn Marie Jenner and gender to female.
Jenner's announcement that she is transgender came at an unprecedented time for trans visibility, including legislative initiatives. The 20/20 interview had 20.7 million viewers, making it television's "highest-ever rated newsmagazine telecast among adults 18–49 and adults 25–54". The Daily Beast wrote that Jenner's honesty, vulnerability, and fame may have caused "cheap jokes" about trans people to "seem mean to a mainstream audience on an unprecedented scale". Noting the shift in how comedians treated Jenner's transition, The Daily Beast saw the change as the same evolution that took place in acceptance of LGBT people as a whole when "comedians finally cross the critical threshold from mockery to creativity in their joke-telling".
Jenner's emerging gender identity was revealed in a Vanity Fair interview written by Buzz Bissinger. Annie Leibovitz photographed the cover, the magazine's first to feature an openly transgender woman, which was captioned "Call me Caitlyn". Using her Twitter handle, @Caitlyn_Jenner, she tweeted: "I'm so happy after such a long struggle to be living my true self. Welcome to the world Caitlyn. Can't wait for you to get to know her/me." Time magazine declared this tweet the tenth most re-tweeted tweet of 2015, based on re-tweets of tweets by verified users from January 1 to November 10 of that year. Jenner amassed over one million Twitter followers in four hours and three minutes, setting a new Guinness World Record and surpassing United States President Barack Obama, who, a month before, accomplished the same feat in four hours and fifty-two minutes. Four days later Jenner was up to 2.37 million followers, with another 1.5 million followers on Instagram.
However, Jenner also received criticism. Beginning in September 2015, she was depicted on the satirical American animated program South Park, which parodied her supporters' political correctness, as well as her driving record. The Jenner-related episodes were "Stunning and Brave", "Where My Country Gone?", "Sponsored Content", "Truth and Advertising" and "PC Principal Final Justice" from the show's 19th season.
In April 2016 during the Republican presidential primaries, Jenner became an exemplar for candidate Donald Trump's opposition to North Carolina's Public Facilities Privacy & Security Act, with Trump saying that Jenner could use any restroom of her choosing at his Trump Tower property. Jenner soon posted a video showing that she had taken Trump up on his offer. She thanked Trump and assured Trump's adversary Ted Cruz that "nobody got molested".
In August 2015, Jenner won the Social Media Queen award at the Teen Choice Awards. In October 2015, Glamour magazine named her one of its 25 Glamour Women of the Year, calling her a "Trans Champion." In November 2015, Jenner was listed as one of Entertainment Weekly's 2015 Entertainers of the Year. In December 2015, she was named Barbara Walters' Most Fascinating Person of 2015. Also in that month, she was listed on Time magazine's eight-person shortlist for the 2015 Person of the Year, and Bing released its list of the year's "Most Searched Celebrities", which Jenner was at the top of, and declared Jenner's Vanity Fair cover the second in a list of "top celeb moments of 2015." She was the second most searched for person on Google in 2015. In April 2016, she was listed in the Time 100. In June 2016, Jenner became the first openly transgender person to be featured on the cover of Sports Illustrated. The cover and associated story marked the 40th anniversary of her winning the 1976 Summer Olympics decathlon.
Feminist author Germaine Greer called Glamour magazine's decision to award Jenner with a "Woman of the Year" award misogynistic, questioning whether a transgender woman could be better than "someone who is just born a woman." Jenner also received criticism from individuals such as actress Rose McGowan, for stating – in a Buzzfeed interview – that the hardest part about being a woman "is figuring out what to wear". McGowan argued: "We are more than deciding what to wear. We are more than the stereotypes foisted upon us by people like you. You're a woman now? Well fucking learn that we have had a VERY different experience than your life of male privilege." McGowan later stated that she was not transphobic, and added: "Disliking something a trans person has said is no different than disliking something a man has said or that a woman has said. Being trans doesn't make one immune from criticism."
Chris Mandle of The Independent stated: "Jenner has gone on to inspire countless men and women, but her comments, which were made after she was celebrated at Glamour magazine's Women Of The Year in New York were branded 'offensive and insulting'." He added: "People began tweeting the other, harder things women have to deal with, such as institutionalized oppression, abuse and sexual assault". James Smith, husband of Moira Smith, the only female New York Police Department officer to die on September 11, 2001, returned Moira's "Woman of the Year" award, given posthumously. Referring to Jenner as a man, he stated that he found Glamour giving Jenner the same award insulting to Moira's memory, and referred to the matter as a publicity stunt. Smith later said that, having supported transgender youth and Glamour's decision to honor transgender actress Laverne Cox in 2014, he did not object because Jenner is transgender; he objected to Jenner's "hardest part about being a woman" commentary; this proved to him that Jenner "is not truly a woman. I believe this comment and others he has made trivializes the transgender experience as I have witnessed it."
Conversely, Adrienne Tam of The Daily Telegraph argued that Jenner deserved the Glamour award, stating: "What McGowan failed to take into consideration was the jesting manner in which Jenner spoke." Tam said:
[Jenner] also immediately followed up her "what women wear" dilemma with: It's more than that. I'm kind of at this point in my life where I'm trying to figure this womanhood thing out. It is more than hair, makeup, clothes, all that kind of stuff. There's an element here that I'm still kind of searching for. And I think that'll take a while. Because I think as far as gender, we're all on a journey. We're all learning and growing about ourselves. And I feel the same way.
Tam considered McGowan's criticism to be over the top, and stated of James Smith's criticism, "The salient point here is one about courage. We easily recognise physical courage such as saving orphans from burning buildings, or ordinary people putting their lives in the line of fire. It is far harder to recognise mental courage." She added: "Without a doubt, the police officer who died in the September 11 attacks was courageous. But so is Jenner. It's a different kind of courage, but it is courage nonetheless."
With her profile raised by her coming out as a trans woman in 2015, Jenner has been called the most famous openly transgender woman in the world. She is also one of the most recognized LGBT people in the world and arguably the most famous LGBT athlete. Jenner acknowledged in her 20/20 interview that part of her reason for being so visible was to bring attention to gender dysphoria, violence against trans women, and other transgender issues. She also sought to promote more informed discussion of LGBT issues at a time when the trans community has unprecedented visibility. She signed with Creative Artists Agency's speakers department and will collaborate with the CAA Foundation on a philanthropic strategy focusing on LGBT issues. She made a private appearance at the Los Angeles LGBT Center in June 2015, where she spoke with at-risk trans youth.
Jenner received the Arthur Ashe Courage Award during the 2015 ESPY Awards in July 2015. ESPN executive producer Maura Mandt said Jenner was given the award because "she has shown the courage to embrace a truth that had been hidden for years, and to embark on a journey that may not only give comfort to those facing similar circumstances, but can also help to educate people on the challenges that the transgender community faces." She is the third consecutive openly LGBT person to receive the award following footballer Michael Sam (2014) and anchorwoman Robin Roberts (2013).
In October, Jenner presented the Point Foundation's Horizon Award to television producers Rhys Ernst (of the show Transparent) and Zach Zyskowski (of the show Becoming Us). This was her second public speaking engagement after her gender transition.
In November, Jenner was listed as one of the nine runners-up for The Advocate's Person of the Year. That month she was also listed as one of the Out100 of 2015, with Out calling her the "Newsmaker of the Year." On International Human Rights Day, Jenner discussed transgender rights with Samantha Power, the U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations. In 2016, Jenner was on the cover of The Advocate's February/March issue.
MAC Cosmetics collaborated with Jenner on a lipstick, called Finally Free, which was made available for purchase April 8, 2016, with MAC stating, "100% of the selling price goes to the MAC AIDS Fund Transgender Initiative, to further its work in support of transgender communities." Also in April 2016, Jenner was listed as No. 8 on Out magazine's Power 50 list. In May 2016, her interview with Diane Sawyer in 2015 won Outstanding TV Journalism – Newsmagazine at the GLAAD Media Awards.
In June 2016, the Human Rights Campaign released a video in tribute to the victims of the 2016 Orlando gay nightclub shooting; in the video, Jenner and others told the stories of the people killed there.
I Am Cait
Jenner's gender transition is the subject of I Am Cait, initially an eight-part TV documentary series, which premiered on E! in July 2015 to an audience of 2.7 million viewers. Jenner is an executive producer of the show. The show focuses on Jenner's transition and how it affects her relationships with her family and friends. The show also explores how Jenner adjusts to what she sees as her job as a role model for the transgender community. In October 2015, the show was renewed for a second season, which premiered on March 6, 2016.
Jenner is a Christian, leans towards political conservatism, and is a Republican. "I have gotten more flak for being a conservative Republican", she said, "than I have for being trans". Although stopping short of an endorsement, Jenner said she liked Ted Cruz, a Republican candidate for President of the United States in the 2016 election, despite Cruz's negative views of trans people. (Cruz dropped out of the race on May 3, 2016.) On her reality show I Am Cait, Jenner said that although she does not support Donald Trump, she thinks he would be good for women's issues. She then stated she would never support Hillary Clinton.
Prior to her public gender transition, she had been married three times. She was married to Chrystie Scott (née Crownover) from 1972 to 1981. They have two children, son Burton and daughter Cassandra, known as Burt and Casey Jenner. Jenner and Scott's divorce was finalized the first week of January 1981.
On January 5, 1981, Jenner married actress Linda Thompson in Hawaii. They have two sons together, Brandon Jenner and Sam Brody Jenner (known as Brody). By February 1986, Jenner and Thompson had separated and subsequently divorced. Their sons later starred on the reality show The Princes of Malibu, and Brody appeared in the reality show The Hills.
On April 21, 1991, Jenner married Kris Kardashian (née Houghton) after five months of dating. They have two daughters, Kendall and Kylie Jenner. While married, Jenner was also the step-parent to Kris's children from her previous marriage – Kourtney, Kim, Khloé and Rob – who star in Keeping Up with the Kardashians. The couple announced their separation in October 2013, though they had actually separated in June. Kris filed for divorce in September 2014 citing irreconcilable differences. Their divorce terms were finalized in December 2014 and came into effect on March 23, 2015, because of a six-month state legal requirement.
Fatal car crash
In February 2015, Jenner was involved in a fatal multiple-vehicle collision on the Pacific Coast Highway in Malibu, California. Kim Howe, an animal rights activist and actress, was killed when Jenner's SUV ran into Howe's car. Accounts of the sequence of collisions have varied, as have the number of people injured. Prosecutors declined to file criminal charges, but three civil lawsuits were brought by Howe's stepchildren and drivers of other cars involved in the collision. Jessica Steindorff, a Hollywood agent who was hit by Howe's car, settled her case in December 2015. Howe's stepchildren settled their case in January 2016. Financial details were not disclosed in either case. The third lawsuit is ongoing.
- "Fox Business News: Keeping Up with the Kardashians and Their Net Worth – Just How Rich are the Kardashians?". July 21, 2015. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
- Michelle Tauber (February 21, 2014). "Bruce Jenner's Life Now: More Golf, Less Kardashians". People (magazine). Retrieved June 5, 2016.
- Katie Kindelan; Lauren Effron (April 27, 2015). "Bruce Jenner's First Wife Chrystie Scott on When Former Olympian Said He Wanted to 'Be a Woman'". ABC News. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Tony Giardina (August 7, 2012). "Olympic Track & Field: Decathlete Ashton Eaton Is Next American Star". Bleacher Report. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
Olympic decathlons first rose to prominence in America when Bruce Jenner competed in the 1976 games in Montreal. He became an American hero by setting the decathlon world record and taking gold back from the Soviets.
- Maury White. "Bruce Jenner". The Des Moines Register. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Mike Sielski. "Bruce Jenner: The world's greatest athlete". ESPN. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
- Ravi Somaiya (June 1, 2015). "Caitlyn Jenner, Formerly Bruce, Introduces Herself in Vanity Fair". The New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2016. (subscription required (. ))
- Alyssa Toomey; Baker Machado (September 25, 2015). "Caitlyn Jenner Legally Changes Her Name and Gender". E!. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
- Ed Pilkington (June 2, 2015). "Caitlyn Jenner: transgender community has mixed reactions to Vanity Fair reveal". The Guardian. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
Caitlyn Jenner's transition on the cover of Vanity Fair into the most famous trans woman in the world has earned her a massive global platform in under 24 hours.
- "Transgender reality, post-Jenner". MSNBC. June 2, 2015. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
As Caitlyn Jenner becomes the most famous transgender woman in history.
- Samantha Allen (June 2, 2015). "Caitlyn Jenner's Beauty Should Not Obscure the Reality of Trans Lives". The Daily Beast. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
With Jenner undoubtedly becoming the world's most well-known transgender woman overnight,
- Josie Ensor (April 25, 2015). "Bruce Jenner: I was born with the body of a man and the soul of a woman". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
- "William Bruce Jenner". Geni. November 18, 2015. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Ernest Elder Crownover (1986). Matt and Daisy Dell Kuykendall Crownover: Their Ancestry and Posterity. E.E. Crownover. p. 39. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
- Hugo Daniel (November 11, 2014). "Bruce Jenner's mother on why she is not a fan of her son's new effeminate look... as she lets rip at his 'controlling monster' ex Kris in no-holds-barred interview". Daily Mail. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
- Rich Scinto (February 19, 2015). "Bruce Jenner's Brother's Deadly Canton Crash Remembered". Patch. Retrieved June 7, 2015.
- Nancy Faber (April 11, 1977). "Fame Woes". People. 7 (14): 24–27. Retrieved July 13, 2014.
- Chet Cooper. "Gold Medalist Bruce Jenner interviewed by Chet Cooper". Ability magazine. Retrieved July 13, 2014. (subscription required (. ))
- Lisa Lucas; Ginger Adams Otis; Larry McShane (April 18, 2015). "Bruce Jenner's coaches, school pals recall athlete's early challenges, successes ahead of Diane Sawyer interview". New York Daily News. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
- Karen Croke (April 24, 2015). "Will Bruce Jenner return to Tarrytown?". The Journal News. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
- Stacy Davis (March 22, 2011). "Jenner's name taken off football field". The News-Times. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
- Don Holst; Marcia S. Popp (December 8, 2004). American Men of Olympic Track and Field: Interviews with Athletes and Coaches. McFarland & Company. pp. 53–62. ISBN 978-0-7864-1930-2. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
- Bruce Jenner (April 1, 1999). Finding the Champion Within: A Step-by-Step Plan for Reaching Your Full Potential. Simon & Schuster. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-684-87037-3. Retrieved July 13, 2014.
- Murry R. Nelson, ed. (May 23, 2013). American Sports: A History of Icons, Idols, and Ideals. ABC-CLIO. p. 611. ISBN 978-0-313-39753-0. Retrieved July 13, 2014.
- Mike Sielski (November 19, 2003). "Jenner true to word, wins Olympic gold". ESPN Classic. Retrieved March 1, 2015.
- Frank Zarnowski (1992). "History of the Decathlon a U.S. Olympic Trials" (PDF). The Decathlon Association. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
- Richard Hymans (2008). "The History of the United States Olympic trials – Track and Field" (PDF). USA Track and Field. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
- "Athletics at the 1972 München Summer Games: Men's Decathlon"". Sports Reference. Retrieved April 25, 2015.
- Arash Markazi (July 30, 2015). "Bruce Jenner became an Olympic icon exactly 39 years ago". ESPN. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Emily Yahr (February 4, 2015). "The forgotten history of Bruce Jenner: How the 1970s all-American hero ended up here". Washington Post. Retrieved October 6, 2015.
- Samantha Darcy (June 20, 2013). "OK! Investigates: You Will Not Believe How Much Bruce Jenner Is Worth!!". OK!. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
- Sean Dooley; Margaret Dawson; Lana Zak; Christina Ng; Lauren Effron; Meghan Keneally (April 24, 2015). "Bruce Jenner's Journey Through the Years". ABC News. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
- Jimson Lee (March 2, 2011). "Bud Winter Biography, San Jose State University 1940–1970, Part 1". Speed Endurance. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
- Associated Press (May 9, 1976), "Decathlon Hopeful Jenner Hoping To Make Olympics Without Coach", Lakeland Ledger, p. 32, retrieved June 5, 2016,
I use the San Jose State track most of the time, and sometimes work at San Jose City College.
- "This Day in History: Bruce Jenner wins decathlon". History. July 30, 2015. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
- DK Publishing (October 1, 2013). The Sports Book. DK Publishing. p. 672. ISBN 978-1-4654-2143-2. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
- "1974 Covers (18-issue year)". Track & Field News. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- "USA Outdoor Track & Field Hall of Fame". USA Track & Field. Retrieved April 2, 2014.
- "French Championships". gbrathletics.com. 2007. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- "Bruce Jenner Javelin Record". brucejennerinterviews.com. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- "Athletics at the 1976 Montréal Summer Games: Men's Decathlon". Sports Reference. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- "Bruce Jenner Bio, Stats, and Results". sports-reference.com. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Jim Caple (April 24, 2015). "Revisiting Bruce Jenner's historic Olympic moment". ESPN. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Murry R. Nelson (2013). American Sports: A History of Icons, Idols, and Ideas. p. 612. ISBN 0-313-39753-8.
- "Dan O'Brien", eSpeakers, Inc., American Fork, Utah, retrieved June 6, 2016
- "Decathlon All Time". International Association of Athletics Federations. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- "IAAF: Decathlon - men - senior - outdoor - iaaf.org". iaaf.org. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- "Arturs Irbe, Bruce Jenner headline San Jose Sports Hall of Fame Class of 2010". San Jose Mercury News. September 22, 2010. Retrieved January 11, 2015.
- Mal Florence (May 31, 1987). "Bruce Jenner Invitational Track and Field Meet: Myricks Takes Dim View of 29-Footer by Soviet Long Jumper". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Art McDermott (June 3, 2015). "My Connection to Caitlyn Jenner". The Huffington Post. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Jimson Lee. "Bud Winter Biography, San Jose State University 1940–1970, Part 1". Speed Endurance. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Shinan Govani (April 22, 2015). "Now it's Bruce's turn: Spotlight shifts to Jenner with TV interview". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Joe O'Day (February 6, 2015). "Olympic Golden Boy Jenner Hits Jackpot". New York Daily News. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- "Sports Illustrated August 9 1976 Bruce Jenner: Sports Illustrated: Amazon.com: Books". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- "PHOTO: Bruce Jenner's Sexy 1979 GQ Cover". kenneth in the (212). January 29, 2015. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Sam Frizell (April 27, 2015). "Bruce Jenner Wheaties Boxes Are Selling For Hundreds on eBay". Time. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
- "Unopened Bruce Jenner Wheaties Cereal Box – Decathalon". eBay. May 2, 2015. Retrieved June 8, 2016.
- "The Box: The Wheaties Story: From a humble beginning, a cultural icon was born". General Mills. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
- Laura Perkins (November 22, 2002). "Olympian Bruce Jenner in S.F. to defend 'Breakfast of Champions'". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Robert Kessler (June 2, 2015). "Wheaties Had a Strange Response to Caitlyn Jenner's Vanity Fair Cover". Yahoo! Celebrity. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Daily Mail Reporters (March 20, 2014). "Throwback Thursday! Bruce Jenner dances with the Village People in crop top and tiny hotpants in 1980 flop movie". Daily Mail. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- "The Golden Moment: An Olympic Love Story". Running Movies. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- "Grambling's White Tiger (1981)". Fandango and Flixster. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Frederic P. Miller (director); Agnes F. Vandome (director) (September 4, 2010). Learn to Read: Literacy, Wally Amos, WXYZ-TV, Bruce Jenner, Billy Green, Kentucky Educational Television, Corporation for Public Broadcasting. Alphascript Publishing / Amazon.fr. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- "Bruce Jenner's World Class Decathlon". CBS Interactive Inc. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- "Bruce Jenner's World Class Decathlon". CBS Interactive. Retrieved May 4, 2016.
- "Season 3: Episode 6". Saturday Night Live Transcripts. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
cut to John seated like Bruce Jenner at his breakfast nook
- "Dirty Tennis". WorldCat. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Biography.com Editors. "Bruce Jenner Biography". A&E Networks. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- "Super Step Plus Stair Climber". Reading Eagle. December 20, 1992. p. 12. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
- "Bruce Jenner: Olympic Gold and Beyond! I'm a Celebrity...Get Me Out of Here!". E! Online. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- "The Apprentice: Season 3". CBS Interactive Inc. January 20, 2005. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- "Jenner – "Skating with Celebrities"". CBS Interactive Inc. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Vern Gaye (April 24, 2015). "Bruce Jenner: From sports icon to reality TV, to life as woman, what a long, strange trip it's been". Newsday. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Karen Mizoguchi (April 2, 2015). "Throwback Thursday! Kardashian clan compete on Family Feud game show in 2008... before divorce and money rows started to tear them apart". Daily Mail. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- "It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia Season 6". Quotes.net. STANDS4 LLC. June 6, 2016. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- "Gym Teacher: The Movie". CBS Interactive Inc. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Rick Chandler (June 1, 2015). "Awesome Timing: The Bruce Jenner 'Murder She Wrote' Episode Was On Last Night". Sportsgrid. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Jason Chester (June 4, 2015). "'He is a beautiful, elegant Dutch woman': Family Guy clip from 2009 goes viral after referencing Caitlyn Jenner's gender transition". Daily Mail. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- "Bruce Jenner: Dyslexic Olympian". The Power of Dyslexia. January 28, 2013. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Sean Hannity (March 31, 2010). "Tinseltown Conservatives Bruce Jenner and Jason Sehorn Talk Politics". Fox News Channel. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- "Season 1, Episode 21 The Bonnie Hunt Show". CBS Interactive Inc. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- "Kris Jenner Talks Bruce Jenner Split: 'We Are Better People And Happier' Apart". The Huffington Post. October 31, 2013. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Jen Chaney (November 11, 2011). "'Jack and Jill': Eight things you will actually see (for real) in Adam Sandler's latest". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- "Adam Sandler Sets Another New RAZZIE® Record as His/Her JACK & JILL Is the First Film Ever to Sweep ALL TEN CATEGORIES!". The Golden Raspberry Award Foundation and John Wilson. Archived from the original on April 6, 2016. Retrieved May 4, 2016.
- Murry R. Nelson (May 23, 2013). American Sports: A History of Icons, Idols, and Ideas [4 Volumes]: A History of Icons, Idols, and Ideas. ABC-CLIO. pp. 612–. ISBN 978-0-313-39753-0. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
- Esther Lee (February 18, 2015). "Bruce Jenner's Gender Transition Shocks Longtime Racing Friend Scott Pruett: 'He Was a Stud'". Us Weekly. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- "The Eighties: The Reign Of The IMSA GTP Prototypes". International Motor Sports Association. Archived from the original on July 1, 2015. Retrieved April 25, 2015.
- Nick Bromberg (August 15, 2013). "Bruce Jenner says racing cars, not running, has brought him the closest to passing out". Yahoo! Sports. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- "Local News in Brief: County Settles Health Club Suit". Los Angeles Times. January 27, 1989. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
- Jeannine Yeomans (November 24, 2000). "San Rafael Firm Goes for Gold With Jenner". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
- Ana Colon (March 11, 2016). "Caitlyn Jenner HM Sport Campaign First Look". Refinery29.com. Retrieved July 20, 2016.
- Alexandra Ilyashov. "Caitlyn Jenner HM Video - Olympic Athletes Collection". Refinery29.com. Retrieved July 20, 2016.
- Jonathan Capehart (June 1, 2015). "Caitlyn Jenner comes out in Vanity Fair". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
- Sean Dooley; Margaret Dawson; Lana Zak; Christina Ng; Lauren Effron; Meghan Keneally (April 24, 2015). "Bruce Jenner: 'I'm a Woman'". 20/20/ABC News. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
- Nick Allen (April 24, 2015). "Bruce Jenner 'started transgender journey in 1980s'". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
- Esther Lee (June 1, 2015). "Caitlyn Jenner Insists Kris Jenner Knew About Women's Clothing, Breast Growth, Hormone Use". Us Weekly. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
- Diane Sawyer (April 24, 2015). "Bruce Jenner – The Interview". ABC News. Archived from the original on April 25, 2015. Retrieved June 24, 2015.
- Emily Yahr (April 24, 2015). "Bruce Jenner's in-depth interview: 'For all intents and purposes, I am a woman'". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- "Bruce Jenner Comes Out as Transgender Woman: How Family, Celebrities Reacted". ABC News. April 24, 2015. Retrieved April 25, 2015.
- Buzz Bissinger (July 2015). "Introducing Caitlyn Jenner". Vanity Fair. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Christine D'Zurilla (September 14, 2015). "'I Am Cait' recap: As Caitlyn Jenner moves forward with joy, others get left in the dust". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Carol Kuruvilla (September 14, 2015). "Caitlyn Jenner's Renaming Ceremony Shows Bold Expression Of Faith". The Huffington Post. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
- Stephanie Marcus (May 18, 2015). "'Keeping Up With The Kardashians: About Bruce' Was Just As Emotional As Expected". The Huffington Post. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
- Anthony McCartney (September 25, 2015). "Judge grants Jenner's request to legally change name, gender". Associated Press. Retrieved September 25, 2015.
- Brandon Griggs (June 1, 2015). "America's transgender moment". CNN. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Edward Helmore (April 25, 2015). "Bruce Jenner throws focus on America's 'new civil rights frontier'". The Guardian. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Marc Berman (April 29, 2015). "Bruce Jenner '20/20' Interview Rises to Over 20-Million Viewers". TV Media Insights. Archived from the original on May 18, 2015. Retrieved May 7, 2015.
- Samantha Allen (April 28, 2015). "How To Tell A Bruce Jenner Joke: Late Night's Subtle Transition". The Daily Beast. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Elizabeth Leonard (May 29, 2015). "Bruce Jenner to Pose for Cover of Vanity Fair, Sources Say". People. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
- Samantha Master; Cherno Biko (June 2, 2015). "8 Transgender Women of Color Who Are Using Their Visibility to Empower Transgender People of Color". The Root. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
- Olivia B. Waxman (December 7, 2015). "Most Retweeted Tweets of 2015". Time. Retrieved December 23, 2015.
- Gregory E. Miller; Michael Schneider (December 31, 2015). "2015 by the Numbers". TV Guide. p. 10.
- Hannah Jane Parkinson (June 2, 2015). "Caitlyn Jenner smashes Twitter world record, reaching a million followers". The Guardian. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Leanne Italie (June 5, 2015). "Graydon Carter: Vanity Fair 'Worked' the 'Net on Caitlyn". Associated Press. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Alice Vincent (September 17, 2015). "South Park takes on political correctness in Caitlyn Jenner episode". The Telegraph. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Rachel McGrath (September 24, 2015). "South Park skewers Caitlyn Jenner in take-no-prisoners episode that has cartoon reality star running down pedestrians". Daily Mail. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Jason Lynch (November 19, 2015). "South Park Hysterically Satirized Ad Blocking and Sponsored Content 'You can try to block ads, but they get smarter'". AdWeek. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Trip Gabriel (April 29, 2016). "Ted Cruz, Attacking Donald Trump, Uses Transgender Bathroom Access as Cudgel". The New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Jayme Deerwester (April 28, 2016). "Caitlyn Jenner on her Trump Tower restroom visit". USA Today. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- "Kanye West Nuzzles Naked Taylor Swift, Donald Trump & Bill Cosby in 'Famous' Video". Billboard. June 25, 2016. Retrieved June 25, 2016.
- "Winners of Teen Choice 2015 Announced". August 16, 2015. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Thomas Page McBee (October 29, 1015). "Caitlyn Jenner, Olympic Hero and Trans Champion: "Maybe This Is Why God Put Me on Earth"". Glamour. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Melissa Maerz (November 24, 2015). "EW's 2015 Entertainers of the Year: Caitlyn Jenner". Entertainment Weekly. EW Staff. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Meredith B. Kile (December 18, 2015). "Caitlyn Jenner Named Barbara Walters' Most Fascinating Person of 2015". ETOnline. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Sarah Begley (December 7, 2015). "TIME Person of the Year 2015: Shortlist Announced". Time. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- "Bing reveals top searches of 2015". Microsoft News Center. Microsoft. December 2, 2015. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Johnny Lieu (December 3, 2015). "Bing reveals its most searched terms of 2015". Mashable. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Michael Sebastian (December 16, 2015). "Here Are the 10 Most Popular People of the Year According to Google". Cosmopolitan. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Wayne Maines (April 21, 2016). "Caitlyn Jenner by Wayne Maines: TIME 100". Time. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- French, Megan (June 28, 2016). "Caitlyn Jenner poses for Sports Illustrated". Us Weekly. Sports. Retrieved June 28, 2016.
- Mic (February 18, 2016). "Caitlyn Jenner's 'Sports Illustrated' Cover Just Hit Newsstands | Mic". M.mic.com. Retrieved June 30, 2016.
- Damien Gayle (October 24, 2015). "Caitlyn Jenner 'wanted limelight of female Kardashians' – Germaine Greer". The Guardian. Retrieved June 6, 2015.
- Kristin Harris; Sydney Scott; Whitney Jefferson (November 5, 2015). "Caitlyn Jenner On The Moment She Felt Most Proud To Be A Woman". BuzzFeed. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Katia Hetter (November 11, 2015). "Rose McGowan: Caitlyn Jenner doesn't understand 'being a woman'". CNN. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Ennis, Dawn (November 18, 2015). "Rose McGowan to Caitlyn Jenner: 'We Are More than Deciding What to Wear'". The Advocate. Retrieved July 18, 2016.
- Chris Mandle (November 11, 2015). "Caitlyn Jenner criticised after claiming the hardest part of being a woman is 'figuring out what to wear': Jenner was called out for her reductive comments after attending Glamour's 25th annual Women of the Year Awards". The Independent. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Tom McKay (November 15, 2015). "9/11 Hero's Husband Sends Back Wife's 'Glamour' Award in Anger Over Caitlyn Jenner". Mic. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Yanan Wang (November 16, 2015). "Husband of 9/11 hero returns award given to late wife after Caitlyn Jenner earns same honor". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Katia Hetter (November 17, 2015). "Widower of 9/11 cop returns Glamour award over Caitlyn Jenner". CNN. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Adrienne Tam (November 19, 2015). "Did Caitlyn Jenner deserve her Glamour award? Absolutely". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Dan Elsom (June 2, 2015). "Five transgender athletes that dominated the sporting world". News.com.au. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Matt Ford (April 25, 2015). "The Courage of Bruce Jenner In a landmark interview with Diane Sawyer, the Olympic champion and reality-television star came out as transgender.". The Atlantic. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Rebecca Sun (June 3, 2015). "Caitlyn Jenner Signs With CAA Speakers". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Mitch Kellaway (June 11, 2015). "Caitlyn Jenner Gives Inspirational Speech to Trans Youth in First Public Appearance". The Advocate. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Jay Jay Nesheim (June 1, 2015). "Caitlyn Jenner to be Honored with the Arthur Ashe Courage Award at The 2015 ESPYS on ABC July 15". ESPN Media Zone. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Michelle Garcia (June 2, 2015). "This Summer, Caitlyn Jenner Will Have a Watershed Moment for Trans Athletes". Mic.com. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Lindsay Kimble (October 4, 2015). "Lady in Red: Caitlyn Jenner Shows Off Her Cleavage in a Suit – Style News – StyleWatch – People.com". People. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Matthew Clark (October 5, 2015). "Caitlyn Jenner presents awards at LGBT gala | Spectrum". Sun-Times Media Group. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Advocate.com Editors (November 5, 2015). "Person of the Year: The Finalists". The Advocate. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Matthew Breen (November 22, 2015). "Out100: Caitlyn Jenner". Out. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Tierney McAfee (December 10, 2015). "Caitlyn Jenner Talks Transgender Rights with US Ambassador to UN Samantha Power: People.com". People. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Matthew Breen (January 5, 2016). "The Education of Ms. Jenner". The Advocate. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Mic (April 7, 2016). "Caitlyn Jenner's MAC Lipstick Gets Stunning Instagram Reveal – And a Slew of Ugly Comments". Yahoo! Beauty. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Amy Lewis. "Caitlyn Jenner – Caitlyn Jenner's Finally Free Mac Lipstick is here – Marie Claire". Marie Claire. Retrieved April 23, 2016.
- "The 10th Annual Power List". Out. April 14, 2016. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Out.com editors (April 14, 2016). "Power 50: Caitlyn Jenner". Out. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Christopher Rosen (May 15, 2016). "Caitlyn Jenner at GLAAD Media Awards: Read her speech". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- "49 Celebrities Honor 49 Victims of Orlando Tragedy | Human Rights Campaign". Hrc.org. Retrieved June 30, 2016.
- Rothaus, Steve (June 12, 2016). "Pulse Orlando shooting scene a popular LGBT club where employees, patrons 'like family'". The Miami Herald. Retrieved June 15, 2016.
- Mary Elizabeth Williams. "Ben Carson thinks trans people are "absurd" — and he's not alone in the GOP". Salon.com. Retrieved July 21, 2016.
- "Caitlyn Jenner Speaks at "Big Tent Brunch"; Urges Republicans to Embrace LGBT Community - Christine Rousselle". Townhall.com. April 25, 2015. Retrieved July 21, 2016.
- Bruna Nessif (June 3, 2015). "Caitlyn Jenner Starring in New E! Docu-Series I Am Cait—Watch the First Promo!". eonline.com. E!. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Luchina Fisher (June 3, 2015). "'I Am Cait' Promo for Caitlyn Jenner Docu-Series Hits the Internet". ABC News. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Dominic Preston (July 29, 2015). "'I Am Cait' Draws 2.7 Million Viewers and Heaps of Online Praise". Frontiers Media. Retrieved September 22, 2015.
- Joe Otterson (January 14, 2016). "Caitlyn Jenner's 'I Am Cait' Season 2 Premiere Date Set (Video)". TheWrap. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Luchina Fisher (June 3, 2015). "'I Am Cait' Promo for Caitlyn Jenner Docu-Series Hits the Internet". ABC News. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Eun Kyung Kim (June 3, 2015). "Caitlyn Jenner in new E! documentary declares: 'I'm the new normal'". Today. NBCUniversal. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Petski, Denise (January 14, 2016). "'I Am Cait' Gets Season 2 Premiere Date On E!". Deadline.com. Retrieved February 16, 2016.
- Daniel Reynolds (April 3, 2016). "Caitlyn Jenner, Jazz Jennings Win GLAAD Awards". advocate.com. The Advocate. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- The Hollywood Reporter staff (April 3, 2016). "2016 GLAAD Media Awards: Demi Lovato & Caitlyn Jenner Among Recipients – Billboard". Billboard. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Jason Silverstein (April 25, 2015). "Bruce Jenner admits to being Republican during '20/20' interview, shocking some on social media". New York Daily News. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
- Hunter Schwarz (April 24, 2015). "Bruce Jenner said he's Republican. Only 21 percent of LGBT Americans are.". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
- Erin Jensen (February 19, 2016). "Caitlyn Jenner says she gets more 'flak' for being a Republican than trans". USA Today. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Justin Wm. Moyer (March 4, 2016). "Caitlyn Jenner: 'I like Ted Cruz'". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Maeve Reston (May 4, 2016). "Ted Cruz drops presidential bid". CNN. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Curtis M. Wong (March 11, 2016). "Caitlyn Jenner: Trump 'Very Good For Women's Issues,' Hillary a 'F**king Liar'". The Huffington Post. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Ottum, Bob (November 3, 1980). "Hey, Mister Fantasy Man". Sports Illustrated (SI Vault). Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved May 16, 2015.
- "Burton William Jenner, Born 9/6/1978 in California". California Birth Index. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Chrystie Jenner (January 12, 1981). "An Olympic Hero's Ex-Wife Finds Out Who She Is in the Wreckage of Her Marriage". 15 (1). Archived from the original on September 11, 2013. Retrieved January 29, 2015.
- "Notes on People; Bruce Jenner Married 'Hee Haw' Entertainer; Hawaiian Wedding". The New York Times. January 7, 1981. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Nardine Saad (March 5, 2013). "Brody Jenner joins 'Keeping Up With the Kardashians'". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on April 3, 2013. Retrieved January 29, 2015.
- "After Five Years, Bruce Jenner and Second Wife Linda Find Happiness Is Not Working Out". People. 25 (6). February 10, 1986. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- "The Princes of Malibu Follow FOX (ended 2005)". CBS Interactive. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Lauren Cox (July 17, 2015). "Brody Jenner Slams 'The Hills' Romance: I Never Hooked Up With Lauren Conrad". PMC. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- "Jenner-Kardashian". The Day. New London, Connecticut. April 23, 1991. p. 16. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Ken Baker; Natalie Finn (October 8, 2013). "Kris Jenner and Bruce Jenner Are Separated, "Much Happier" Living Apart". E!. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Allison Takeda (October 8, 2013). "Kris Jenner, Bruce Jenner Separate After 22 Years of Marriage: 'I Will Always Love Him'". Us Weekly. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- "Jenner divorce filings". Los Angeles Times. September 23, 2014. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Natalie Finn (September 22, 2014). "Kris Jenner Files for Divorce From Bruce Jenner 11 Months After Revealing Separation". E!. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Francesca Bacardi (December 18, 2014). "Kris Jenner and Bruce Jenner's Divorce Finalized". E! News. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Veronica Rocha; Richard Winton (August 20, 2015). "Caitlyn Jenner could face manslaughter charge in deadly PCH crash". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Larry McShane (February 8, 2015). "Bruce Jenner blames paparazzi for deadly three-car pileup on Pacific Coast Highway". New York Daily News. New York. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Alex Dobuzinskis (February 7, 2015). Dan Grebler; Christian Plumb, eds. "Ex-Olympian Bruce Jenner In Car Crash That Killed Another, Police Say". Los Angeles. Reuters. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
- Maria Mercedes Lara (February 8, 2015). "Bruce Jenner Involved in Fatal Car Crash in Malibu". People. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Nancy Dillon; Sasha Goldstein (February 9, 2015). "Kim Howe, woman killed in crash with Bruce Jenner, remembered as charitable friend who counted Kardashians as neighbors". New York Daily News. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- "Kim Howe". IMDb. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Michael Rothman; Jim Vojtech (May 1, 2015). "Bruce Jenner Served With Wrongful Death Lawsuit for Malibu Crash". ABC News. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Katia Hetter; Steve Almasy; Holly Yan (May 1, 2015). "Bruce Jenner sued over fatal car accident". CNN. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Chris Spargo (June 8, 2015). "Caitlyn Jenner is sued by Hollywood agent who claims she suffered serious injuries after being hit by star in fatal car crash". Daily Mail. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Veronica Rocha; Richard Winton (September 30, 2015). "Caitlyn Jenner won't be charged in deadly PCH crash". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Carlos Granda; Janet Kinnaman (August 20, 2015). "Caitlyn Jenner crash: Sheriff's investigators to recommend vehicular manslaughter charge". KABC-TV. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Christie D'Zurilla (January 28, 2015). "Caitlyn Jenner settles lawsuit with stepchildren of woman killed in PCH crash". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Joe Satran (December 31, 2015). "Caitlyn Jenner Settles Lawsuit Over Fatal Malibu Car Crash". The Huffington Post. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
Find more about
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Media from Commons|
|News from Wikinews|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Texts from Wikisource|
|Data from Wikidata|
- Official website
- Caitlyn Jenner on Twitter
- Caitlyn Jenner at the Internet Movie Database
- Caitlyn Jenner profile at IAAF Note that the page is still called Bruce
- Interview with Samantha Power, U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations
|Men's decathlon world record holder
August 10, 1975 – May 15, 1980