|United States Ambassador to Iran|
Acting, as chargé d'affaires
June 16, 1979 – April 7, 1980
|Preceded by||William H. Sullivan|
|Succeeded by||Diplomatic relations severed|
|United States Ambassador to Malta|
January 11, 1977 – January 20, 1979
|Preceded by||Robert P. Smith|
|Succeeded by||Joan M. Clark|
Lowell Bruce Laingen
August 6, 1922
Butterfield, Minnesota, U.S.
|Died||July 15, 2019 (aged 96)|
Bethesda, Maryland, U.S.
|Alma mater||St. Olaf College|
University of Minnesota
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Branch/service||United States Navy|
|Years of service||1943–1946|
|Battles/wars||World War II|
Lowell Bruce Laingen (August 6, 1922 – July 15, 2019) was an American diplomat who served as the United States Ambassador to Malta from 1977 to 1979. Laingen is best known for having been the most senior American official held hostage during the Iran hostage crisis, while serving as the chargé d'affaires (head of diplomatic mission) at the U.S. Embassy in Tehran.
Laingen was born on a farm near Butterfield and Odin in Watonwan County, Minnesota. During World War II, Laingen served in the U.S. Navy in the South Pacific as a lieutenant. After the war he graduated from St. Olaf College and obtained an M.A. in International Relations from the University of Minnesota. He also studied at the National War College in 1968.
Laingen was then sent back to Iran as the U.S. chargé d'affaires in June 1979, after ambassador William H. Sullivan and chargé d'affaires Charlie Naas were relieved of their posts by President Jimmy Carter. Laingen had previously served in Iran during the 1950s.
On November 4, 1979, the U.S. embassy was overrun by student protesters following the Iranian Revolution. 63 hostages were taken at the embassy, while Laingen and two others were seized at the Iranian Foreign Ministry Office. Mrs. Laingen tied a yellow ribbon about the oak at their home during the crisis. Laingen and 51 hostages were released on January 20, 1981, following 444 days of captivity. Laingen remains the last American head of mission to Iran, as direct bilateral diplomatic relations between the two governments were severed following the seizure of the embassy and have not been restored since.
After they were released from Iran in January 1981, Laingen and the other hostages arrived in the United States at the. United States Military Academy, West Point, New York. Four months later, on May 26, the West Point Class of 1981 honored him as their graduation banquet speaker during a formal dining event in the Cadet Mess Hall. Laingen was awarded the State Department's Award for Valor along with several other recognitions.
Laingen's next position was that of Vice President of the National Defense University, a post traditionally held by a senior diplomat. He retired from the Foreign Service in 1987 after 38 years of service. Laingen previously served as the President of the American Academy of Diplomacy.
Later life and death
- "Former Iranian Hostage, Ambassador Bruce Laingen Statement: Don't Hold Successful Diplomacy Hostage to History". Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation. 2013. Archived from the original on 2013-03-08.
- "Diplomat's In Harm's Way – Bruce Laingen". The Association for Diplomatic Studies & Training. Archived from the original on 2014-10-14. Retrieved 2014-06-17.
- "Tribute to Ambassador L. Bruce Laingen – U.S. Senate" (PDF). Congressional Record. Library of Congress. 2012-07-26. p. S5474.
- Sepic, Matt, "Former diplomat, Iran hostage and Minnesota native Bruce Laingen dies", Minnesota Public Radio News, July 17, 2019.
- "L. Bruce Laingen, Top US Diplomat Held in Iran, Dies at 96", AP via The New York Times, July 17, 2019.
- "Interview with Ambassador L. Bruce Laingen" (PDF). The Association for Diplomatic Studies and Training Foreign Affairs Oral History Project. 1993-01-09.
- "How the Yellow Ribbon Became a National Folk Symbol".
- USMA class of 1981 Graduation Banquet program and History, Darryl Wayne Peterson, MD Member, USMA Class of 1981
- Honley, Steven Alan, "A Determined Optimist: L. Bruce Laingen", Foreign Service Journal, July 2010, p. 40.
- Laingen, L. Bruce. Yellow Ribbon: The Secret Journal of Bruce Laingen. Washington, DC: Brassey’s, 1992.
- Bruce Laingen Papers at Minnesota Historical Society
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- L. Bruce Laingen correspondence relating to his service in Iran is in the Library of Congress.
- Bruce Laingen at Find a Grave
Robert P. Smith
| United States Ambassador to Malta
January 11, 1977 – January 20, 1979
Joan Margaret Clark