Bruce Roth

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Bruce D. Roth (born June 1954)[not verified in body] is an American organic and medicinal chemist that trained at Iowa State University and the University of Rochester, who, at the age of 32, discovered atorvastatin, the statin-class drug sold as Lipitor that would become the largest-selling drug in pharmaceutical history (as of 2003). His honours include being named a 2008 Hero of Chemistry by the American Chemical Society, and being chosen as the Perkin Medal awardee, the highest honour given in the U.S. chemical industry, by the Society of Chemical Industry, American section in 2013.

Early life and education[edit]

Brude D. Roth was born in June 1954.[citation needed] He received his undergraduate degree from St. Joseph's College, Philadelphia, in 1976.[with whom?][1] He then went to Iowa State University as a doctoral student under George Kraus, receiving his Ph.D. in organic chemistry in 1981.[1] He then spent a year as a Postdoctoral Fellow with A.S. Kende at the University of Rochester.[citation needed][2]

Career[edit]

Roth has held a number of positions in his career, from "Scientist" (medicinal chemist) through to vice president-level positions in drug discovery, and his accomplishments in his career include the discovery of the molecule atorvastatin, which would become the drug Lipitor.

Positions[edit]

In 1982, 28-year-old Roth began work as a medicinal chemist for the Parke Davis research area of Warner-Lambert,[2][3] becoming the chemistry co-chair of the statins effort, with biologist Roger Newton, in 1984.[2] By 1985, he was at Warner-Lambert's Parke-Davis Pharmaceutical Research facility in Ann Arbor, Michigan.[4] He was promoted to Research Associate in 1986, Senior Research Associate in 1988, Section Director in 1990, Director of Atherosclerosis and Exploratory Chemistry in 1992, and Senior Director of Atherosclerosis, Inflammation and Exploratory Chemistry in 1993.[citation needed] By the early 1990s he held managerial positions and was no longer doing laboratory work.[5]:98 In 2000 Warner-Lambert acquired Parke-Davis. He was appointed Vice President of Chemistry just prior to the merger between Warner-Lambert and Pfizer in 2000 and remained in that role as a part of Pfizer Global Research and Development in Ann Arbor, Michigan until 2007.[5] He then joined Genentech in San Francisco, California as Vice President of Discovery Chemistry.[6]

Atorvastatin[edit]

Before atorvastatin, Roth worked to develop a different drug, but Sandoz AG beat his team to a patent.[clarification needed][4] In 1985, while working at Warner-Lambert's Parke-Davis research facility, Roth "identified a molecule" that inhibited HMG CoA reductase, a "key enzyme in the metabolic pathway the body uses to produce cholesterol."[7]

Roth was listed as the inventor of trans-6-[2-(3- or 4-carboxamido-substituted pyrrol-1-yl)alkyl]-4-hydroxypyran-2-one, patented in 1986, and developed into the on-market drug, atorvastatin, which ultimately would be sold as Lipitor,[2][8][9][10] and which would become the largest-selling drug in pharmaceutical history by 2003.[3] Pfizer acquired Warner-Lambert and Lipitor in 2000.[3][11][12]

Other activities[edit]

From 1996 until 2007, Roth served as an adjunct professor in the Department of Medicinal Chemistry at the University of Michigan.[13]

Awards and honours[edit]

For the discovery of atorvastatin, Roth received the 1997 Warner-Lambert Chairman's Distinguished Scientific Achievement Award,[5] the 1999 Inventor of the Year Award from the New York Intellectual Property Law Association,[citation needed] the 2003 American Chemical Society Award for Creative Invention,[14][better source needed] the 2003 Gustavus John Esselen Award for Chemistry in the Public Service,[5] the 2005 Iowa State University Distinguished Alumni Award,[citation needed] and the 2006 Pfizer Global Research and Development Achievement Award.[citation needed][citation needed] Roth was named a 2008 Hero of Chemistry by the American Chemical Society.[7][15] In 2013, he was chosen as the Perkin Medal awardee, the highest honour given in the U.S. chemical industry, by the Society of Chemical Industry, American section, for his innovation in applied chemistry that resulted in the outstanding commercial success of atorvastatin.[1][citation needed]

Personal life[edit]

He and his wife, Michelle, have four children: David, Sarah, Rebecca and Aaron. David Roth was married on July 31, 2010, to Alyssa Roth, formerly Alyssa Dipzinski.[16]

Representative publications[edit]

According to the Chemical Heritage Foundation, in "addition to his discovery of atorvastatin, Roth is the inventor or co-inventor of 42 patents and the author or co-author of 48 manuscripts, 35 published abstracts and eight book chapters."[17]

His publications include:

  • Baumann, K,L,; Butler, D.E.; Deering, C.F.; Mennen, K.E.; Millar, A.; Nanninga, T.N.; Palmer, C.W. & Roth, B.D. (1992). "The convergent synthesis of CI-981, an optically active, highly potent, tissue selective inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase" (online, print). Tetrahedron Lett. 33 (17): 2283f. doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(00)74190-6. Retrieved 2 February 2016. 
  • Brower PL, Butler DE, Deering CF, Le TV, Millar A, Nanninga TN, Roth BD (1992). "The synthesis of (4R-Cis)-1, 1-dimethylethyl, 6-cyanomethyl-2,2-dimethyl-1,3- dioxane-4-acetate, a key intermediate for the preparation of CI-981, a highly potent, tissue selective inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase". Tetrahedron Lett. 33: 2279–82. doi:10.1016/s0040-4039(00)74189-x. 
  • Roth BD; Blankley CJ; Chucholowski AW; Ferguson E; Hoefle ML; Ortwine DF; Newton RS; Sekerke CS; Sliskovic DR; Stratton CD; et al. (Jan 1991). "Inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis. 3. Tetrahydro-4-hydroxy-6-[2-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)ethyl]-2H-pyran-2-one inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase. 2. Effects of introducing substituents at positions three and four of the pyrrole nucleus". J Med Chem. 34 (1): 357–66. 
  • Roth BD; Bocan TM; Blankley CJ; Chucholowski AW; Creger PL; Creswell MW; Ferguson E; Newton RS; O'Brien P; Picard JA; et al. (Jan 1991). "Relationship between tissue selectivity and lipophilicity for inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase". J Med Chem. 34 (1): 463–6. doi:10.1021/jm00105a071. 
  • Shaw MK, Newton RS, Sliskovic DR, Roth BD, Ferguson E, Krause BR (Jul 1990). "Hep-G2 cells and primary rat hepatocytes differ in their response to inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase". Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 170 (2): 726–34. doi:10.1016/0006-291x(90)92151-o. 
  • Roth BD, Ortwine DF, Hoefle ML, Stratton CD, Sliskovic DR, Wilson MW, Newton RS (Jan 1990). "Inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis. 1. trans-6-(2-pyrrol-1-ylethyl)-4-hydroxypyran-2-ones, a novel series of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. 1. Effects of structural modifications at the 2- and 5-positions of the pyrrole nucleus". J Med Chem. 33 (1): 21–31. doi:10.1021/jm00163a005. 
  • Sliskovic DR, Roth BD, Wilson MW, Hoefle ML, Newton RS (Jan 1990). "Inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis. 2. 1,3,5-trisubstituted [2-(tetrahydro-4-hydroxy-2-oxopyran-6-yl)ethyl]pyrazoles". J Med Chem. 33 (1): 31–8. doi:10.1021/jm00163a006. 
  • Roth BD, Bocan TMA, Blankley CJ, Chucholowski AW, Creger PL, Creswell MW, Ferguson E, Newton RS, O'Brien P, Picard JA, Roark WH, Sekerke CS, Sliskovic DR, Wilson MW. The Relationship Between Tissue Selectivity and Lipophilicity for Inhibitors of HMG-CoA Reductase. J. Med. Chem. 1991, 34, 463-6.
  • Kende AS, Roth B, Sanfilippo PJ (1982). "Facile, palladium (II)- mediated synthesis of bridged and spirocyclic bicycloalkenones". J Am Chem Soc. 104: 1784–5. doi:10.1021/ja00370a076. 
  • Kende AS, Roth B, Sanfilippo PJ, Blacklock TJ (1982). "Mechanism and regioisomeric control in palladium (II) - mediated cycloalkenylations. A novel total synthesis of (+/-)-quadrone". J Am Chem Soc. 104: 5808–10. doi:10.1021/ja00385a053. 
  • Roth BD, Roark WH (1988). "Synthesis of a chiral synthon for the lactone portion of compactin and mevinolin". Tetrahedron Lett. 29: 1255–8. doi:10.1016/s0040-4039(00)80269-5. 
  • Roth, B.D. (2002). King, F.D.; Oxford, A.W.; Reitz, Allen B. & Dax, Scott L., eds. "The Discovery and Development of Atorvastatin, a Potent Novel Hypolipidemic Agent" (online, print). Prog. Med. Chem. 40: 1–22. ISBN 9780444510549. PMID 12516521. doi:10.1016/S0079-6468(08)70080-8. Retrieved 2 February 2016. 

Further reading[edit]

The following are good sources from which further information on the article's subject may be found, that may be of interest to readers and article editors. It includes sources not yet cited, and sources whose content may yet provide further insights into the subject.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Knight, Jess (2013). "ISU Chemistry Alum, and Current Graduate Student, Earn Perkin Medal Awards" (online). News Release, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, ISU (5 September). Retrieved 2 February 2016. 
  2. ^ a b c d Li, Jie Jack (2006). "Cardiovascular Drugs: From Nitroglycerin to Lipitor (Chapter 3)". Laughing Gas, Viagra, and Lipitor: The Human Stories Behind the Drugs We Use. Oxford, ENG: Oxford University Press. pp. 75–102, esp. 100–102. ISBN 9780195345766. Retrieved 2 February 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c Simons, John (2003). "The $10 Billion Pill: Hold the Fries, Please" (online). Fortune (January 20). Retrieved 2 February 2016. "Subtitle: Lipitor, the cholesterol-lowering drug, has become the bestselling pharmaceutical in history. Here's how Pfizer did it. 
  4. ^ a b Winslow, Ron (2000). "Marketplace: The Birth of a Blockbuster, Lipitor's Route out of the Lab" (online, print). The Wall Street Journal (January 24). Retrieved 2 February 2016. 
  5. ^ a b c d Li, Jie Jack (2009). "Cardiovascular Drugs: From Nitroglycerin to Lipitor (Chapter 3)". Triumph of the Heart: The Story of Statins. Oxford, ENG: Oxford University Press. pp. 98f. ISBN 9780198043515. Retrieved 2 February 2016. 
  6. ^ Johnson, Linda A. (1 January 2012). "Lipitor’s unlikely success". The Journal Gazette. Associated Press. Retrieved 15 June 2014. 
  7. ^ a b "The NAS Award for Chemistry in Service to Society established by E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company". NAS. 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015. 
  8. ^ Rowe, Aaron (2008). "Meet the Guy Who Invented Lipitor" (online). Wired (August 20). Retrieved 2 February 2016. Bruce Roth, the inventor of Lipitor, calls the people who make those tough decisions ‘drug hunters’ and says that it takes between 10 and 15 years to train them. / 'Unfortunately, there are some things that are hard to predict,' said Roth, during a panel discussion this Monday at the American Chemical Society meeting in Philadelphia. 'We still are not very good at understanding which compounds are going to be successful, and which ones will be toxic.' 
  9. ^ US patent 4681893, Roth BD, "Trans-6-[2-(3- or 4-carboxamido-substituted pyrrol-1-yl)alkyl]-4-hydroxypyran-2-one inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis", issued 21 July 1987 
  10. ^ Roth, B.D. (2002). King, F.D.; Oxford, A.W.; Reitz, Allen B. & Dax, Scott L., eds. "The Discovery and Development of Atorvastatin, a Potent Novel Hypolipidemic Agent" (online, print). Prog. Med. Chem. 40: 1–22. ISBN 9780444510549. PMID 12516521. doi:10.1016/S0079-6468(08)70080-8. Retrieved 2 February 2016. 
  11. ^ Hoefle, Milton L. (2000). "The Early History of Parke-Davis and Company" (PDF). Bull. Hist. Chem. 25 (1): 28–34. 
  12. ^ Petersen, Melody (2000). "Pfizer Gets Its Deal to Buy Warner-Lambert for $90.2 Billion" (online, print). The New York Times (February 8). Retrieved 2 February 2016. 
  13. ^ "Inventor of Lipitor to speak in Chico". Red Bluff Daily News. 2010-01-29. Retrieved 15 June 2014. 
  14. ^ Roth, Bruce D. (2003) "Discovery and development of Lipitor (atorvastatin calcium)," ACS Award for Creative Invention Symposium: New Therapies for Atherosclerosis, MEDI 158 (March 24), The 225th ACS National Meeting, New Orleans, LA, March 23–27, 2003.
  15. ^ "Chemical Society to honor "Heroes of Chemistry" during National Meeting". American Chemical Society. 2008-08-13. Retrieved 15 June 2014. 
  16. ^ "Ingham County > Residents" (PDF). ingham.org. Retrieved 2 February 2016. 
  17. ^ "Bruce Roth, Inventor of Lipitor, to Receive 2013 SCI Perkin Medal in Marketwired". Philadelphia, PA: Chemical Heritage Foundation. 3 June 2013. Archived from the original on July 12, 2016. Retrieved 24 November 2015. 

External links[edit]