Brugia timori

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Brugia timori
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Nematoda
Class: Secernentea
Order: Spirurida
Family: Onchocercidae
Genus: Brugia
Species: B. timori
Binomial name
Brugia timori
Partono et al. 1977
Brugia timori
Classification and external resources
Specialty infectious disease
ICD-10 B74.2
DiseasesDB 32423

Brugia timori is a human filarial parasitic nematode (roundworm) which causes the disease "Timor filariasis." While this disease was first described in 1965,[1] the identity of Brugia timori as the causative agent was not known until 1977.[2] In that same year, Anopheles barbirostris was shown to be its primary vector.[3]

Characteristics of Brugia timori[edit]

The microfilariae of Brugia timori are longer and morphologically distinct from those of Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti, with a cephalic space length-to-width ratio of about 3:1. Also, the sheath of B. timori does not stain pink with Giemsa stain as is observed with B. malayi and W. bancrofti.[4]

Brugia timori filariasis[edit]

Like other human filariasis infections, Brugia timori filariasis causes acute fever and chronic lymphedema. The life cycle of Brugia timori is very similar to that of Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi, leading to nocturnal periodicity of the disease symptoms.

So far Brugia timori has only been found in the Lesser Sunda Islands of Indonesia. It is locally confined to areas inhabited by its mosquito vector, which breeds in rice fields. One study of the prevalence of infection in Mainang village, Alor Island, found microfilariae in the blood of 157 of 586 individuals (27%), with 77 of them (13%) exhibiting lymphedema of the leg.[5]


Anthelmintics such as diethylcarbamazine and albendazole have shown promise in the treatment of Brugia timori filariasis.[6] Some researchers are confident that Brugia timori filariasis may be an eradicable disease.[7] Related filarial nematodes have been found highly sensitive to elimination of their endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria, and this may be a powerful attack route against Brugia timori as well.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ David, H.L. and J.F. Edeson (1965) Filariasis in Portuguese Timor, with observations on a new microfilaria found in man. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 59:193-204.
  2. ^ Partono, F., D.T. Aennis, Atmosoedjono, S., Oemijati, S., and J.H. Cross (1977) Brugia timori sp.n. (Nematoda: Filarioidea) from Flores Island, Indonesia. Journal of Parasitology 63(3):540-546.
  3. ^ Atomosoedjono, S., F. Partono, D.T. Dennis, and Purnomo (1977) Anopheles barbirostris (Diptera: Culicidae) as a vector of the Timor filaria on Flores Island: Preliminary observations. Journal of Medical Entomology 13(4-5):611-613.
  4. ^ Purnomo, D.T. Dennis, and F. Partono (1977) The microfilaria of Brugia timori (Partono et al. 1977 = Timor microfilaria, David and Edeson, 1964): Morphologic description with comparison to Brugia malayi of Indonesia. Journal of Parasitology 63(3):1001-1006.
  5. ^ Supali, T., H. Wibowo; P. Rückert, K. Fischer, I.S. Ismid, Purnomo, Y. Djuardi, and P. Fischer (2002) High prevalence of Brugia timori infection in the highland of Alor Island, Indonesia. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 66(5):560-565.
  6. ^ Oqueka, T., T. Supali, I.S. Ismid, Purnomo; P. Rückert, M. Bradley, and P. Fischer (2005) Impact of two rounds of mass drug administration using diethylcarbamazine combined with albendazole on the prevalence of Brugia timor and of intestinal helminths on Alor Island, Indonesia. Filaria Journal 4(1):5 [1]
  7. ^ Fischer, P., T. Supali and R.M. Maizels (2004) Lymphatic filariasis and Brugia timori: Prospects for elimination. Trends in Parasitology 20(8):351-355.

External links[edit]