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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Brunch is a meal,[1] generally accompanied by alcoholic drinks (typically champagne or a cocktail), taken sometime in the late morning or early afternoon – the universally accepted time is 10am-1pm, though modern brunch often extends as late as 3pm.[2] The meal originated in the British hunt breakfast.[3] The word brunch is a portmanteau of breakfast and lunch.[4] The word originated in England in the late 19th century, and became popular in the United States in the 1930s.[5]

Origin of the word


The 1896 supplement to the Oxford English Dictionary cites Punch magazine, which wrote that the term was coined in Britain in 1895 to describe a Sunday meal for "Saturday-night carousers" in the writer Guy Beringer's article "Brunch: A Plea"[6] in Hunter's Weekly.[7][8]

Instead of England's early Sunday dinner, a postchurch ordeal of heavy meats and savory pies, the author wrote, why not a new meal, served around noon, that starts with tea or coffee, marmalade and other breakfast fixtures before moving along to the heavier fare

By eliminating the need to get up early on Sunday, brunch would make life brighter for Saturday-night carousers. It would promote human happiness in other ways as well.

"Brunch is cheerful, sociable and inciting", Beringer wrote. "It is talk-compelling. It puts you in a good temper, it makes you satisfied with yourself and your fellow beings, it sweeps away the worries and cobwebs of the week."

— William Grimes, "At Brunch, the More Bizarre the Better" New York Times, 1998[9]

Despite the substantially later date it has also been claimed that the term was possibly coined by reporter Frank Ward O'Malley, who wrote in the early 20th century for the New York City newspaper, The Sun from 1906 until 1919.[10] It is thought that he may have come up with the term after observing the typical mid-day eating habits of his colleagues at the newspaper.[11][12]

At colleges and hotels


Some colleges and hotels serve brunch, often serve-yourself buffets, although menu-ordered meals may be available as well. The meal usually consists of standard breakfast foods such as eggs, sausages, bacon, ham, fruits, pastries, pancakes, waffles, cereals, and scones.



The United States, Canada and United Kingdom militaries often serve weekend brunch in their messes. They offer breakfast and lunch options, and usually are open from 09:00–12:00.

Dim Sum brunch


The dim sum brunch is popular in Chinese restaurants worldwide.[13] It consists of a variety of stuffed buns, dumplings, and other savory or sweet foods that have been steamed, deep-fried, or baked. Customers select small portions from passing carts, as the kitchen continuously produces and sends out freshly prepared dishes. Dim sum is usually eaten at a mid-morning, midday, or mid-afternoon teatime.

Special occasions


Brunch is prepared by restaurants and hotels for special occasions and holidays, such as weddings, Valentine's Day, St. Patrick's Day, Mother's Day, Father's Day, Halloween, Thanksgiving, Christmas, New Year, and Easter.

In other languages




The Chinese word "早午饭" (pinyin: zǎo wǔfàn) is defined as brunch, with "早饭" (zǎofàn; 早: morning, 饭: meal) meaning breakfast; and "午饭" (wǔfàn; 午: noon, 饭: meal) meaning lunch. The combination of "早饭" and "午饭" is thus "早午饭", brunch.



The Office québécois de la langue française accepts 'brunch' as a valid word but also provides a synonym déjeuner-buffet. Note that, however, in Quebec, déjeuner alone (even without the qualifying adjective petit) means 'breakfast'.[14] In Quebec, the word—when francized—is pronounced [bʁɔ̃ʃ].[15] The common pronunciation in France is [bʁœnʃ].



In Italian, the English loanword 'brunch' is generally used, though the neologism/calque colanzo is increasingly popular, being derived from colazione (breakfast) and pranzo (lunch).[16] Even less common but occasionally used is pranzolazione, derived from the same sources.[17]

The usage of these terms varies in Italy, as different regions have different cultural definitions of mealtimes and their names. Traditional usage, particularly in northern Italy, included calling the first meal of the day prima colazione (first colazione), and the second meal either colazione or seconda colazione (second colazione), as distinguished from pranzo, the evening meal (now generally used as the term for the midday meal).[18] In this scheme, a separate term for 'brunch' would not be necessary, as colazione could be used as a general term for any meal taken in the morning or early afternoon. Although Italian meal terminologies have generally shifted since widespread use of this naming scheme, the concept of a distinct mid-morning meal combining features of breakfast and lunch is largely one imported from the UK and North America in the last century, so the Anglicism 'brunch' is predominant.[19]

Other places




The area now known as Leslieville neighbourhood is sometimes called the brunch capital of Toronto, as many renowned establishments serve brunch there.[20] Brunch buffets also exist in other parts of Southern Ontario, including Kitchener-Waterloo.

In Canada, brunch is served in private homes and in restaurants. In both cases, brunch typically consists of the same dishes as would be standard in an American brunch, namely, coffee, tea, fruit juices, breakfast foods, including pancakes, waffles, and french toast; meats such as ham, bacon, and sausages; egg dishes such as scrambled eggs, omelettes, and eggs Benedict; bread products, such as toast, bagels or croissants; pastries or cakes, such as cinnamon rolls and coffee cake; and fresh cut fruit or fruit salad.[21][22][23][24][25][26] Brunches may also include foods not typically associated with breakfast, such as roasted meats, quiche, soup, smoked salmon, sandwiches, and salads, such as Cobb salad.[21][22][25][27]

When served at home or in a restaurant, a brunch may be offered buffet style,[28] in which trays of foods and beverages are available and guests may serve themselves and select the items they want, often in an "all-you-can-eat" fashion.[29] Restaurant brunches may also be served from a menu, in which case guests select specific items that are served by waitstaff. Restaurant brunch meals range from relatively inexpensive brunches available at diners and family restaurants to expensive brunches served at high-end restaurants and bistros.



Brunch in the Philippines is served between 9:00 am and noon. Contrary to what is observed in other countries, brunch in the afternoon, between 3:00 and 4:00 pm, is called merienda, a traditional snack carried over from Spanish colonialism.


See also



  1. ^ Palmatier, Robert Alan (2000). Food: A Dictionary of Literal and Nonliteral Terms. Greenwood Press. p. 40. ISBN 978-0313314360.
  2. ^ Ternikar, F. (2014). Brunch: A History. The Meals Series. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 978-1-4422-2943-3. Retrieved 11 April 2023.
  3. ^ Rao, Tejal (7 November 2022). "Can the Most Hated Meal Be Redeemed? 'The Big Brunch' Says Yes". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 11 November 2022.
  4. ^ "foodnetwork". Web.foodnetwork.com. Archived from the original on 5 August 2003. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
  5. ^ Rombauer, Irma S.; Becker, Marion Rombauer; Becker, Ethan (2001). Joy of Cooking: All About Breakfast and Brunch. Simon and Schuster. p. 8. ISBN 0743206428.
  6. ^ Gold, David L. (2009). Studies in etymology and etiology. Universidad de Alicante. p. 99. ISBN 978-84-7908-517-9.
  7. ^ Merriam-Webster's, Inc. (1994). Merriam-Webster's dictionary of English usage. Merrriam Webster. p. 203. ISBN 978-0-87779-132-4.
  8. ^ Beringer, Guy (1895). Brunch: a plea  – via Wikisource.
  9. ^ Grimes, William (8 July 1998). "At Brunch, The More Bizarre The Better". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
  10. ^ "The Press: O'Malley of the Sun". Time. 31 October 1932. Archived from the original on 21 October 2008. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  11. ^ Du, Lisa. "Finally: Confirmation That Brunch Really Was Invented To Cure Your Hangover". Business Insider. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
  12. ^ Pietrusza, David Rothstein: The Life, Times, and Murder of the Criminal Genius Google Books link 2007
  13. ^ "Dim Sum – History, Pictures, Recipes of Chinese Dim Sum". Chinesefood.about.com. 13 July 2013. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
  14. ^ Office de la langue française, 1999, Le Grand Dictionnaire Archived 2 April 2003 at archive.today, entry "Brunch": "Repas combinant le petit déjeuner et le repas du midi, et habituellement constitué d'un buffet". (A meal that combines the breakfast and lunch and usually consists of a buffet.)
  15. ^ La Petite Larousse (2009), p. 140
  16. ^ "brunch". Dizionario delle alternative agli anglicismi in italiano (in Italian). 20 August 2018. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
  17. ^ "brunch – Wiktionary – Translations". en.wiktionary.org. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
  18. ^ "Italian Word of the Day: Colazione (breakfast) – Daily Italian Words". 2 July 2020. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
  19. ^ Tibaldi, Andrea. "Brunch". Cibo360.it (in Italian). Retrieved 25 April 2021.
  20. ^ "Bonjour Brioche in Leslieville – My Destination Toronto". Mydestination.com. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
  21. ^ a b "Confederation Place Hotel & Western Cut : 2011 Catering Menus; including Brunch" (PDF). Confederationplace.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
  22. ^ a b "Best Toronto Brunch 2013: 20 Top Brunch Picks From HuffPost Foodies". HuffPost Canada. 21 June 2013. Retrieved 31 August 2017.
  23. ^ "Easter Brunch: 25 Recipes For The Ultimate Brunch". HuffPost Canada. 21 March 2016. Retrieved 31 August 2017.
  24. ^ "Best Brunch in Vancouver – To Die For". itstodiefor.ca. Archived from the original on 18 February 2021. Retrieved 31 August 2017.
  25. ^ a b "Canadian Living's best recipes, tested till perfect. – Canadian Living". Canadianliving.com. Archived from the original on 8 June 2016. Retrieved 31 August 2017.
  26. ^ "The Ultimate Vancouver Brunch Guide: Edible Canada". Vancitybuzz.com. 18 September 2015. Archived from the original on 1 September 2017. Retrieved 31 August 2017.
  27. ^ "Canadian Living's best recipes, tested till perfect. – Canadian Living". Canadianliving.com. Archived from the original on 1 June 2016. Retrieved 31 August 2017.
  28. ^ "Calgary Brunch Buffet | Hotel Blackfoot | Canada". Archived from the original on 25 March 2016. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
  29. ^ "Crock & Block Restaurant | Sunday Brunch | All You Can Eat Buffet". Archived from the original on 3 April 2016. Retrieved 9 April 2016.