Brune's tryonia

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Brune's tryonia

Critically endangered, possibly extinct (IUCN 3.1)[1]
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
(unranked): clade Caenogastropoda
clade Hypsogastropoda
clade Littorinimorpha
Superfamily: Rissooidea
Family: Hydrobiidae
Genus: Tryonia
Species: T. brunei
Binomial name
Tryonia brunei
Taylor, 1987

Brune's tryonia (also known as Brune's Springsnail and Brune Spring Snail), scientific name Tryonia brunei, is a species of very small freshwater snail that has a gill and an operculum, an aquatic gastropod mollusks in the family Hydrobiidae. This species is endemic to the United States (Texas). It was formerly listed as Threatened in 1993/1994[2] and Data Deficient since 1996 until it was changed to Critically Endangered and possibly extinct in 2012; this is because it is found only in Phantom Lake, Balmorhea Lake, has range of less than 100 km², and was last observed in 1993.[1] A 1991 report by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service also listed it as Endangered[3] and they also later noted the unknown population.[4] It is found in firm substratum and on mud before modification.[5]

Its habitat was impounded in 1946 and still threatened by drought and longtime water abstraction since the 1970s. However, as a helpful measure, a pump was installed to maintain water level but the effects for the snail are unknown. It was last seen in 1993 and may even be extinct and has been listed as such by some publications[6][7] with further searches not locating this snail. It is also listed as G1 (critically imperiled) by NatureServe. 1987 research listed it as occurring in New Mexico but there is no further and recent informationabout this.[8] In 2014, research published in the Western North American Naturalist moved the snail to the genus Juturnia and noting it had been extinct since 1984 but the IUCN nor other organizations have changed their information.[9]


  1. ^ a b Cordeiro, J. & Perez, K. (2012). "Tryonia brunei". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2012: e.T22423A2782410. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012-1.RLTS.T22423A2782410.en. Retrieved 1 December 2017. 
  2. ^ Mace, Georgina M. (1993). 1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN. p. 126. ISBN 2831701945. Retrieved June 28, 2015. 
  3. ^ Endangered Species Act of 1973: as amended through the 100th Congress U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1991.
  4. ^ "U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service". fws.Gov. Retrieved June 28, 2015. 
  5. ^ "Tryonia brunei". tpwd.texas.Gov. Retrieved June 28, 2015. 
  6. ^ Gunnar M. Brune; Helen C. Bess (2002). Springs of Texas, Volume 1. Texas A&M University Press. p. 1. ISBN 1585441961. Retrieved June 28, 2015. 
  7. ^ Proceedings of the Desert Fishes Council, Volumes 28-32. Desert Fishes Council. 1997. Retrieved June 28, 2015. 
  8. ^ "Fresh-water molluscs from New Mexico and vicnity" (PDF). Naticefushlab.Net. Retrieved June 28, 2015. 
  9. ^ Robert Hershler; J. Jerry Landye; Hsiu-Ping Liu; Mauricio de la Maza-Benignos; Pavel Ornelas; Evan W. Carson (2014). "New species and records of Chihuahuan Desert springsnails, with a new combination for Tryonia brunei". Western Northern American Naruralist. 74 (1): 47–65. doi:10.3398/064.074.0105. Retrieved 28 June 2015.