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Brunel University London

Coordinates: 51°31′58″N 0°28′22″W / 51.53278°N 0.47278°W / 51.53278; -0.47278
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Brunel University London
Established1966 – gained university status by royal charter
1962 – Brunel College of Advanced Technology
1928 – Acton Technical College
1902 – Shoreditch College of Education
1878 – Maria Grey College
1798 – Borough Road College
Endowment£1.57 million (2022)[1]
Budget£271.3 million (2021–22)[1]
ChancellorSir Richard Sykes
Vice-ChancellorAndrew Jones
Students15,520 (2019/20)[2]
Undergraduates11,460 (2019/20)[2]
Postgraduates4,060 (2019/20)[2]
Kingston Lane, Uxbridge UB8 3PH
England, United Kingdom

51°31′58″N 0°28′22″W / 51.53278°N 0.47278°W / 51.53278; -0.47278
ColoursBlue and gold
AffiliationsAssociation of Commonwealth Universities
European University Association
Websitebrunel.ac.uk Edit this at Wikidata

Brunel University London (BUL, and often known simply as Brunel) is a public research university located in the Uxbridge area of London, England. It was founded in 1966 and named after Isambard Kingdom Brunel, the Victorian engineer and pioneer of the Industrial Revolution. In June 1966, Brunel College of Advanced Technology was awarded a royal charter and became Brunel University; in 2014 the university formally adopted the name Brunel University London (BUL). The university is considered a British plate glass university.

Brunel is organised into three colleges, a structure adopted in August 2014. Brunel's three constituent Academic Colleges include the College of Business, Arts and Social Sciences; the College of Engineering, Design and Physical Sciences; and the College of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences.

Brunel has over 16,150 students and 2,500 staff,[3] and an annual income of £271.3 million (2021–22), of which £22.4 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £311.9 million.[1] The university won the Queen's Anniversary Prize in 2011. BUL is a member of the Association of Commonwealth Universities, the European University Association, and Universities UK.



Brunel University London is one of a number of British universities which were established in the 1960s following the Robbins Report on higher education. It is sometimes described as a "plate glass university". The university's origins lie in Acton Technical College, which was split into two in 1957: Acton Technical College continued to cater for technicians and craftsmen, and the new Brunel College of Technology (named after Isambard Kingdom Brunel, the British engineer) was dedicated to the education of chartered engineers.

The campus buildings, including the lecture centre, were designed in the Brutalist style of architecture by Richard Sheppard, Robson & Partners, Architects.

In 1960 Brunel College of Technology was awarded the status of College of Advanced Technology, and it was decided that it should expand at another site in order to accommodate the extra buildings that would be needed. Uxbridge was chosen to house the new buildings, and construction work hadn't even begun before the Ministry of Education officially changed the college's status: it was officially named Brunel College of Advanced Technology in 1962 – the tenth Advanced Technology College in the country, and the last to be awarded this title.

The Uxbridge (Vine Street) railway branch line was closed in 1964, and the college purchased the land adjacent to its site where the railway had run for £65,000 from the local council.[4]

1966 to present[edit]

Statue of Isambard Kingdom Brunel at the university, erected in 2006

A royal charter granting university status and the power to award degrees was awarded on 9 June 1966, and the institution became Brunel University.[5][6]

The university continued to use both campuses until 1971, when it left the Acton site. In 1980, the university merged with Shoreditch College of Education (Shoreditch Training College),[7][8][9][10] located at Cooper's Hill, Runnymede, which became Brunel's second campus.

In 1995, the university expanded again, integrating the West London Institute of Higher Education, and adding campuses in Osterley and Twickenham, and increasing the number of courses that the university was able to offer. Traditionally the university's strengths were in engineering, science, and technology, but with the addition of the West London Institute, new departments such as arts, humanities, geography and earth science, health and sports science were added, and the size of the student body increased to over 12,000.

Brunel has been the subject of controversy as its approach to higher education has been both market-driven and politically conservative.[citation needed] The decision to award an honorary degree to Margaret Thatcher in 1996, following the University of Oxford's refusal to do so, provoked an outcry by staff and students, and as a result the ceremony had to be held in the House of Lords instead of on campus. In the late 1990s, the Departments of Physics, Chemistry, and Materials Engineering were all closed, and, in 2004, the then Vice-Chancellor Steven Schwartz, initiated the reorganisation of the university's faculties and departments into schools, and closed the Department of Geography and Earth Sciences. The succeeding Vice-Chancellor, the sociologist Christopher Jenks, took office in 2006.[11] He was followed by Julia Buckingham, previously at Imperial College London, who took up the position of Vice-Chancellor at Brunel in 2012.[12]

In 2014 the university underwent an internal reorganisation and the name was changed to Brunel University London by a supplemental charter dated 16 July 2014. In 2016 Brunel celebrated its 50th anniversary since being awarded its royal charter, and staged a 14-month programme of more than 40 celebratory events.[13]

In December 2020, the university's Chancellor Sir Richard Sykes lead an independent review of the Vaccine Taskforce (UK) strategy and goals, and in June 2021 he was subsequently appointed as the taskforce's new chair, leading work to find, procure and deliver vaccines and oversee preparations for vaccine booster programmes as part of UK's COVID-19 vaccination programme.[14]

In April 2021 it was announced that Professor Julia Buckingham CBE would be stepping down as Vice-Chancellor and President after nearly 10 years in the role. She has been succeeded by Professor Andrew Jones, who took up the position in January 2022.[15]


Part of the main Brunel campus

In the late 1990s Brunel devised a 10-year, £250 million masterplan for the campus. This involved selling off campus sites at Runnymede, Osterley and Twickenham and using the revenue from the sales to renovate and update the buildings and facilities on the Uxbridge campus. Works carried out included a library extension, a state-of-the-art sports complex, renovated students' union facilities, a new Health Sciences teaching centre, and the construction of more halls of residence.

The original Brunel campus was designed by Richard Sheppard, Robson and Partners, with many buildings retaining the 1960s 'Brutalist' architectural style. It has appeared in several films, most famously in Stanley Kubrick's A Clockwork Orange, large parts of which were filmed on campus, particularly in the John Crank Building (demolished July 2019) and the Grade II listed Lecture Centre.[16] It has also featured in several UK television series including Spooks, Silent Witness, The Sweeney and Inspector Morse.[17]

View on one of the main paths of the university.

Organisation and governance[edit]


Brunel has three constituent Academic Colleges:

College of Engineering, Design and Physical Sciences [18]
  • Brunel Design School
  • Chemical Engineering
  • Civil and Environmental Engineering
  • Computer Science
  • Electronic and Electrical Engineering
  • Mathematics
  • Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
College of Business, Arts and Social Sciences [19]
  • Arts and Humanities
  • Brunel Business School
  • Brunel Law School
  • Economics and Finance
  • Education
  • Social and Political Sciences
College of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences [20]
  • Brunel Medical School
  • Health Sciences
  • Life Sciences

Research institutes[edit]

Research at Brunel has been organised into five institutes [21]

  • Institute of Communities and Society
  • Institute of Digital Futures
  • Institute of Energy Futures
  • Institute of Health, Medicine and Environments
  • Institute of Materials and Manufacturing


Brunel exists by virtue of a royal charter first granted in 1966 and it has the status of an exempt charity as defined by the Charities Act 2011.[22]

The governing body of Brunel is the council, which comprises university staff and students and independent members. The Council appoints the Vice-Chancellor and other senior officers. The council has established a number of Committees which support its work.

The current Chancellor of the university is Sir Richard Sykes, a biochemist and former Rector of Imperial College London. The Vice-Chancellor since 2022 is Professor Andrew Jones, formerly Deputy President at City, University of London.[23]

Brunel's academic governing body is the Senate, which is chaired by the Vice-Chancellor. The Senate's powers, duties and functions are set out in its Ordinances, and it has a number of Committees which support its work.[24]


In the financial year ended 31 July 2020, Brunel had a total income (including share of joint ventures) of £237.1 million (2018–19 – £229.8 million) and total expenditure of £235.7 million (2018–19 – £224.7 million).[3]

Total income for 2019–20 was £237.1 million, £7.3 million (3.2%) higher than in 2018–19. Tuition fees overall increased by £10.1 million, reflecting the increase in the number of students enrolled, while funding body grants were flat at £30.6 million. Research grant income for 2019/ 20 was £3.1 million higher than in 2018–19 on a recognised income basis. Research income reflects the timing of work undertaken on research grants, as income is recognised in the financial statements over a period typically averaging three years. Other income reduced by £6.0 million, or 12.4%. This consists of student residences income, conference, hotel, retail and also income from summer school activity for foreign language students on the campus. All categories were significantly impacted by the pandemic, including the decision by the university not to charge rent for accommodation for the final term.[25]

Excluding the Universities Superannuation Scheme (USS) pension revaluation, expenditure was £9.8 million (4.3%) higher than in 2018–19. Excluding pension adjustments, staff costs of £135.0 million were £15.5 million (13.0%) higher than in 2018–19. The university invested resources in its academic provision as its tuition fee income and student numbers have increased and has also targeted staff cost investment in its information technology provision and other support services. Other operating expenses of £76.9 million were £5.6 million lower than in 2018–19.[25]

Coat of arms[edit]

The university's coat of arms

The Brunel coat of arms was granted to the university in 1966, and incorporates various images representative of the university's heritage and principles. The masonry arch symbolises Isambard Kingdom Brunel, after whom the university is named; the compass and cogwheel symbolise technology, on which the university initially focussed on and the institution's former status as a College of Advanced Technology; the ermine lozenge is an allusion to the arms of Lord Halsbury, the first Chancellor of the university; and the swan symbolises Uxbridge, where the main campus is located.[26]


A view of the Brunel University campus in Uxbridge

Brunel students have access to specialist laboratories for electronic imaging, bioprocessing and experimental techniques; flight, driving and train simulators; a 3-D body scanner; an MRI scanner; motion-capture equipment; an occupational therapy suite; sports and performing arts facilities; and academic archives in cult film and contemporary writing.[27]

Depending on the degree course followed, many undergraduate students may choose to undertake practical placements and projects as an integral part of their courses (a founding principle of the sandwich degree structure).


In the 2008 Research Assessment Exercise (RAE), 90% of Brunel research submitted was rated as being of international quality.[28] In the Research Excellence Framework (REF) in 2014 Brunel was ranked 33rd for Research Power.[29]

A comparison of the data submitted to REF2021 compared to the submission for REF2014 demonstrates a 9.6% increase of staff Full-time equivalent (FTE) submitted, a 5.9% increase in Early Career Researchers, 22% increase in PhD graduation per staff (FTE) per year and a 55% increase in spend per staff (FTE) per year.

Courses at Brunel draw on staff's research in areas including Law, Cancer Genetics, Environmental Science, Human-Centred Design, Materials Processing, Contemporary Music and Digital Performance, Children's Education and Sports Medicine.[27]

'Made in Brunel' (annual design exhibition)[edit]

Brunel's Design School holds an annual design exhibition called Made In Brunel, to promote and showcase the work of final year students to the design industry.[30][31] In past years it has been held at the Business Design Centre in Islington, and the Oxo Tower Wharf.[citation needed] From 2011 onwards the exhibition has been held at the Bargehouse, on the Southbank, London.[citation needed]


National rankings
Complete (2025)[32]80
Guardian (2024)[33]116
Times / Sunday Times (2024)[34]110
Global rankings
ARWU (2023)[35]701–800
QS (2025)[36]342=
THE (2024)[37]351–400

BUL has traditionally performed well in the annual rankings of UK universities produced by The Guardian and The Times. From 2014, the University shows a steady presence in the world rankings. In the 2014–15 THES world university rankings, Brunel ranked 226–250 (shared), representing a sharp rise in rankings.[38] Brunel was ranked as the 93rd best university worldwide in the field of engineering and technology, 32nd among European institutions and 11th among British institutions according to THES world rankings.[39] In August 2014, Brunel re-entered the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) Shanghai Jiao Tong Rankings after a four-year absence at number 409 globally, and 34 in the UK.[40] Also, in 2015 Brunel was ranked 25th in Times Higher Education's 100 under 50 ranking of the top 100 world universities under 50 years old.[41] BUL is currently ranked as one of the top 350 universities in the world by QS World University Rankings 2025 and in the Complete University Guide 2025. [42] In the Complete University Guide 2025 it features among the 50 best UK universities in subjects like civil engineering,[43] computer science[44]and law.[45]

The university won the Queen's Anniversary Prize in 2011.[46]

Student life[edit]

Student recreational and general facilities[edit]

Brunel has a gym, spa, and running track with professional training and medical facilities. On campus there is also a pharmacy, a shop, one bar called Locos, a nightclub called Venue, and a café named "1966" after the year of the university's founding. Historically Brunel Student Hall and The Sports Barn were key venues for band tours in the 1970-90's with some of the biggest names in rock music including, Fairport Convention, Fleetwood Mac, The Who, Deep Purple, Genesis, ELO, The Kinks, Thin Lizzy, Joy Division, The Pretenders, The Specials, The Stone Roses. The Sex Pistols played the first gig of their 'Never Mind the Bans Tour'[47] at Brunel on 16 December 1977.[48][citation needed]

The Bannerman Centre at the heart of the campus contains a 4 floor library (opened in 1973 by Heinrich Böll) with c.400,000 books and 1,500 study spaces, usually open 24/7 during term-time.[49] The Bannerman Annexe contains the Professional Development (Careers) Centre, PC labs, large teaching rooms with collaborative technology and various student service functions such as the Assistive Technology Centre.

Union of Brunel Students[edit]

The Union of Brunel Students is the students' union of Brunel University.[50] The Union is based within the Hamilton Centre on the Uxbridge campus.

Among other services, the Union runs two venues on the Brunel campus: the Venue nightclub, Loco's bar.[51]

The Union is led by fourteen democratically elected staff from the student body – six Student Officers, four Standing Committee Chairs and six Working Group Chairs – supported by over thirty professional staff.[50]

The Brunel Times & Hillingdon Herald[edit]

The Brunel Times is Brunel University's official student newspaper. Before 2019, it was called Le Nurb,[52] which has Brunel spelt backwards. Before that, it was a magazine called Route 66, named after the different campus locations Runneymede, Osterley, Uxbridge and Twickenham, not after a bus route which supposedly ran through Brunel's campus along Cleveland Road. The newspaper editorial team is made up of volunteer students and is funded by the Union of Brunel Students. Traditionally, the newspaper has held a left-wing bias and has published interviews with prominent political figures including Shadow Chancellor John McDonnell, a Brunel alum and MP for Hayes and Harlington.

Hillingdon Herald is a monthly newspaper, written and produced by students from Brunel University London, with a focus on the London Borough of Hillingdon and wider London. Launched in October 2021, the first issue included columns from Prime Minister Boris Johnson, MP for Uxbridge and South Ruislip; former Shadow Chancellor John McDonnell; and David Simmonds, MP for Ruislip, Northwood and Pinner.[53]

Formula Student[edit]

Brunel was one of the first UK universities to enter the Formula Student engineering competition, an annual event in which universities from around the world compete in static and dynamic events using formula style racing cars designed and manufactured by students.[54] Brunel's Formula Student teams have won prizes in the annual competition every year since they first entered in 1999.[citation needed]

The Brunel Racing team is composed of undergraduate and postgraduate students, each being allocated an area of the car to develop.[55] Students on MEng Mechanical Engineering courses act as team leaders and manage BEng students throughout the year to ensure a successful completion of a new car each year. Brunel Racing were UK Class 1 Formula Student Champions in 2002, and were the leading UK team at Formula ATA 2005, the Italian Formula Student event. In 2006 Formula Student Event, Brunel Racing were also the highest finishing UK competitor using E85 (fuel composed of 85% ethanol and 15% petrol.)[56]

Student housing[edit]

Brunel's £250 million campus redevelopment programme, completed in 2008, refurbished existing halls and the built the new Isambard Complex. There are 34 self-catering halls of residence on-campus, with a total of 4,549 rooms, including studio flats for co-habiting couples. Rooms are available for undergraduates, postgraduates, students with disabilities and co habiting couples. All rooms have network access.

Many of the halls of residence around the Uxbridge campus are named after bridges that Isambard Kingdom Brunel either built or helped to design; other halls are named after him or other notable engineers or scientists. For example:

There are also three accommodation complexes: the Bishop Complex (Bishop, Kilmorey, Lacy and St Margaret's Halls); the Lancaster Complex (Lancaster, Stockwell, Southwark, Borough Road, Maria Grey and Gordon Halls); and the Isambard Complex (North, Meadow, Michael Bevis, Concourse, Stephen Bragg, West, Maurice Kogan, David Neave, Central, East, Runnymede, George Shipp, Trevor Slater, Shoreditch, Syd Urry, South and Brian Winstanley Halls).

Notable academics[edit]

  • Bernardine Evaristo: Professor of Creative Writing, joint winner of the Booker Prize 2019[57]
  • Will Self: Professor of Modern Thought
  • Heinz Wolff: Emeritus professor at Brunel University London founded the Brunel Institute for Bioengineering in 1983
  • Fiona Templeton: Senior Lecturer in Drama
  • Benjamin Zephaniah: Professor of Creative Writing
  • Martin J Buxton: Emeritus Professor, pioneer in the field of Health Economics and founder of HERG, Health Economics Research Group, recipient (2010) of the Avedis Donabedian Lifetime Achievement Award by the International Society for Pharmaco-economics and Outcomes Research
  • Javaid Rehman, Professor of International Law, UN Rapporteur on Iran [58]
  • Alexandra Xanthaki, Professor of International Law, UN Rapporteur on Cultural Rights [59]
  • Solon Solomon, Assistant Professor of International Law, former Member of the Knesset Legal Department & Presenter of the popular BUL Emerging Law Voices interview series on YouTube and on Spotify [60]
Chancellor (John Wakeham, Baron Wakeham) and Vice-Chancellor (Christopher Jenks) of Brunel in 2012



Notable alumni[edit]

Media, entertainment and the arts[edit]

Carl Barât
John McDonnell

Politics, nobility, and royalty[edit]

Guillaume, Hereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg


Ross Brawn

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c "Financial Statements for the Year to 31 July 2022" (PDF). Brunel University. p. 46. Retrieved 21 February 2023.
  2. ^ a b c "Where do HE students study?". Higher Education Statistics Agency. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
  3. ^ a b "Facts and Figures: Brunel University London" (PDF). www.brunel.ac.uk. Brunel University London. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 June 2021. Retrieved 13 January 2022.
  4. ^ "Annual Report 2005" (PDF). Brunel University. 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 September 2020. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
  5. ^ "Amendments to the Charter of Brunel University London" (PDF). Brunel University. 15 February 2017. Retrieved 28 December 2022.
  6. ^ Mukerji, Siran (31 March 2010). Cases on Transnational Learning and Technologically Enabled Environments. IGI Global. p. 360. ISBN 978-1-61520-750-3.
  7. ^ "A brief history of Coopers Hill". Egham Museum. Retrieved 6 December 2021. The Egham Museum tells the story of Egham, Egham Hythe, Englefield Green, Thorpe and Virginia Water from pre-history to the present day.
  8. ^ Foweraker, Ann (15 October 2016). "The Way We Were …". Ann Foweraker. Retrieved 6 December 2021.
  9. ^ "Shoreditch Training College, Egham". The Discovery Service. The National Archives (United Kingdom). Retrieved 6 December 2021.
  10. ^ "Shoreditch College Archives". Brunel University London. Retrieved 6 December 2021.
  11. ^ "Brunel University Appoints Professor Chris Jenks Vice-Chancellor". Brunel University. 15 February 2006. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
  12. ^ "Julia Buckingham to be next Universities UK president". Times Higher Education (THE). 15 March 2019. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  13. ^ "Celebrate". www.brunel.ac.uk. Retrieved 13 January 2022.
  14. ^ "Sir Richard Sykes appointed chair of Vaccine Taskforce". GOV.UK. Retrieved 14 January 2022.
  15. ^ "Professor Andrew Jones appointed as Brunel's next Vice-Chancellor and President". www.brunel.ac.uk. Retrieved 13 January 2022.
  16. ^ "The Lecture Centre". Historic England. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  17. ^ "London's Top Brutalist Buildings". 24 May 2012.
  18. ^ "College of Engineering, Design and Physical Sciences | Brunel University London". www.brunel.ac.uk.
  19. ^ "College of Business, Arts and Social Sciences | Brunel University London". www.brunel.ac.uk.
  20. ^ "College of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences | Brunel University London". www.brunel.ac.uk.
  21. ^ "Research Institutes, Centres and Groups". www.brunel.ac.uk. Retrieved 13 January 2022.
  22. ^ "Brunel University: A Registered Charity". Brunel University. Retrieved 23 January 2012.
  23. ^ "Professor Andrew Jones". www.brunel.ac.uk. Retrieved 14 January 2022.
  24. ^ "Governance & University Committees". www.brunel.ac.uk. Retrieved 14 January 2022.
  25. ^ a b "Financial statements". www.brunel.ac.uk. Retrieved 14 January 2022.
  26. ^ "Coat of Arms". Brunel University. 6 April 2011. Archived from the original on 10 April 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
  27. ^ a b "Brunel University London". Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  28. ^ "Research Assessment Exercise 2008". Brunel University. 15 March 2011. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 4 May 2011.
  29. ^ "Research Excellence Framework 2014 | Brunel University London". Brunel.ac.uk. 17 September 2015. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
  30. ^ "History". Made in Brunel. Archived from the original on 20 August 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
  31. ^ "Shows and Events". Made in Brunel. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
  32. ^ "Complete University Guide 2025". The Complete University Guide. 14 May 2024.
  33. ^ "Guardian University Guide 2024". The Guardian. 9 September 2023.
  34. ^ "Good University Guide 2024". The Times. 15 September 2023.
  35. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2023". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 15 August 2023.
  36. ^ "QS World University Rankings 2025". Quacquarelli Symonds Ltd. 4 June 2024.
  37. ^ "THE World University Rankings 2024". Times Higher Education. 28 September 2023.
  38. ^ "World University Rankings 2014–15". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
  39. ^ "Subject Ranking 2014–15: Engineering & Technology". Times Higher Education. 13 April 2015. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  40. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities – 2014 – Top 500 universities – Shanghai Ranking – 2014 – World University Ranking – 2014". Archived from the original on 19 January 2015. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  41. ^ "100 Under 50 Rankings 2014". Times Higher Education. 13 April 2015. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  42. ^ "University League Tables 2025".
  43. ^ "Civil Engineering Subject League Table 2025".
  44. ^ "Computer Science Subject League Table 2025".
  45. ^ "Law Subject League Table 2025".
  46. ^ "Winners of the Queen's Anniversary Prizes announced". Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  47. ^ "Sex Pistols – Live Brunel University 16.12.77". discogs. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
  48. ^ "MORE MEMORIES OF THE SEX PISTOLS AT BRUNEL UNIVERSITY". record collector. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  49. ^ "Brunel University Library". Brunel University London. Retrieved 18 May 2021.
  50. ^ a b "About the Union". Union of Brunel Students. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  51. ^ "Social". Union of Brunel Students. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  52. ^ "Brunel University student to launch newspaper in memory of uncle and journalist David May | Media news". www.journalism.co.uk. 13 December 2019.
  53. ^ "Hillingdon Herald launches with columns from Prime Minister and former Shadow Chancellor". www.brunel.ac.uk. Retrieved 17 January 2022.
  54. ^ "Formula Student". Institute of Mechanical Engineers. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
  55. ^ "Brunel Racing". Brunel Racing. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
  56. ^ Bevis, Marianne, ed. (2007). "Brunnel Link Newsletter 2007" (PDF). www.brunel.ac.uk. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
  57. ^ bevaristo.com https://bevaristo.com/. Retrieved 14 August 2020. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  58. ^ https://www.ohchr.org/en/special-procedures/sr-iran
  59. ^ https://www.ohchr.org/fr/alexandra-xanthaki
  60. ^ "Dr Solon Solomon | Brunel University London".
  61. ^ Kothaneth, Lakshmi (15 February 2023). "A building is not just a structure, but a space that fulfills a purpose". Oman Daily Observer. Retrieved 11 April 2024.
  62. ^ "Seng Han Thong". Parliament of Singapore. 2011. Archived from the original on 13 July 2012. Retrieved 14 July 2012.

External links[edit]