Bruno Caruso

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Bruno Caruso
Bruno Caruso painting at his Studio in Rome.jpg
Caruso painting at his studio in Rome, 2008
Born
Bruno Caruso

August 8, 1927 (1927-08-08)
Palermo, Italy
DiedNovember 4, 2018 (2018-11-05) (aged 91)
Rome, Italy
Home townPalermo, Italy
MovementItalian Neorealism, Social Realism
Spouse(s)Vivi Maggio
Partner(s)Lidia Olivetti
AwardsGold Medal, Italian Medal of Merit for Culture and Art
ElectedAccademia di San Luca
Patron(s)Helena Rubenstein, Arthur Jeffress, Irene Brin
Websitebruno-caruso.com

Bruno Caruso (Italian: [ˈbruːno kaˈruːzo]; Palermo, 8 August 1927 – Rome, 4 November 2018[1]) was an influential Sicilian artist, graphic designer and writer[2] who spent much of his adult life working in Rome.

Caruso's work focused on the moral, political and ethical flaws of the 20th Century. He fought against influence of Sicilian Mafia in Italian politics, protested against the Vietnam War, campaigned against use of straitjackets in psychiatric wards, and championed the rights of Sicilian farmers in their battle for land ownership in the aftermath of World War II.[3]

Over the course of his career he created more than 25 collections of drawings, founded celebrated Sicilian cultural magazines, Sicilia and Ciclope, and illustrated works by Machiavelli, Kafka, Leonardo Sciascia, Giovanni Arpino and Giuseppe Ungaretti amongst many others.[4]

Caruso's work has ended up in the collections of notable 20th Century patrons of the arts, including Helena Rubenstein, Arthur Jeffress and Irene Brin.[5] In 1987 he was awarded an honorary degree from the University of Palermo,[6] and in 2001 he received the Gold Medal of Merit for Culture and Art from the President of Italy.[7] He was a member of the prestigious Accademia di San Luca. [8]

Life and works[edit]

Early life and education (1927-1948)[edit]

Il Cane/The Dog (1932) Ink Drawing textured with Needlepoint.

Bruno Caruso was born on August 8, 1927 to Giuseppe Caruso and Maria Cucco, as a scorching Sirocco wind blew through the streets of Palermo.[9] As a child he learned to draw under the tutelage of his father, mainly copying the work of classical masters like Leonardo Da Vinci, Pisanello and Andrea Mantegna.[10] His first collection of drawings was completed at age 5 (1931–32); a bestiary featuring 'Il Cane' (1932), a meticulously crafted drawing of a dog, textured by needlepoint (see image).

Caruso's early influences were the famous Orto botanico di Palermo and Monreale Cathedral, but as the Second Italo-Ethiopian War, Spanish Civil War and eventually World War II ignited, he turned his attention to depicting the horror and isolation of war. At age 19 he left Italy for the second time to visit Munich and the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna, where he was profoundly affected by the work of Gustav Klimt and George Grosz.

Immediately after the end of World War II, Caruso signed up to study Law at the University of Palermo. He earned a living by writing dissertations for exchange students, and claimed to have submitted over 100 successful papers during his time at the university.[11] Having completed his own Law degree, he began a second degree in Classics, but dropped out following a dispute over the faculty's decision to award an honorary degree to a notorious (but unnamed) Sicilian-American celebrity.[12]

In 1948 Caruso took his first trip to Prague where, confronted by the Nazi atrocities of World War II, he completed his first official collection entitled "Deutschland über alles", after George Grosz.[13]

Artistic Director, Editor and Graphic Designer[edit]

In 1953 Caruso received a commission from the Sicilian Government to create Sicilia, a magazine series celebrating Sicilian art and culture. As Artistic Director, Caruso was charged with setting up one of the first modern printing presses in Sicily, and forging strong relationships with artists, intellectuals and photographers from around the world, including Richard Avedon, Herbert List and Brassai.[14] In 1974 the magazine created a special edition in honour of Caruso, featuring a bespoke cover and 117 of his drawings.[15]

The early success of Sicilia caught the eye of Irene Brin and Gaspero del Corso, founders of the Galleria dell'Obelisco in Rome, a famous hub for Italy's artistic elite. Caruso became the director of the gallery's publishing arm and struck up close friendships with poets De Liberto, Giuseppe Ungaretti and Leonardo Sinisgalli, and painters Ben Shahn, Fabrizio Clerici, Colombotto Rosso and Renzo Vespignani.[16]

He also published the first books on The Triumph of Death (Palermo), Italian sculptor Giacomo Serpotta and German photographer Wilhelm von Gloeden.[17]

Breakthrough (1952-1956)[edit]

Caruso's association with the Galleria dell'Obelisco led to his first major solo show in 1953, followed by his first monograph in 1954, curated by Leonardo Sinisgalli. The collection made Caruso's name internationally, featuring what Sinisgalli labelled "a tiny universe of jugglers, sleep-walkers, acrobats, time-wasters, street urchins and craftsmen darting around cheerfully like fish caught in the net of a tragic, silent and unstable world",[18]

He had his first solo show in London at the Arthur Jeffress Gallery in 1955, and saw his work appear in the collections of celebrated patrons of the arts across the United States like Helena Rubenstein, Larry Aldrich, Richard Avedon, Walter Bareiss, Eric Estorick, Joan Whitney Payson, Stanley J. Seeger and John Hay Whitney.[19]

Political Drawings (1948 - 1973)[edit]

Back in Sicily, Caruso struck up a friendship with Girolamo Li Causi, leader of the Italian Communist Party, and began actively supporting the local peasant revolts. He completed a collection on the Portella della Ginestra massacre, and campaigned actively for the cultural emancipation of Sicily against the rise of the Mafia.[20] His fight against the endemic corruption in Italian politics climaxed in the 1970s when he was fighting three concurrent legal cases against Michele Sindona, Giovanni Gioia and Vito Ciancimino.[21]

Throughout the 1950s he worked at Palermo's Psychiatric Hospital (the Real Casa dei Matti di Palermo), producing a damning series of studies highlighting the use of medieval curing techniques and abject conditions in the wards, contributing to a major overhaul of the system.[22] He returned to this theme throughout his career in collections like Manicomio (1969) and La Real Casa dei Matti (1975).[23]

Over the following years Caruso travelled extensively to Iran, India, Thailand and Japan, studying Persian calligraphy and completing a series of drawings on dictatorships, famine, and the threat of nuclear warfare.[24] These drawings formed part of four collections; Il Pugno di ferro / The Iron Fist (1962); Pace in terra / Peace on Earth (1963); Totum procedit ex amore (1964); and La Tigre di carta / The Paper Tiger (1964).

He returned to the United States in the month of the Kennedy assassination, guest of Jack Levine, Tennessee Williams and Ben Shahn. On this trip he completed commissions for Time, Fortune and Life magazines and, inspired by a meeting with Malcolm X, began work on Americana (1968) in which he championed the Civil Rights Movement and stood against the Vietnam War.[25]

The fight against the Vietnam War became one of Caruso's most active political stands. He was invited to Hanoi by Phạm Văn Đồng, the Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, and edited four books in support of their plight, including Vietnam: Biographia e documenti sull'aggressione imperialistica contro il popolo Vietnamita (1972). In 1972 he illustrated the last testament of Ho Chi Minh.

Death (2018)[edit]

Bruno Caruso's last drawing (2018). Pencil on paper. Completed in his hospital bed shortly before his death.

Bruno Caruso died on 4 November 2018 at the Regina Margherita hospice in Rome. He was 91 years old. Days before his death his son, Roberto Caruso, gave him a pencil and paper and, despite having refused to work for almost two years, he completed one final drawing; a melted, disfigured face (see image).[26]

Leoluca Orlando, the Mayor of Palermo, paid tribute to Caruso's career saying;

"The death of Bruno Caruso marks the disappearance of one of the most sensitive and committed figures in the artistic and cultural panorama of our city. A man whose unmistakable style always highlighted social issues, and gave voice to those who needed it most, right up until the last."[27]

Honours[edit]

  • Premio Archimede, Archimedes Prize
    Palermo, 2003 "Honouring the most important Sicilians from around the world."[29]
  • Honorary Citizenship, City of Naro
    Naro, 2000 "The award of the honorary citizenship of Naro is based on Bruno Caruso's moral and artistic character."[31]
  • Honorary Degree in Letters and Philosophy, University of Palermo
    Palermo, 1986[35]

Collections of drawings[edit]

  • Deutschland über Alles, Weiss Buch, 1949
  • Il Pugno di Ferro [The Iron Fist], (cover, introduction and drawings by Bruno Caruso), Leonardo da Vinci Editors, Bari 1962
  • Pace in Terra [Peace on Earth], (cover by Ben Shahn, introduction and 56 drawings by Bruno Caruso), Leonardo da Vinci Editors, Bari 1963
  • Totum procedit ex amore (with drawings and stories by Bruno Caruso), Edizioni dell'Elefante, Rome 1964
  • La Tigre di Carta [The Paper Tiger], (cover, introduction and 17 drawings by Bruno Caruso), Leonardo da Vinci Editors, Bari 1964
  • Manoscritto sulle meraviglie della natura [Manuscript on the Marvels of Nature], edition of 500 numbered and signed by Bruno Caruso, Bestetti, Rome 1968
  • Americana, (folder containing 8 drawings by Bruno Caruso), Societa Gestione Riviste Associate, 1968
  • Repertorio Animalesco, (with text by Elio Mercuri and 6 drawings in black and white and 24 colour panels by Bruno Caruso), Alfani Editor, Rome 1972
  • Disegni Siciliani di Bruno Caruso [Bruno Caruso's Sicilian Drawings], (text by Leonardo Sciascia and 37 drawings by Bruno Caruso), Edizione La Tavolozza, Palermo 1972
  • Anatomia della società civile 1971-1972 [Anatomy of Civil Society], (with 50 watercolour drawings by Bruno Caruso), Edizioni Galleria Giulia, Rome 1972
  • Disegni Politici di Bruno Caruso [Bruno Caruso's Political Drawings], (with 106 drawings by Bruno Caruso and an introduction by Roberto Giammanco), Dedalo Libri, Bari 1973
  • La Real Casa dei Matti [The Real Mental Asylum], (with 46 drawings by Bruno Caruso and an introduction by Franco Basaglia), Dedalo Libri, Bari 1975
  • Il Fiore Rosso, Disegni politici di Bruno Caruso [The Red Flower, Political Drawings by Bruno Caruso], (with 116 drawings by Bruno Caruso), Edizione Images 70 Arte Moderna, Padua 1976
  • Studi e disegni per la Real Casa dei Matti [Sketches and Drawings for The Real Mental Asylum], (introduction by Elio Mercuri), Edizioni La Torretta, Rome 1976
  • Mitologia dell'Arte Moderna [The Mythology of Modern Art], (introduction and 117 drawings by Bruno Caruso), Franca May Edizioni, Rome 1977
  • L'elefante Nero. Figure della cultura a Catania [The Black Elephant. Cultural Figures from Catania], (with 49 drawings by Bruno Caruso), Tringale Editore, Catania 1980
  • Le giornate della pittura [the Days of Paintings], (with text by Leonardo Sciascia, cover and 108 drawings by Bruno Caruso), Rizzoli Editore, Milan 1981
  • A la manera española, (with 98 drawings by Bruno Caruso), Arnaldo Lombardi Editore, Syracuse 1997
  • Alla maniera española [The Spanish Way], (with 98 drawings by Bruno Caruso), Arnaldo Lombardi Editore, Syracuse 1999
  • Napoli 1799, Edizioni De Luca, Rome 1999
  • Il Gattopardo e i racconti di Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa [The Leopard and stories about Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa], Fondazione Federico II Rubettino, Palermo 2001
  • Gli Arabi in Sicilia nei disegni di Bruno Caruso [Arabs in Sicily in the drawings of Bruno Caruso], Gruppo Editoriale Kalos, Palermo 2002
  • Il Teatro Biondo. Manoscritto di Bruno Caruso [Palermo's Teatro Biondo. A Manuscript by Bruno Caruso], (with 50 drawings by Bruno Caruso), Teatro Biondo Stabile di Palermo, Palermo 2003

Exhibitions (1950 - 1965)[edit]

  • 1951 — Palermo, Galleria Zabara: Sicilian Painters
  • 1951 — Palermo, Giovane Sicilia: Contemporary Painters
  • 1952 — Palermo, La Serenella: Bruno Caruso
  • 1952 — Palermo, Galleria Arcobaleno: Bruno Caruso
  • 1954 — Rome, Galleria dell'Obelisco: Joie de Vivre
  • 1954 — Rome, Galleria dell'Obelisco: Bruno Caruso
  • 1954 — Venice, Venice Biennale
  • 1954 — Rome, Galleria dell'Obelisco: 5 Painters, 5 Sculptors, American Federation of Arts
  • 1954 — Cincinnati, Cincinnati Museum of Modern Art: Young Italian Painters
  • 1954 — Wakefield, Wakefield City Art Gallery: Contemporary Italian Art
  • 1955 — US Tour, 20 Imaginary Views of the American Scene by 20 Italian Artists
  • 1955 — Rome, Galleria dell'Obelisco: Around the World
  • 1955 — London, Arthur Jeffress Gallery: Bruno Caruso
  • 1955 — Venice, Third Esso Prize
  • 1955 — Milan, Galleria del Sole: Paintings & Drawings by Bruno Caruso
  • 1955 — Rome, VII Rome Quadriennale
  • 1955 — Prato, 60 Masters for the Next 30 Years
  • 1955 — Minnesota, Weisman Art Museum: Contemporary Italian Art
  • 1955 — Sydney, L'Obelisco of Rome at David Jones
  • 1956 — Rome, Galleria dell'Obelisco: Bruno Caruso
  • 1956 — Zurich, Galerie H.U. Gasser: Bruno Caruso
  • 1956 — London, Tate Gallery: Modern Italian Art
  • 1956 — Turin, Galleria la Bussola: Bruno Caruso
  • 1956 — Venice, Galleria del Cavallino: Bruno Caruso
  • 1957 — Rome, Galleria d'Arte Moderna: Exhibition in support of Exiled Hungarian Artists
  • 1958 — Palermo, Galleria Flaccovio: Bruno Caruso
  • 1958 — Milan, La Permanente: Young Italian Artists
  • 1958 — London, Arthur Jeffress Gallery: Bruno Caruso
  • 1958 — Rome, Galleria dell'Obelisco: Bruno Caruso
  • 1958 — Berlin, Akademie Der Kunst: Italienische Kunst Am XX Jahrhundert
  • 1958 — Paris, Galerie d'Art Moderne: Paris Biennale
  • 1959 — Lima, Pintura Italiana
  • 1959 — Rome, Galleria dell'Obelisco: Bruno Caruso
  • 1959 — San Francisco, Museum of Modern Art: Italy Three Directions
  • 1959 — Pisa, Contemporary Italian Graphic Work
  • 1959 — Paris, Galerie Rive Gauche: Bruno Caruso
  • 1959 — Pasadena, Pasadena Art Museum: 20th Century Art of Italy
  • 1960 — Parma, Galleria del Teatro: Bruno Caruso
  • 1960 — Rome, Galleria dell'Obelisco: Bruno Caruso, New York Drawings
  • 1961 — Rome, Galleria Chiurazzi: 7 works by Bruno Caruso
  • 1961 — São Paulo, Galleria Sistina: Bruno Caruso
  • 1961 — Modena, Sala Comunale: Bruno Caruso
  • 1961 — Genoa, Galleria San Matteo: Bruno Caruso
  • 1961 — Rome, Galleria dell'Obelisco: The Sculptures of Bruno Caruso
  • 1961 — Rome, Galleria Il Torcoliere: Bruno Caruso, Drawings, Etchings, Lithographs
  • 1961 — Rome, Galleria dell'Obelisco: Against Nazism
  • 1961 — Naples, Galleria Il Centro: Bruno Caruso
  • 1961 — Milan, Galleria la Colonna: Bruno Caruso
  • 1962 — Rome, Libreria al Ferro di Cavallo: Bruno Caruso, Pugno di Ferro
  • 1962 — Bologna, Galleria Bianco e Nero: Bruno Caruso
  • 1962 — Milan, Galleria Hoepli: Don't Forget
  • 1962 — New York, ACA Gallery: Italian Art Today
  • 1963 — Tokyo, Institute of Culture: Bruno Caruso and Franco Gentilini
  • 1963 — Rome, Galleria Don Chiscotte: Bruno Caruso
  • 1963 — Milan, Galleria Gianferrari: Bruno Caruso
  • 1963 — Bari, Galleria La Panchetta: Bruno Caruso
  • 1963 — New York, D'Arcy Gallery: Italian Drawing Today
  • 1963 — Alexandria, V Biennale of the Mediterranean
  • 1963 — Hamburg, Copenhagen: Junge Italienische Malerei
  • 1963 — Rome, Galleria Don Chiscotte: Masters of Italian Painting
  • 1963 — Rome, Galleria Sistina: Inauguration of 1963/64 Program
  • 1964 — Palermo, Arte al Borgo: Bruno Caruso
  • 1964 — Ferrara, Galleria Bigoni: Bruno Caruso
  • 1964 — Rome, ACA Gallery: Bruno Caruso
  • 1964 — Rome, Galleria Il Fante di Spade: New Italian Drawings
  • 1964 — Milan, Galleria 32: Caruso, Guttuso, Porzano
  • 1964 — Padua, Galleria Interni: Bruno Caruso
  • 1964 — Moscow, Exhibition of 6 Graphic Artists
  • 1964 — Rome, Galleria Penelope: Anthology of Drawings and Etchings
  • 1965 — Rome, Galleria Bianco e Nero: Bruno Caruso
  • 1965 — Milan, Galleria 32: Bruno Caruso
  • 1965 — Turin, Galleria l'Approdo: Paintings of Bruno Caruso
  • 1965 — Bari, Galleria la Panchetta: Graphic work of Bruno Caruso
  • 1965 — Caltanissetta, Graphic work of Bruno Caruso
  • 1965 — Rome, Palazzo delle Espozizioni: Quadriennale d'Arte
  • 1965 — Rome, ANPPIA: Anti fascism and Resistance
  • 1965 — Milan, La Permanente: Biennale di Milano
  • 1965 — Florence, Palazzo Strozzi: XVII National Exhibition, Fiorino Award
  • 1965 — Parma, The Scalarini National Award for Political Drawings

Further reading[edit]

  • Sinisgalli, Leonardo; Bruno Caruso, (with 27 drawings by Bruno Caruso), Galleria dell'Obelisco, Rome 1954
  • Bigiaretti, Libero; Dipinti e disegni di Bruno Caruso (1952-1955), (with 24 drawings and 18 panels by Bruno Caruso), G.Priulla Editor, Palermo 1955
  • Fazio, Peppe; Opera grafica di Bruno Caruso, (with 15 drawings and 14 panels by Bruno Caruso), Zangara Editor, Palermo 1958
  • Opera grafica di Bruno Caruso, (with 58 drawings by Bruno Caruso) introduction by Elio Mercuri, Salvatore Sciascia Editor, Caltanissetta - Rome 1966
  • Disegni di Bruno Caruso, (text by Leonardo Sciascia and 42 drawings by Bruno Caruso), Carte Segrete, Rome 1968
  • Galleria Number 1-2. Bi-monthly edition dedicated to Bruno Caruso, curated by Elio Mercuri, Salvatore Sciascia Editor, Caltanissetta - Rome 1969
  • Bruno Caruso, (with one etching by Bruno Caruso), Bolaffi Grafica Catalogue, Turin 1971
  • Micacchi, Dario; Disegni di Bruno Caruso,(with 122 drawings by Bruno Caruso), Alfani Editor, Rome 1974
  • Sicilia N.74 special edition dedicated to Bruno Caruso, (cover and 117 drawings by Bruno Caruso) S.F Flaccovio Editor, Palermo 1974
  • Ragionamenti. Monthly politics, economics and culture magazine, (with 41 drawings by Bruno Caruso), 1974
  • Bilardello, Enzo; Caruso, (with 103 drawings by Bruno Caruso), Edizioni 32, Rome 1975
  • Grasso, Franco; La Pietra Celeste, (with 32 drawings by Bruno Caruso), Meschis Editor, Palermo 1975
  • Di Puolo, Maurizio; Caruso. Drawings 1953-1982, (with 37 drawings by Bruno Caruso), European Editorial Institute, Macerata 1982
  • Bruno Caruso, Mormino Foundation, (with text by Enzo Bilardello and 280 drawings by Bruno Caruso), Sergio Flaccovio Editor, Palermo 1986
  • Natura Morte, (with 12 panels by Bruno Caruso), Arnaldo Lombardi Editor, Palermo 1986
  • Bruno Caruso e la pittura della memoria (text by Giuseppe Quatriglio with 12 panels by Bruno Caruso), Salvatore Sciascia Editor, Caltanissetta - Rome 1989
  • Occasioni figurative per Bruno Caruso e altri artisti (text by Natale Tedesco with 50 drawings by Bruno Caruso), Ediprint, Syracuse 1988
  • Nuove Effemeridi N.12. dedicated to Bruno Caruso (with 1 etching by Bruno Caruso), Edizioni Guida, Palermo 1990
  • Fagiolo, Maurizio; Mezzo secolo di Caruso, 1994
  • Napoleone, Caterina; L'Arte del Disegno, Edizioni ETS, Pisa 2012

References[edit]

  1. ^ https://www.artribune.com/arti-visive/arte-contemporanea/2018/11/morto-bruno-caruso-limpegno-civile-e-il-racconto-poetico-del-pittore/%7CMorto Bruno Caruso. L’impegno civile e il racconto poetico del pittore
  2. ^ http://www.getty.edu/vow/ULANFullDisplay?find=Bruno+Caruso&role=&nation=&prev_page=1&subjectid=500060741%7CGetty - Union List of Artist Names
  3. ^ https://bruno-caruso.com/about%7CBruno Caruso - Official Website
  4. ^ Bruno Caruso Antologia di disegni 1945-1995. Edizioni Nuova Tavolozza. 1995. p. 58.
  5. ^ Leonardo Sinisgalli (1954). Bruno Caruso. Rome: Edizioni dell'Obelisco. p. 6.
  6. ^ https://www.accademiasanluca.eu/it/accademici/id/181/bruno-caruso
  7. ^ https://www.quirinale.it/onorificenze/insigniti/10034
  8. ^ https://www.accademiasanluca.eu/it/accademici/id/181/bruno-caruso
  9. ^ Bruno Caruso, I Libri. Palermo: Edizioni Nuova Tavolozza. 1995. p. 76.
  10. ^ Bruno Caruso Antologia di disegni 1945-1995. Edizioni Nuova Tavolozza. 1995. p. 58.
  11. ^ Bruno Caruso, I Libri. Palermo: Edizioni Nuova Tavolozza. 1995. p. 77.
  12. ^ Bruno Caruso, I Libri. Palermo: Edizioni Nuova Tavolozza. 1995. p. 77.
  13. ^ Enzo Bilardello (1975). Caruso. Rome: Edizioni 32. p. 65.
  14. ^ Bruno Caruso, I Libri. Palermo: Edizioni Nuova Tavolozza. 1995. p. 77.
  15. ^ Sicilia N.74 special edition dedicated to Bruno Caruso. Palermo: S.F Flaccovio. 1974.
  16. ^ Bruno Caruso, I Libri. Palermo: Edizioni Nuova Tavolozza. 1995. p. 77.
  17. ^ Bruno Caruso, I Libri. Palermo: Edizioni Nuova Tavolozza. 1995. p. 77.
  18. ^ Leonardo Sinisgalli (1954). Bruno Caruso. Rome: Edizioni dell'Obelisco. p. 6.
  19. ^ Leonardo Sinisgalli (1954). Bruno Caruso. Rome: Edizioni dell'Obelisco. p. 12.
  20. ^ Bruno Caruso Antologia di disegni 1945-1995. Edizioni Nuova Tavolozza. 1995. p. 58.
  21. ^ Bruno Caruso I Libri. Edizioni Nuova Tavolozza. 1995. p. 78.
  22. ^ "Official Website"
  23. ^ Bruno Caruso Antologia di disegni 1945-1995. Edizioni Nuova Tavolozza. 1995. p. 58.
  24. ^ Bruno Caruso Antologia di disegni 1945-1995. Edizioni Nuova Tavolozza. 1995. p. 58.
  25. ^ Bruno Caruso Antologia di disegni 1945-1995. Edizioni Nuova Tavolozza. 1995. p. 58.
  26. ^ "Official Website"
  27. ^ "Palermo, addio a Bruno Caruso, il pittore dei ficus e dei matti"
  28. ^ https://ladante.it/chi-siamo/benemerenze-e-premi.html?start=8
  29. ^ https://www.accademiasanluca.eu/it/accademici/id/181/bruno-caruso
  30. ^ https://www.quirinale.it/onorificenze/insigniti/10034
  31. ^ http://www.comune.naro.ag.it/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=444&Itemid=444
  32. ^ http://www.castelbuono.org/lamministrazione-comunale-indice-una-commemorazione-pubblica-per-il-maestro-bruno-caruso/
  33. ^ https://www.quirinale.it/onorificenze/ricerca/insegna/60
  34. ^ https://www.accademiasanluca.eu/it/accademici/id/181/bruno-caruso
  35. ^ https://www.accademiasanluca.eu/it/accademici/id/181/bruno-caruso

External links[edit]