Woodward East Historic District
|Location||Detroit, Michigan, U.S.|
|Coordinates||42°20′43″N 83°3′9″W / 42.34528°N 83.05250°W|
|Architect||Henry T Brush, Gordon W Lloyd, Mortimer L Smith, Julius Hess, Alamon C Varney, John V Smith, Albert Kahn.|
|Architectural style||Late Victorian, French Renaissance Revival, Second Empire, Italianate|
|NRHP reference No.||75000973|
|Added to NRHP||January 21, 1975|
|Designated MSHS||September 17, 1974|
The Brush Park Historic District is a neighborhood located in Detroit, Michigan. It is bounded by Mack Avenue on the north, Woodward Avenue on the west, Beaubien Street on the east, and the Fisher Freeway on the south. The Woodward East Historic District, a smaller historic district completely encompassed by the larger Brush Park neighborhood, is located on Alfred, Edmund, and Watson Streets, from Brush Street to John R. Street, and is recognized by the National Register of Historic Places.
Originally part of a French ribbon farm, Brush Park was developed beginning in the 1850s as an upscale residential neighborhood for Detroit's elite citizens by entrepreneur Edmund Askin Brush. Dozens of Victorian mansions were built there during the final decades of the nineteenth century, and Brush Park was nicknamed "Little Paris" due to its elegant architecture. The neighborhood's heyday didn't last long, however: by the early twentieth century most of is affluent residents started moving to more modern, quieter districts, and Brush Park was quickly populated by members of Detroit's fast-growing working class. Severely affected by depopulation, blight and crime during the 1970s and 1980s, the neighborhood is currently experiencing restorations of its historic buildings and luring new residents.
The land now occupied by the Brush Park district was originally part of a ribbon farm dating back to the French colonial period, initially conceded by Charles de la Boische, Marquis de Beauharnois to Laurence Eustache Gamelin for military services on May 1, 1747. The farm had a frontage of two arpents (about 386 feet) on the Detroit River, and extended back into the interior eighty arpents; it was bounded on the west by the Commons (Domaine du Roy), and on the east by the farm of Jean Baptiste Beaubien. After the death of its second owner, Jacques Pilet, the farm was acquired by the prominent Barthe family, and in the late eighteenth century John Askin, an Irish fur trader and land speculator, obtained it through marriage with Marie-Archange Barthe. In 1802, Askin's daughter Adelaide married Elijah Brush, a Vermont lawyer who would soon become Detroit's second mayor from its first incorporation; on October 31, 1806, Elijah purchased the farm – legally designated as "Private Claim 1" – for $6000.
Beginning in the 1850s, entrepreneur Edmund Askin Brush, son of Elijah, began developing his family's property, located conveniently close to downtown, into a neighborhood for Detroit's elite citizens. The first street, named after Colonel John Winder, was opened in 1852; the other streets followed soon afterwards (Adelaide in 1853, Alfred in 1869, Edmund in 1867) and were mainly named after members of the Brush family. The area was developed with care: the land directly facing Woodward Avenue was subdivided into large and expensive lots, soon occupied by religious buildings and opulent mansions rivaling those built along East Jefferson Avenue and West Fort Street, while the land to the east was partitioned into relatively smaller, fifty feet wide parcels. Severe restrictions required the construction of high-end, elegant mansions, giving a uniform and exclusive character to the neighborhood. In the late 19th century, Brush Park became known as the "Little Paris of the Midwest."
Architects who designed these mansions included Julius Hess, Henry T. Brush, George D. Mason, Gordon W Lloyd, Elijah E Myers, Martin A Edwards George W. Nettleton, and Albert Kahn. Homes were built in Brush Park beginning in the 1860s and peaking in the 1870s and 1880s; one of the last homes built was constructed in 1906 by Albert Kahn for his personal use. Other early residents of Brush Park included lumber baron David Whitney Jr. and his daughter, Grace Whitney Evans; businessman Dexter M. Ferry; Joseph L. Hudson, founder of the eponymous department store; Fulton Iron Works founder Delos Rice; lumber baron Lucien S. Moore; banker Frederick Butler; merchant John P. Fiske; Dime Savings Bank president William Livingstone Jr.; and dry goods manufacturer Ransom Gillis.
In the 1890s the character of the subdivision began to change, as many prominent members of the local German Jewish community moved to Brush Park. This period of the neighborhood's history is recorded by the neoclassical Temple Beth-El, designed by Albert Kahn for the Reform Congregation and constructed in 1902. Around the same time, Brush Park saw the construction of its first apartment buildings. Some of the neighborhood's earliest examples of this type of structure were the Luben Apartments, built in 1901 by architect Edwin W. Gregory and demolished in 2010, and the Alfred Apartments, built in 1903 by architect Alamon C. Varney and demolished in 1930s. These apartments featured large and sumptuous units, and their design blended with those of the surrounding mansions; however, the construction of apartment buildings undoubtedly represented a decrease in the quality of Brush Park's building stock.
The neighborhood began to decline at the turn of the 20th century, when the advent of streetcars and then automobiles allowed prosperous citizens to live farther from downtown: early residents moved out, notably to up-and-coming districts such as Indian Village and Boston–Edison, and Brush Park became less fashionable. The Woodward Avenue frontage rapidly lost its residential character, as the lavish mansions were demolished to make way for commercial buildings; those that survived were demolished in the 1935 Woodward widening. Throughout the subdivision, homes were converted to apartments or rooming houses – often with the construction of two- and three-story rear additions – to accommodate workers of the booming automobile industry, and dozens of structures were razed for surface parking lots. By 1921, all of the homes on Alfred Street were apartments or rooming houses.
By the 1930s many African Americans had moved into the area; as a result, Brush Park became home to a vibrant black community, together with the nearby Black Bottom–Paradise Valley area. African American institutions located in Brush Park included St. Peter Claver, the first Catholic parish for African Americans in Detroit, established in 1914 in the former St. Mary's Episcopal church at Beaubien and Eliot; the Most Worshipful Mt. Sinai Grand Lodge, a black masonic lodge located at 312 Watson; and the Mercy General Hospital and Clinic. Mercy Hospital was the first black-owned hospital in Detroit; founded by Dr. David Northcross in 1917, it was originally located at 248 Winder Street, and later relocated to 668 Winder.
The Great Depression and the racial tensions of the 1940s (part of the 1943 race riot took place in the streets of Brush Park) led to a rapid deterioration of the neighborhood. Longtime resident Russell McLauchlin described Brush Park's decline in the preface to his book Alfred Street (1946):
[Alfred Street] is now in what city-planners call a blighted area. The elms were long ago cut down. No representative of the old neighbor families remains. The houses, mostly standing as they stood a half-century ago, are dismal structures. Some have night-blooming grocery stores in their front yards. Some have boarded windows. All stand in bitter need of paint and repair. It is a desolate street; a scene of poverty and chop-fallen gloom; possibly of worse things.
Starting in the 1960s, many of the buildings became unoccupied and fell into disrepair; however, the neighborhood maintained much of its historical integrity, and some attempts were made to preserve it. The first serious redevelopment plan in Brush Park's history was the Woodward East Renaissance project, planned to be completed in 1976, America's bicentennial year. The ambitious plan included restoring the surviving historic mansions and erecting modern residential buildings on the empty lots, but it was left unrealized due to disorganization. The area bounded by Alfred, Brush, Watson, and John R. Streets, named Woodward East Historic District, was designated a Michigan State Historic Site on September 17, 1974, and listed on the National Register of Historic Places on January 21, 1975; the larger Brush Park Historic District, bounded by Woodward, Mack, Beaubien, and the Fisher Freeway, was established by the City of Detroit on January 23, 1980. Despite these attempts to save what was left of the neighborhood's historic character, by the 1980s Brush Park had gradually fallen into a state of "nearly total abandonment and disintegration," gaining a poor reputation as one of Detroit's most derelict areas. Abandoned buildings became targets for vandals and arsonists: as a result, dozens of structures were demolished by the city for security reasons. During the 19th century, around 300 homes were built in Brush Park, including 70 Victorian mansions; at present, about 80 original structures remain in the area. Notable buildings that were demolished include the Woodward Avenue Baptist Church (1887), destroyed by fire in 1986, and St. Patrick Catholic Church (1862), destroyed by fire in 1993.
Brush Park's revival began in the 1990s and has since accelerated. Several historic houses were stabilized and "mothballed" by the City of Detroit between 2005 and 2006, on the occasion of the Super Bowl XL played at the nearby Ford Field. New condominiums have been built in the southern part of the district, near the Fisher Freeway, and a number of the older mansions have been restored. A handful of buildings still remain in a state of complete neglect, and are threatened with demolition.
The French Renaissance style William Livingstone House (1894) on Eliot Street was one of Kahn's first commissions. The Red Cross intended to demolish the mansion, originally located west of John R. Street, to make way for their new building. Preservationists succeeded in successfully moving the Livingstone House about one block to the east. Nevertheless, after this change of position some serious structural problems concerning the house's foundations caused the gradual collapse of the building. Artist Lowell Boileau commemorated the William Livingstone House in a painting entitled Open House which he unveiled the day of its demolition September 15, 2007, underscoring preservationist efforts.
On May 10, 2014, the historic First Unitarian Church caught fire under suspicious circumstances and was consequently demolished. The building, which was designed by Donaldson and Meier and dated back to 1890, represents one of the greatest losses in Brush Park's recent history, since it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Woodward Avenue Baptist Church built in 1887 by the architects Mortimer Smith & Sons and reformed for the 1936 Woodward widenning was destroyed by fire 1986.
George Jerome House in 251 Alfred Street, built in 1877 possibly by architect Henry T Brush and demolished in 1935.
George C Codd House in 56 Adelaide built in 1874 and designed by Mortimer L Smith, was demolished in 1950s.
The Simon Heavenrich House in 81 Winder built in 1875, designed by Gordon W Lloyd and demolished in 1931. The house was extensively remodeled in the 1910s to become the Christ Center Metaphysical Church.
D.M Ferry House in 57 Winder built in 1869 and demolished in 1950s.
Grover Salman Wormer Residence in 115 E High street built in 1854( reformed in 1877) and demolished in 1960s. The house and the street were destroyed for the construction of the Fisher Freeway.
The First Unitarian Church built 1890 by the architects Donaldson y Meier was destroyed by fire in 2014.
The St Patrick Church built in 1862 in 114 Adelaide by the architects Jordan & Anderson was destroyed by fire in 1993.
Original Woodward Avenue Baptist Church before the 1935 reformation.
The William Livingstone House in 76 Eliot (original direction) built in 1894 by the architect Albert Kahn and demolished in 2007.
Residence of John Pridgeon in the southeast corner of Alfred and Woodward was built in 1868 by the architect Gordon W Lloyd and demolished in 1890s.
|Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity House||1912||293 Eliot St.||American Foursquare||Since May 15, 1939, this building has housed Gamma Lambda Chapter, a local chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha African-American Greek-lettered fraternity. Detroit's Gamma Lambda Chapter, founded in 1919, "served as a focal point for black social, cultural, educational, and community service activities in an era when there were few other outlets." The house, built around 1918, was designated a Michigan State Historic Site on August 30, 1977.|
|Bonstelle Theatre||1902||3424 Woodward Ave.||Beaux-Arts, Greek Revival||Albert Kahn; C. Howard Crane (remodeling)||In accordance with the wishes of rabbi Leo M. Franklin, Albert Kahn designed this neoclassical temple on Woodward Avenue for Detroit's Jewish community. Groundbreaking began on November 25, 1901, with the ceremonial cornerstone laid on April 23, 1902. After the construction of a new synagogue at 8801 Woodward, in 1925 the Temple Beth El was converted into a theater by C. Howard Crane; the façade was later strongly altered with the 1936 Woodward widening. The structure – the oldest synagogue building in Detroit – is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.|
|Max Broock House||1905||233 Erskine St.||Edwardian||Mueller & Mildner||This house was built in 1905 for Max Broock, a real estate and insurance broker whose offices were located in the Breitmeyer-Tobin Building. Designed by the Detroit firm of Mueller & Mildner, the structure "reflects strongly the transitional character of many houses of the Edwardian period – part Victorian, and part twentieth century."|
|Frederick Butler House||1882||291 Edmund Pl.||French Renaissance Revival, Second Empire||William Scott & Co.||Built in 1882, the Frederick E Butler House is a French Renaissance Second Empire style mansion containing 8,400 sq ft (780 m2); the original owner, Frederick Eugene Butler (1851-1920), was a banker. It was restored and converted to condos in 2006. The house, located within the Woodward East Historic District, is presently now as Edmund Place.|
|James V. Campbell House||1877||261 Alfred St.||Italianate||James Valentine Campbell (1823–1890) was secretary of the Board of Regents of the University of Michigan, justice of the Michigan Supreme Court, and Marshall Professor of Law at the University of Michigan. The house was occupied by the Campbell family from 1877 to 1891. The building is within the Woodward East Historic District.|
|The Carlton||1923||2915 John R. St. at Edmund||Beaux-Arts, Chicago School||Louis Kamper||The Carlton Plaza Hotel opened on May 31, 1924; designed by famed Detroit architect Louis Kamper, it was his "12th major commission, and his firm's first documented hotel project." During the Jazz Age, the hotel became a popular gathering place for wealthy and affluent African-Americans, including some of the biggest names in jazz. In 1950, Ebony magazine described the Carlton as "the most beautifully decorated and most elaborately furnished hotel for Negroes anywhere in the U.S."; in May 1960, Jet heralded it as "the premier destination for the discriminating negro." By the 1980s, the hotel had progressively fell into decay; taken over by the City of Detroit and shuttered in the 1990s, it was bought by private investors and renovated as condominiums in 2005.|
|Carola Apartments||1912||78 Watson St.||Renaissance Revival||Renovated as condominiums.|
|Lyman Cochrane House||1870||216 Winder St.||Italianate||This house is a relatively rare example of residential Italianate architecture in Detroit. It was originally built for eye doctor John F. Terry, but in 1871 was sold to Lyman Cochrane. Cochrane was a state senator and Superior Court Judge, serving in this capacity until his death in 1879.|
|Crystal lofts||1919||3100 Woodward Ave. at Watson||Art Deco||Bernard C. Wetzel||Originally constructed by architect Bernard C. Wetzel for Hugh Chalmers as a ballroom (the Crystal Palace), the building was recently renovated as condominiums. The Art Deco façade was added in 1936 for the Woodward widenning.|
|J.P. Donaldson House||1879||82 Alfred St.||Queen Anne||Mason & Rice; Gordon W. Lloyd (remodeling)||This house was built in 1879 for James P. Donaldson, a ship chandler. In 1892, David Charles Whitney (son of David Whitney Jr.) acquired the home, which was completely renovated by Gordon W. Lloyd. At the time it was said to be one of the most substantial homes in Detroit and valued at $30,000 (today $750,000±). The home had several other owners before becoming a rooming house; in 2012 the building was sold to a private buyer for $110,000. In the same year the mansion has been a movie set for the vampire film Only Lovers Left Alive, directed by Jim Jarmusch.|
|Martin A Edwards House||1899||305 Eliot St.||Victorian, Edwardian||Donaldson & Meier||Built in 1899 for Martin A Edward, a constructor, was later sold to Clifford Elliot ,a wholesale grocery executive, this turn-of-the-century house exemplifies the transition from the Victorian design to the Edwardian style of architecture.|
|First Presbyterian Church||1889||2930 Woodward Ave.||Richardsonian Romanesque||George D. Mason||George D. Mason modeled the First Presbyterian Church after Henry Hobson Richardson's Trinity Church in Boston. When Woodward was widened in 1936, the elaborately-carved entrance porch was moved from the Woodward façade to the Edmund Place side. The church is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.|
|John P. Fiske House||1875||261 Edmund Pl.||Second Empire, French Renaissance Revival, Victorian||Henry T Brush & Mortimer L Smith||Originally built for Alfred F. Wilcox in 1875 later sold to John P. Fiske, he was a Detroit merchant of china and crockery. The house, located within the Woodward East Historic District, was designated a Michigan State Historic Site on August 18, 1988.|
|Ransom Gillis House||1876||205 Alfred St. at John R.||Venetian Gothic||Henry T. Brush & George D. Mason||This building has been heavily documented by John Kossik and photographed by documentarian Camilo José Vergara. The house, built between 1876 and 1878 for Ransom Gillis (1838-1901), a wholesale dry goods merchant, is within the Woodward East Historic District.|
|Bernard Ginsburg House||1898||236 Adelaide St.||Tudor Revival||George W. Nettleton & Albert Kahn||Bernard Ginsburg (1863-1931) was an important figure in philanthropy, civic service, and the Jewish community in Detroit during the late 19th and early 20th century. He commissioned architect Albert Kahn to design this house, one of Kahn's earliest works. Kahn went on to become well known in industrial and commercial architecture; the Ginsburg house and its English Renaissance style exhibited is typical of Kahn's early work. The house is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.|
|John Harvey House||1887||97 Winder St.||Second Empire||John V. Smith||John Harvey (1835-1905) was a pharmacist and philanthropist. The house contains 11,000 square feet (1,000 m2), eight marble fireplaces, and three-story staircase. Developers purchased the John Harvey House in 1986, renovated the structure, and, in 2005, opened it as the Inn at 97 Winder, a bed and breakfast. The house is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.|
|Hudson–Evans House||1873||79 Alfred St.||Second Empire, French Renaissance Revival, Italianate||Julius Hess||Also known as the Joseph Lothian Hudson House or the Grace Whitney Evans House. Built in 1874 for shipowner Philo Wright, the house was a gift from David Whitney Jr. to his daughter Grace upon her marriage to John Evans in 1882. It later became the Joseph L. Hudson family residence. Listed on the National Register of Historic Places.|
|Albert Kahn House||1906||208 Mack Ave.||English Renaissance||Albert Kahn||In 1906, architect Albert Kahn (1869-1942) built a home for his personal use. He lived in this mansion fronting Mack Avenue from 1906 until his death in 1942; the structure was later obtained by the Detroit Urban League, which still uses it today. The house is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.|
|George Ladve House||1886||269 Edmund Pl.||Eastlake Victorian||Originally owned by George Ladve, 269 Edmund Pl., an Eastlake Victorian style mansion built in 1886 and restored in 2008, contains 7,400 sq ft (690 m2). Ladve had owned a carpet and upholstery company. In the late 1890s, the Frohlich family added a music room. Edward P. Frohlich was among the original philanthropists to the Detroit Symphony Orchestra. The house is within the Woodward East Historic District.|
|Lucien S. Moore House||1885||104 Edmund Pl.||French Renaissance Revival, Gothic Revival||Originally owned by lumber baron Lucien S. Moore, 104 Edmund Place, built around 1885 in a French Renaissance Gothic Revival style and restored in 2006, has 7,000 sq ft (650 m2). The Lucien Moore House restoration was featured December 27, 2005, by HGTV's restore America Initiative in partnership with the National Trust for Historic Preservation. It may also be known as the Moorie Town House or The Edmund.|
|Patterson Terrace||1905||203-209-213 Erskine St.||Richardsonian Romanesque||Joy & Barcroft||Abandoned after a fire, completely renovated and converted into luxury apartments. |
|H.P. Pulling House||1874||48 Edmund Pl.||Victorian||Henry Perry Pulling (1814–1890) was a doctor and the president of the Peninsular Bank from 1860 until its closure in 1870.|
|Emanuel Schloss House||1872||234 Winder St.||Second Empire||Built between 1870 and 1872, this Second Empire house was the residence of Emanuel Schloss and his wife, Rebecca. Emanuel Schloss was a dry goods merchant and haberdasher; an active member of the Detroit Jewish community, he served in 1860 as president of Temple Beth El, the oldest Jewish congregation in Michigan. The home has been restored and now operates as the 234 Winder Street Inn. It was designated a Michigan State Historic Site on August 18, 1988.|
|Horace S. Tarbell House||1869||227 Adelaide St.||Victorian, Italianate||The oldest existing structures in Brush Park, the house was constructed in 1869 and originally owned by Horace Sumner Tarbell (1838–1904), Michigan Superintendent of Public Instruction from 1876 to 1878. Over the following decades, the property changed hands multiple times before being abandoned and falling into disrepair.|
|Elisha Taylor House||1871||59 Alfred St.||French Renaissance Revival, Second Empire, Victorian, Gothic Revival||Julius Hess||The Elisha Taylor House, with its French Renaissance Revival, Second Empire mansard roof, has distinct elements of Victorian and Gothic Revival style and was built in 1870 for William H. Craig, a Detroit land speculator. In 1875, Craig sold the house to Elisha Taylor (1817-1906). Taylor was a Detroit attorney who held many offices during his career, including City Attorney, assistant Michigan Attorney General from 1837 to 1841, and Circuit Court Commissioner from 1846 to 1854. The house is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.|
|Joseph F. Weber House||1901||206 Eliot St.||Colonial Revival||Originally owned by lumber baron Joseph F. Weber (1845-1935), the house was built in 1901. The architect is unknown; however, the structure's Colonial Revival character "is suggestive of such firms as Rogers and MacFarlane, who were already active in the Indian Village and Boston–Edison areas designing houses of colonial derivation." The Joseph F. Weber House was designated a Michigan State Historic Site on December 17, 1987.|
|Henry Glover House||1874||229 Edmund Pl||Second Empire||Built in 1874 for the businessman Henry Glover (1812-1892) In 1848 he became a member of the firm of Smith, Glover & Dwight doing business in handling general merchandise and lumber. After about two years Mr. Glover withdrew and resumed his former business.
Having confidence in the future of the city, he invested in real estate and was soon able to retire from mercantile life.The house was enlarged and transformed in rooming in 1910s and was abandoned in 1980s until it was bought in 2017 and has been being restored ever since.
|MacLeurin House||1894||312 Watson St.||Romanesque||Almon C Varney||Was built in 1894 for the rev Donald MacLeurin, who was the Pastor for Woodward Avenue Baptist. Was home to the Most Worshipful Mt. Sinai Grand Lodge from 1921 to 1943. Was completely restored in 2017.|
|Jacobs House||1880||311 Watson St.||Second Empire||The first occupant of this house was Albert Poole Jacobs (1858-1909), a lawyer, later the house was converted into a rooming and a store was built on the right side (demolished), the house was abandoned in the 1970s and was restored in the 2000s.|
|Phoenix Club||1905||114 Erskine St.||English Renaissance||Albert Kahn||Was built in 1905 for the Phoenix Club, today the King David Grand Lodge is used.|
The Ransom Gillis house appeared in the intro of the movie Beverly Hills Cop (1984), Four Brothers (2005) and Batman vs Superman (2016).
The J.P Donaldson house was featured in Only Lovers Left Alive (2014)
The Frederick Butler house largely inspired Count Olaf's house in Netflix's Series of Unfortunate Events (2017)
Brush Park is within the Detroit Public Schools district. Residents are zoned to Spain Elementary School for K-8, while they are zoned to Martin Luther King High School (9-12) for high school.
- ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. April 15, 2008.
- ^ a b c d Woodward East Historic District from the state of Michigan. Retrieved on July 19, 2016, via Internet Archive.
- ^ a b Brush Park Historic District from the City of Detroit. Retrieved on July 14, 2016, via Internet Archive.
- ^ Mullen, Ann (January 3, 2001). Brush Park and hope. Metro Times. Retrieved on June 14, 2008.
- ^ a b c d e f g h Hill & Gallagher 2002, p. 116.
- ^ a b Scott 2001, p. 48.
- ^ Woodward East Historic District. Detroit Historical Society. Retrieved on January 26, 2016.
- ^ a b c d e Scott 2001, p. 49.
- ^ a b c Pfeffer, Jaime (September 12, 2006). Falling for Brush Park. Model D Media. Retrieved on September 26, 2009.
- ^ a b Archambault, Dennis (February 14, 2006). Forging Bush Park. Model D Media. Retrieved on June 14, 2008.
- ^ Farmer 1890a, p. 36.
- ^ a b Jacobson 2002, p. 60.
- ^ Lowrie 1834, p. 283.
- ^ Quaife 1928, pp. 25–30.
- ^ a b Quaife 1928, p. 28.
- ^ Burton, Stocking & Miller 1922, p. 186.
- ^ Ewen 1978, p. 59.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Brush Park Historic District Final Report from the City of Detroit. Retrieved on January 25, 2016.
- ^ Elijah Brush. Elmwood Cemetery.
- ^ Jacobson 2002, p. 61.
- ^ Brush Park Historic District. Detroit Historical Society. Retrieved on June 20, 2016.
- ^ Piligian, Ellen (April 1, 2008). McMillin's Detroit. Model D Media. Retrieved on July 24, 2009.
- ^ a b c Hill & Gallagher 2002, p. 110.
- ^ a b Temple Beth-El Archived October 2, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Detroit1701.
- ^ Luben Apartments. Detroiturbex.com. Retrieved on January 26, 2016.
- ^ a b Harding, Matt (December 28, 2013). Alfred St. in Brush Park: A microcosm of Detroit’s early decline. Motor City Muckraker. Retrieved on January 8, 2014.
- ^ a b Loomis, Bill (November 29, 2015). The idyllic neighborhood of Ransom Gillis. The Detroit News. Retrieved on June 14, 2016.
- ^ Old St. Mary's Roman Catholic Church. Detroit1701. Retrieved on April 4, 2017.
- ^ a b Coleman, Ken (June 28, 2016). Let’s remember all of Brush Park’s history. The Detroit News. Retrieved on April 4, 2017.
- ^ Mjagkij 2013.
- ^ McLauchlin 1946.
- ^ Kossik 2010, p. 97.
- ^ Kossik 2010, p. 98.
- ^ Austin, Dan. Woodward Avenue Baptist Church. Historic Detroit. Retrieved June 19, 2016.
- ^ Austin, Dan. St. Patrick Catholic Church. Historic Detroit. Retrieved June 19, 2016.
- ^ William Livingstone Residence. Detroit1701. Retrieved on January 12, 2011.
- ^ Open House. Retrieved on September 26, 2009.
- ^ Hutchinson, Derick (May 10, 2014). Historic Detroit church catches fire Saturday morning. ClickOnDetroit.com. Retrieved on May 12, 2014.
- ^ a b c d e f g h National Register of Historic Places - Michigan: Wayne County. National Park Service. Retrieved on July 27, 2009.
- ^ Historic sites online Archived March 13, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Michigan Historic Preservation Office. Retrieved on December 11, 2007.
- ^ Curtis 1996, p. 440.
- ^ A Brief History of the Gamma Lambda Chapter. Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. | Detroit Alumni Chapter. Retrieved on March 31, 2017.
- ^ Ashlee 2005, pp. 453–454.
- ^ Katz 1955, pp. 96–101.
- ^ James Valentine Campbell. Bentley Historical Library. Retrieved on January 8, 2014.
- ^ a b c McGrail, Lucas. The Carlton. Historic Detroit. Retrieved April 1, 2017.
- ^ Howard 2006, p. 205.
- ^ Lyman Cochrane House from the city of Detroit. Retrieved on July 19, 2016, via Internet Archive.
- ^ Lyman Cochrane House. Detroit1701. Retrieved on September 7, 2009.
- ^ "J. W. Weeks & Co.'s Annual City Directory of the Inhabitants, Business Firms, Incorporated Companies, Etc., of Detroit, for 1873–4". Detroit: J. W. Weeks & Co. 1873. p. 198.
- ^ Detroit Free Press, February 6, 1879, p. 1.
- ^ Carlisle 1890, pp. 411–412.
- ^ Bjorn & Gallert 2001, p. 7.
- ^ Crystal lofts. Detroit1701. Retrieved on December 2, 2011.
- ^ "Bracing Up All Around". Detroit Freepress-ProQuest Historical Newspapers. February 7, 1892.
- ^ a b "Real Estate Budget". Detroit Free Press-ProQuest Historical Newspapers. September 22, 1901.
- ^ ProQuest Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps Detroit Map 15, 1921
- ^ Beshouri, Paul (January 14, 2013). 82 Alfred Street. Curbed Detroit. Retrieved on January 24, 2013.
- ^ John P. Fiske House from the city of Detroit. Retrieved on July 19, 2016, via Internet Archive.
- ^ 63 Alfred Street: Where Capitalism Failed
- ^ a b Ransom Gillis Home. Detroit1701. Retrieved on September 7, 2009.
- ^ Bernard Ginsburg House from the state of Michigan. Retrieved on July 19, 2016, via Internet Archive.
- ^ The Largest Historic Mansion in Detroit's Brush Park Area Opens as a New, Prestigious Bed and Breakfast Inn Archived January 6, 2009, at the Wayback Machine (press release)
- ^ a b Hill & Gallagher 2002, p. 118.
- ^ Albert Kahn Home. Detroit1701.
- ^ Crain's Detroit House Party. Crain's Detroit Business. Retrieved on September 27, 2009.
- ^ Lucien Moore House. Detroit1701. Retrieved on September 26, 2009.
- ^ National Trust for Historic Preservation (December 27, 2005). Detroit’s Lucien Moore House Honored by HGTV Archived September 1, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on May 3, 2009.
- ^ Foster, Margaret (May–June 2005). Rebuilding Begins at Home: HGTV, Trust to focus on housing for Restore America's third year. Preservation Magazine. National Trust for Historic Preservation. Retrieved on September 27, 2009.
- ^ |title=Luxury apartments almost ready in once-abandoned Brush Park building |access-date=2022-10-21
- ^ Farmer 1884, p. 866.
- ^ Farmer 1890b, pp. 1227–1228.
- ^ Emanuel Schloss House/234 Winder Street Inn. Detroit1701.
- ^ Konstantin, Lynne (April 11, 2013). Historic home in Detroit offers JN a sneak peek of upcoming tour Archived April 3, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. Detroit Jewish News. Retrieved on April 2, 2017.
- ^ 234 Winder Street Inn home page
- ^ Putnam 1899, pp. 339–40.
- ^ a b The Elisha Taylor Home. Detroit1701.
- ^ "Elementary School Boundary Map[permanent dead link]." Detroit Public Schools. Retrieved on October 20, 2009.
- ^ "Middle School Boundary Map[permanent dead link]." Detroit Public Schools. Retrieved on October 20, 2009.
- ^ "High School Boundary Map[permanent dead link]." Detroit Public Schools. Retrieved on October 20, 2009.
- Ashlee, Laura Rose, ed. (2005). Traveling Through Time: A Guide to Michigan's Historical Markers. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0472030663.
- Bjorn, Lars; Gallert, Jim (2001). Before Motown: a history of jazz in Detroit, 1920–60. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0472067656.
- Burton, Clarence M.; Stocking, William; Miller, Gordon K., eds. (1922). The City of Detroit, Michigan, 1701-1922. Vol. 1. Detroit: S.J. Clarke Publishing Company.
- Carlisle, Fred. (1890). Chronography of Notable Events in the History of the Northwest Territory and Wayne County. Detroit: O. S. Gulley, Bornman & Co., Printers.
- Curtis, Nancy C. (1996). Black Heritage Sites: An African American Odyssey and Finder's Guide. Chicago: American Library Association. ISBN 0838906435.
- Ewen, Lynda Ann (1978). Corporate Power and Urban Crisis in Detroit. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 1400871972.
- Farmer, Silas (1884). The History of Detroit and Michigan or The Metropolis Illustrated: A Chronological Cyclopædia of the Past and Present. Detroit: S. Farmer & Company.
- Farmer, Silas (1890a). History of Detroit and Wayne County and Early Michigan: A Chronological Cyclopedia of the Past and Present. Vol. 1. Detroit: S. Farmer & Company.
- Farmer, Silas (1890b). History of Detroit and Wayne County and Early Michigan: A Chronological Cyclopedia of the Past and Present. Vol. 2. Detroit: S. Farmer & Company.
- Hill, Eric J.; Gallagher, John (2002). AIA Detroit: The American Institute of Architects Guide to Detroit Architecture. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-3120-3.
- Howard, Vicki (2006). Brides, Inc.: American Weddings and the Business of Tradition. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0812239458.
- Jacobson, Judy (2002). Detroit River Connections: Historical and Biographical Sketches of the Eastern Great Lakes Border Region. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company. ISBN 0-8063-4510-1.
- Katz, Irving I. (1955). The Beth El Story (with a History of Jews in Michigan Before 1850). Detroit: Wayne State University Press.
- Kossik, John (2010). 63 Alfred Street: Where Capitalism Failed. The Life and Times of a Venetian Gothic Mansion in Downtown Detroit. John Kossik. ISBN 9781452874951.
- Lowrie, Walter, ed. (1834). American State Papers: Documents, Legislative and Executive, of the Congress of the United States. Vol. 1. Washington: Duff Green.
- McLauchlin, Russell J. (1946). Alfred Street. Detroit: Conjure House.
- Mjagkij, Nina, ed. (2013). Organizing Black America: An Encyclopedia of African American Associations. Routledge. ISBN 978-1135581237.
- Putnam, Daniel (1899). A History of the Michigan State Normal School (Now Normal College) at Ypsilanti, Michigan, 1849–1899. Ypsilanti, MI: The Scharf Tag, Label & Box Co.
- Quaife, Milo M., ed. (1928). The John Askin Papers, Volume I: 1747–1795. Detroit: Detroit Library Commission.
- Scott, Gene (2001). Detroit Beginnings: Early Villages and Old Neighborhoods. Detroit: Detroit Retired City Employees Association.
- Revitalization in Brush Park
- Dan Gilbert plans 337 new townhouses and apartments for Brush Park.—Detroit Free Press, May 7, 2015
- Detroit’s First Major Residential Development in Decades Blends Historic Preservation and New Construction in Brush Park.—City of Detroit, Press Release May 6, 2015
- Detroit Announces Plan to Preserve Iconic Brewster Wheeler Rec Center and Start Rebuilding Historic Neighborhood.—City of Detroit, Press Release April 14, 2015
- More higher-end apartments planned for Midtown, The Scott @ Brush Park.—Detroit Free Press, March 23, 2015