Bruton's tyrosine kinase

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1bwn opm.png
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Aliases BTK, AGMX1, AT, ATK, BPK, IMD1, PSCTK1, XLA, Bruton tyrosine kinase
External IDs OMIM: 300300 MGI: 88216 HomoloGene: 30953 GeneCards: 695
Targeted by Drug
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE BTK 205504 at tn.png

PBB GE PNPLA6 203718 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC) Chr X: 101.35 – 101.39 Mb Chr X: 134.54 – 134.58 Mb
PubMed search [2] [3]
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (abbreviated Btk or BTK) also known as tyrosine-protein kinase BTK is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the BTK gene. BTK is a kinase that plays a crucial role in B-cell development.


BTK plays a crucial role in B cell maturation as well as mast cell activation through the high-affinity IgE receptor.[4]

Btk contains a PH domain that binds phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3). PIP3 binding induces Btk to phosphorylate phospholipase C, which in turn hydrolyzes PIP2, a phosphatidylinositol, into two second messengers, inositol triphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG), which then go on to modulate the activity of downstream proteins during B-cell signalling.[4]

Clinical significance[edit]

Mutations in the BTK gene are implicated in the primary immunodeficiency disease X-linked agammaglobulinemia (Bruton's agammaglobulinemia); sometimes abbreviated to XLA. Patients with XLA have normal pre-B cell populations in their bone marrow but these cells fail to mature and enter the circulation. The Btk gene is located on the X chromosome.[5] At least 400 mutations of the BTK gene have been identified.

BTK inhibitors[edit]

Approved drugs that inhibit BTK :

  • Ibrutinib (PCI-32765), a selective Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor.[4]

Various drugs that inhibit BTK are in clinical trials:[6]


Bruton's tyrosine kinase was discovered in 1993 and is named for Ogden Bruton, who first described XLA in 1952.[5]


Bruton's tyrosine kinase has been shown to interact with:

See also[edit]

  • Ibrutinib (PCI-32765), a selective Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor


  1. ^ "Drugs that physically interact with Tyrosine-protein kinase BTK view/edit references on wikidata". 
  2. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  3. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  4. ^ a b c Seda V, Mraz M (Mar 2015). "B-cell receptor signalling and its crosstalk with other pathways in normal and malignant cells". European Journal of Haematology. 94 (3): 193–205. doi:10.1111/ejh.12427. PMID 25080849. 
  5. ^ a b X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia Patient and Family Handbook for The Primary Immune Diseases. Third Edition. 2001. Published by the Immune Deficiency Foundation.
  6. ^ Astra Signals A Late Run On BTK Inhibition. Dec 2015
  7. ^ Clinical trial number NCT01659255 for "ONO-4059 Phase I Dose-escalation Study to Investigate the Safety and Tolerability of ONO-4059 Given as Monotherapy in Patients With Relapsed/Refractory Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma and/or Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemi" at
  8. ^ a b Novel BTK, PI3K Inhibitors on Horizon for Relapsed CLL. March 2016
  9. ^ Clinical trial number NCT01351935 for "Escalating Dose Study in Subjects With Relapsed or Refractory B Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, and Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia" at
  10. ^ BeiGene Announces Initiation of a Combination Trial of the BTK Inhibitor BGB-3111 with the PD-1 Antibody BGB-A317. June 2016
  11. ^ Nixon JC, Rajaiya JB, Ayers N, Evetts S, Webb CF (March 2004). "The transcription factor, Bright, is not expressed in all human B lymphocyte subpopulations". Cell. Immunol. 228 (1): 42–53. doi:10.1016/j.cellimm.2004.03.004. PMID 15203319. 
  12. ^ a b Yasuda T, Tezuka T, Maeda A, Inazu T, Yamanashi Y, Gu H, Kurosaki T, Yamamoto T (July 2002). "Cbl-b positively regulates Btk-mediated activation of phospholipase C-gamma2 in B cells". J. Exp. Med. 196 (1): 51–63. doi:10.1084/jem.20020068. PMC 2194016free to read. PMID 12093870. 
  13. ^ Hashimoto S, Iwamatsu A, Ishiai M, Okawa K, Yamadori T, Matsushita M, Baba Y, Kishimoto T, Kurosaki T, Tsukada S (October 1999). "Identification of the SH2 domain binding protein of Bruton's tyrosine kinase as BLNK--functional significance of Btk-SH2 domain in B-cell antigen receptor-coupled calcium signaling". Blood. 94 (7): 2357–64. PMID 10498607. 
  14. ^ Vargas L, Nore BF, Berglof A, Heinonen JE, Mattsson PT, Smith CI, Mohamed AJ (March 2002). "Functional interaction of caveolin-1 with Bruton's tyrosine kinase and Bmx". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (11): 9351–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.M108537200. PMID 11751885. 
  15. ^ Ma YC, Huang XY (October 1998). "Identification of the binding site for Gqalpha on its effector Bruton's tyrosine kinase". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95 (21): 12197–201. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.21.12197. PMC 22808free to read. PMID 9770463. 
  16. ^ Sacristán C, Tussié-Luna MI, Logan SM, Roy AL (February 2004). "Mechanism of Bruton's tyrosine kinase-mediated recruitment and regulation of TFII-I". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (8): 7147–58. doi:10.1074/jbc.M303724200. PMID 14623887. 
  17. ^ Novina CD, Kumar S, Bajpai U, Cheriyath V, Zhang K, Pillai S, Wortis HH, Roy AL (July 1999). "Regulation of nuclear localization and transcriptional activity of TFII-I by Bruton's tyrosine kinase". Mol. Cell. Biol. 19 (7): 5014–24. doi:10.1128/mcb.19.7.5014. PMC 84330free to read. PMID 10373551. 
  18. ^ Yang W, Desiderio S (January 1997). "BAP-135, a target for Bruton's tyrosine kinase in response to B cell receptor engagement". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94 (2): 604–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.94.2.604. PMC 19560free to read. PMID 9012831. 
  19. ^ Guo B, Kato RM, Garcia-Lloret M, Wahl MI, Rawlings DJ (August 2000). "Engagement of the human pre-B cell receptor generates a lipid raft-dependent calcium signaling complex". Immunity. 13 (2): 243–53. doi:10.1016/s1074-7613(00)00024-8. PMID 10981967. 
  20. ^ Johannes FJ, Hausser A, Storz P, Truckenmüller L, Link G, Kawakami T, Pfizenmaier K (November 1999). "Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) associates with protein kinase C mu". FEBS Lett. 461 (1-2): 68–72. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(99)01424-6. PMID 10561498. 
  21. ^ Matsushita M, Yamadori T, Kato S, Takemoto Y, Inazawa J, Baba Y, Hashimoto S, Sekine S, Arai S, Kunikata T, Kurimoto M, Kishimoto T, Tsukada S (April 1998). "Identification and characterization of a novel SH3-domain binding protein, Sab, which preferentially associates with Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BtK)". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 245 (2): 337–43. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1998.8420. PMID 9571151. 
  22. ^ Yamadori T, Baba Y, Matsushita M, Hashimoto S, Kurosaki M, Kurosaki T, Kishimoto T, Tsukada S (May 1999). "Bruton's tyrosine kinase activity is negatively regulated by Sab, the Btk-SH3 domain-binding protein". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96 (11): 6341–6. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.11.6341. PMC 26883free to read. PMID 10339589. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]