Bruton's tyrosine kinase

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BTK
1bwn opm.png
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Identifiers
Aliases BTK, AGMX1, AT, ATK, BPK, IMD1, PSCTK1, XLA, Bruton tyrosine kinase
External IDs OMIM: 300300 MGI: 88216 HomoloGene: 30953 GeneCards: 695
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE BTK 205504 at tn.png

PBB GE PNPLA6 203718 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_001287345
NM_000061
NM_001287344

NM_013482

RefSeq (protein)

NP_000052.1
NP_001274273.1
NP_001274274.1

NP_038510.2

Location (UCSC) Chr X: 101.35 – 101.39 Mb Chr X: 134.54 – 134.58 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
Wikidata
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (abbreviated Btk or BTK) also known as tyrosine-protein kinase BTK is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the BTK gene. BTK is a kinase that plays a crucial role in B-cell development.

Function[edit]

BTK plays a crucial role in B cell maturation as well as mast cell activation through the high-affinity IgE receptor.[3]

Btk contains a PH domain that binds phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3). PIP3 binding induces Btk to phosphorylate phospholipase C, which in turn hydrolyzes PIP2, a phosphatidylinositol, into two second messengers, inositol triphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG), which then go on to modulate the activity of downstream proteins during B-cell signalling.[3]

Clinical significance[edit]

Mutations in the BTK gene are implicated in the primary immunodeficiency disease X-linked agammaglobulinemia (Bruton's agammaglobulinemia); sometimes abbreviated to XLA. Patients with XLA have normal pre-B cell populations in their bone marrow but these cells fail to mature and enter the circulation. The Btk gene is located on the X chromosome.[4] At least 400 mutations of the BTK gene have been identified.

BTK inhibitors[edit]

Approved drugs that inhibit BTK :

  • Ibrutinib (PCI-32765), a selective Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor.[3]

Various drugs that inhibit BTK are in clinical trials:[5]

Discovery[edit]

Bruton's tyrosine kinase was discovered in 1993 and is named for Ogden Bruton, who first described XLA in 1952.[4]

Interactions[edit]

Bruton's tyrosine kinase has been shown to interact with:

See also[edit]

  • Ibrutinib (PCI-32765), a selective Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  2. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  3. ^ a b c Seda V, Mraz M (Mar 2015). "B-cell receptor signalling and its crosstalk with other pathways in normal and malignant cells". European Journal of Haematology. 94 (3): 193–205. doi:10.1111/ejh.12427. PMID 25080849. 
  4. ^ a b X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia Patient and Family Handbook for The Primary Immune Diseases. Third Edition. 2001. Published by the Immune Deficiency Foundation.
  5. ^ Astra Signals A Late Run On BTK Inhibition. Dec 2015
  6. ^ Clinical trial number NCT01659255 for "ONO-4059 Phase I Dose-escalation Study to Investigate the Safety and Tolerability of ONO-4059 Given as Monotherapy in Patients With Relapsed/Refractory Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma and/or Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemi" at ClinicalTrials.gov
  7. ^ a b Novel BTK, PI3K Inhibitors on Horizon for Relapsed CLL. March 2016
  8. ^ Clinical trial number NCT01351935 for "Escalating Dose Study in Subjects With Relapsed or Refractory B Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, and Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia" at ClinicalTrials.gov
  9. ^ BeiGene Announces Initiation of a Combination Trial of the BTK Inhibitor BGB-3111 with the PD-1 Antibody BGB-A317. June 2016
  10. ^ Nixon JC, Rajaiya JB, Ayers N, Evetts S, Webb CF (March 2004). "The transcription factor, Bright, is not expressed in all human B lymphocyte subpopulations". Cell. Immunol. 228 (1): 42–53. doi:10.1016/j.cellimm.2004.03.004. PMID 15203319. 
  11. ^ a b Yasuda T, Tezuka T, Maeda A, Inazu T, Yamanashi Y, Gu H, Kurosaki T, Yamamoto T (July 2002). "Cbl-b positively regulates Btk-mediated activation of phospholipase C-gamma2 in B cells". J. Exp. Med. 196 (1): 51–63. doi:10.1084/jem.20020068. PMC 2194016free to read. PMID 12093870. 
  12. ^ Hashimoto S, Iwamatsu A, Ishiai M, Okawa K, Yamadori T, Matsushita M, Baba Y, Kishimoto T, Kurosaki T, Tsukada S (October 1999). "Identification of the SH2 domain binding protein of Bruton's tyrosine kinase as BLNK--functional significance of Btk-SH2 domain in B-cell antigen receptor-coupled calcium signaling". Blood. 94 (7): 2357–64. PMID 10498607. 
  13. ^ Vargas L, Nore BF, Berglof A, Heinonen JE, Mattsson PT, Smith CI, Mohamed AJ (March 2002). "Functional interaction of caveolin-1 with Bruton's tyrosine kinase and Bmx". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (11): 9351–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.M108537200. PMID 11751885. 
  14. ^ Ma YC, Huang XY (October 1998). "Identification of the binding site for Gqalpha on its effector Bruton's tyrosine kinase". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95 (21): 12197–201. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.21.12197. PMC 22808free to read. PMID 9770463. 
  15. ^ Sacristán C, Tussié-Luna MI, Logan SM, Roy AL (February 2004). "Mechanism of Bruton's tyrosine kinase-mediated recruitment and regulation of TFII-I". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (8): 7147–58. doi:10.1074/jbc.M303724200. PMID 14623887. 
  16. ^ Novina CD, Kumar S, Bajpai U, Cheriyath V, Zhang K, Pillai S, Wortis HH, Roy AL (July 1999). "Regulation of nuclear localization and transcriptional activity of TFII-I by Bruton's tyrosine kinase". Mol. Cell. Biol. 19 (7): 5014–24. doi:10.1128/mcb.19.7.5014. PMC 84330free to read. PMID 10373551. 
  17. ^ Yang W, Desiderio S (January 1997). "BAP-135, a target for Bruton's tyrosine kinase in response to B cell receptor engagement". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94 (2): 604–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.94.2.604. PMC 19560free to read. PMID 9012831. 
  18. ^ Guo B, Kato RM, Garcia-Lloret M, Wahl MI, Rawlings DJ (August 2000). "Engagement of the human pre-B cell receptor generates a lipid raft-dependent calcium signaling complex". Immunity. 13 (2): 243–53. doi:10.1016/s1074-7613(00)00024-8. PMID 10981967. 
  19. ^ Johannes FJ, Hausser A, Storz P, Truckenmüller L, Link G, Kawakami T, Pfizenmaier K (November 1999). "Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) associates with protein kinase C mu". FEBS Lett. 461 (1-2): 68–72. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(99)01424-6. PMID 10561498. 
  20. ^ Matsushita M, Yamadori T, Kato S, Takemoto Y, Inazawa J, Baba Y, Hashimoto S, Sekine S, Arai S, Kunikata T, Kurimoto M, Kishimoto T, Tsukada S (April 1998). "Identification and characterization of a novel SH3-domain binding protein, Sab, which preferentially associates with Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BtK)". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 245 (2): 337–43. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1998.8420. PMID 9571151. 
  21. ^ Yamadori T, Baba Y, Matsushita M, Hashimoto S, Kurosaki M, Kurosaki T, Kishimoto T, Tsukada S (May 1999). "Bruton's tyrosine kinase activity is negatively regulated by Sab, the Btk-SH3 domain-binding protein". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96 (11): 6341–6. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.11.6341. PMC 26883free to read. PMID 10339589. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]