Bryan Stevenson

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Bryan Stevenson
Bryan Stevenson at TED 2012.jpg
Born Bryan Stevenson
(1959-11-14) November 14, 1959 (age 56)
Milton, Delaware
Residence Montgomery, Alabama
Nationality American
Education Eastern University (B.A.)
Harvard Law School (J.D.)
Harvard Kennedy School (M.P.P.)
Occupation Director of Equal Justice Initiative
Professor at New York University School of Law
Known for Founding Equal Justice Initiative
Notable work Just Mercy
Religion Christian[1]
Parent(s) Howard & Alice Stevenson
Website BryanStevenson.com

Bryan A. Stevenson (born November 14, 1959) is an American lawyer, social justice activist, founder and executive director of the Equal Justice Initiative, and a clinical professor at New York University School of Law. Based in Montgomery, Alabama, Stevenson has challenged bias against the poor and minorities, especially children, in the criminal justice system. Stevenson has assisted in saving dozens of prisoners from the death penalty, advocated for poor people, and developed community-based reform litigation aimed at improving the administration of criminal justice.

He is working to establish The Memorial to Peace and Justice in Montgomery, which will document each of the nearly 4,000 lynchings that took place in twelve states of the South from 1877 to 1950. He believes that the history of lynchings influences the subsequent extensive use of death sentences in the South. The related museum, From Enslavement to Mass Incarceration, will offer interpretations to show the connection between the post-Civil War period of lynchings to the high rate of executions and incarceration of people of color in the nation.

Early life and education[edit]

Born in 1959, Stevenson grew up in Milton, Delaware, a small rural town located in Southern Delaware.[2] Stevenson is the son of Howard Carlton Stevenson, Sr., who grew up in Milton, and Alice Gertrude (Golden) Stevenson,[2] whose family had moved from Virginia to Philadelphia, where she was born, in the Great Migration.[3] Stevenson has two siblings: an older brother, Howard, Jr. and a sister, Christy.[4] Both parents commuted to the northern part of the state for work: Stevenson's father Howard, Sr. worked at a General Foods processing plant as a laboratory technician.[2] His mother, Alice, was a bookkeeper at Dover Air Force Base and became an equal opportunity officer.[2] She particularly emphasized the importance of education.[3]

Stevenson's family attended the Prospect African Methodist Episcopal Church, where Stevenson played piano and sang in the choir.[2] His later views were influenced by the African Methodist Episcopal Church, where churchgoers were celebrated for 'standing up after having fallen down.'[2] These experiences informed his belief that "each person in our society is more than the worst thing they’ve ever done.”[2]

When Stevenson was sixteen, his maternal grandfather, Clarence L. Golden, was stabbed to death in his Philadelphia home during a robbery. The killers received life sentences, an outcome Stevenson thought fair. Stevenson said of the murders: "Because my grandfather was older, his murder seemed particularly cruel. But I came from a world where we valued redemption over revenge."[4]

As a child, Stevenson dealt with segregation and its legacy. He spent his first classroom days at a "colored" elementary school.[2] By the time he entered the second grade, his school was formally desegregated, but the old rules from segregation still applied, where black kids played separately from white kids and blacks were forced to use the back door.[2] Pools and other facilities were informally segregated.[3] Stevenson's father, having grown up in the area, took the ingrained racism in stride.[2]

Stevenson attended Cape Henlopen High School and graduated in 1977. He played on the soccer and baseball teams.[2] He also served as president of the student body and won American Legion public-speaking contests.[2] His brother, Howard, takes some credit for helping hone Stevenson's rhetorical skills: “We argued the way brothers argue, but these were serious arguments, inspired I guess by our mother and the circumstances of our family growing up.”[2] Stevenson earned straight A's and won a scholarship to Eastern University in St. Davids, Pennsylvania.[4] On campus, he directed the campus gospel choir.[2] Stevenson graduated in 1981.[4]

After graduating from college, Stevenson received a full scholarship to attend Harvard Law School. During law school, as part of a class on race and poverty litigation with Elizabeth Bartholet, he worked for Stephen Bright's the Southern Center for Human Rights, which represents death-row inmates throughout the South.[4] During this work, Stevenson found his career calling.[4] He also attended the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University.

Career[edit]

Southern Center for Human Rights[edit]

After graduating from Harvard in 1985, Stevenson moved to Atlanta, Georgia, and joined the Southern Center for Human Rights full-time.[4] The center divided work by region and Stevenson was assigned to Alabama. In 1989 he was appointed to run the Alabama operation, a resource center and death-penalty defense organization that was funded by Congress.[3] He had a center in Montgomery, Alabama.

Equal Justice Initiative[edit]

When Congress eliminated this funding after Republicans gained control in the 1994 mid-term elections, Stevenson converted the center and founded the non-profit Equal Justice Initiative in Montgomery. In 1995 he was a awarded a MacArthur grant and used it to support the center.[5] He guaranteed a defense of anyone in Alabama sentenced to the death penalty, as it was the only state that did not provide legal assistance to people on death row.[6]

Stevenson has also been particularly concerned about excessive sentencing of children convicted under the age of 17. Following the Supreme Court's ruling in Roper v. Simmons (2005), which ruled that the death penalty was unconstitutional, he worked to have the thinking about children broadened to related cases.

EJI mounted a litigation campaign to gain review of cases in which children were given life-without-parole sentences, often in cases without homicide. In Miller v. Alabama (2012), the US Supreme Court ruled in a landmark decision that mandatory sentences of life-without-parole for children 17 and under were unconstitutional, affecting statutes in 29 states. In 2016, the court ruled in Montgomery v. Louisiana that this determination needed to be applied retroactively, potentially affecting sentences of 2300 people nationwide who had been sentenced as children to life.[7]

By August 2016, EJI has saved 125 men from the death penalty. In addition, it has represented poor people, defended people on appeal and overturned wrongful convictions, and worked to alleviate bias in the criminal justice system.[3]

Acknowledging slavery[edit]

His EJI offices are near the landing at the Alabama River where slaves were unloaded in the domestic slave trade; an equal distance away is Court Square, "one of the largest slave-auction sites in the country."[8] Stevenson noted there were "dozens" of historic markers and numerous monuments related to Confederate history in the downtown of Montgomery, but nothing acknowledging the history of slavery. [8] He proposed and documented three slavery sites to be given historic markers; the Alabama Department of Archives and History told him that it did not want to "sponsor the markers given the potential for controversy."[8] Stevenson worked with an African-American history group to gain sponsorship for this project; they gained state approval for the three markers in 2013 and these have been installed in Montgomery.

Memorial for Peace and Justice[edit]

Stevenson has acquired six acres in Montgomery for the development of a new project, the Memorial for Peace and Justice, to commemorate the nearly 4,000 lynchings that took place in the South, many conducted openly in county courthouse squares. Stevenson believes this history of extra-judicial lynchings by white mobs is closely associated with the subsequent high rate of death sentences imposed in Alabama and other southern states, as well as bias against minorities as seen in mass incarceration rates. [3]

He plans a related museum, From Enslavement to Mass Incarceration. Exhibits will include a slave warehouse near the entrance, one on lynching, on racial segregation, and an exhibit on mass incarceration. Stevenson believes that the treatment of people of color under the criminal justice system is related to the history of slavery and later treatment of minorities.[9]

Author[edit]

Stevenson wrote the critically acclaimed memoir, Just Mercy: A Story of Justice and Redemption, published in 2014 by Spiegel & Grau.[10] It was selected by Time magazine as one of the "10 Best Books of Nonfiction" for 2014. It won the 2015 Andrew Carnegie Medal for Excellence in Nonfiction[11] and the 2015 Dayton Literary Peace Prize for Nonfiction.[12]

Speaker[edit]

Stevenson has been an active public speaking schedule, which he uses largely for fundraising for the work of EJI. His speech at TED2012 in Long Beach, California brought him a wide audience on the Internet.[13] Following his presentation, attendees contributed more than $1 million to fund a campaign run by Stevenson to end the practice of placing convicted children to serve sentences in adult jails and prisons.[14] His talk is available at "We need to talk about an injustice" on the TED website, and by August 2016 had been viewed by more than 3 million people.

He spoke at the University of Delaware graduation on May 28, 2016, where he was awarded an honorary Doctor of Laws degree for his contributions to society[15][16] and at Williams College Commencement on June 5, 2016, where he received an honorary doctorate.[17]

Awards[edit]

Publications[edit]

  • "Confronting Mass Imprisonment and Restoring Fairness to Collateral Review of Criminal Cases," 41 Harv. C.R.-C.L. L. Rev. 339 (2006)[18]
  • "The Ultimate Authority on the Ultimate Punishment: The Requisite Role of the Jury in Capital Sentencing," 54 Ala. L. Rev. 1091 (2003)[19]
  • "The Politics of Fear and Death: Successive Problems in Capital Federal Habeas Corpus Cases," 77 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 699 (2002)[20]
  • "Cruel and Unusual: Sentencing 13-and 14-Year Old Children to Die in Prison" (2007)[21]

References[edit]

  1. ^ by · November 13, 2014 (2014-11-13). "Connecting with the Struggle". Evangelicals for Social Action. Retrieved 2016-07-24. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Barrett, Paul. "Bryan Stevenson's Death-Defying Acts". NYU Law Magazine. Retrieved 27 September 2015. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f Jeffrey Toobin, "The Legacy of Lynching, on Death Row", New Yorker, 22 August 2016, pp. 38-47
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Grant, Meg. "A Stubborn Alabama Lawyer Stands Alone Between Death and His Clients". People. Retrieved 27 September 2015. 
  5. ^ Toobin (2016), "The Legacy of Lynching", p. 42
  6. ^ Moorer, Regina (2013). "Equal Justice Initiative". Encyclopedia of Alabama. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  7. ^ "Death in Prison Sentences for Children", Equal Justice Initiative website
  8. ^ a b c Toobin (2016), "The Legacy of Lynching", pp.42-43
  9. ^ Ricky Riley, "Social Justice Activist Smashes Myth that Slavery Ended in 1865 With Brilliant Examination", Atlanta Black Star, 20 June 2016; accessed 18 August 2016
  10. ^ Book Review: 'Just Mercy: A Story of Justice and Redemption' by Bryan Stevenson, reviewed by Rob Warden, The Washington Post, 23 October 2014
  11. ^ "Anthony Doerr wins Carnegie Medal for fiction". Midcontinent Communications. Associated Press. June 28, 2015. Retrieved June 28, 2015. 
  12. ^ "Bryan Stevenson, 2015 Nonfiction Winner". Dayton Literary Peace Prize. 1996-02-11. Retrieved 2016-07-24. 
  13. ^ "All of our survival is tied to the survival of everyone: Bryan Stevenson at TED2012". TED. 2012-03-01. Retrieved 2012-03-06. 
  14. ^ "TED's first response to Bryan Stevenson's talk on injustice". TED. 2012-03-05. Retrieved 2012-03-06. 
  15. ^ "167th Commencement - UDaily". University of Delaware. 2016-05-28. Retrieved 2016-07-24. 
  16. ^ "Commencement 2016". Udel.edu. Retrieved 2016-07-24. 
  17. ^ "Williams College Announces Its 2016 Honorary Degree Recipients | Office of Communications". Communications.williams.edu. 2016-03-16. Retrieved 2016-07-24. 
  18. ^ Stevenson, Bryan. "Confronting Mass Imprisonment and Restoring Fairness to Collateral Review of Criminal Cases" (PDF). Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review. Retrieved 27 September 2015. 
  19. ^ Stevenson, Bryan. "The Ultimate Authority on the Ultimate Punishment: The Requisite Role of the Jury in Capital Sentencing" (PDF). Alabama Law Review. Retrieved 27 September 2015. 
  20. ^ Stevenson, Bryan. "The Politics of Fear and Death: Successive Problems in Capital Federal Habeas Corpus Cases" (PDF). NYU Law Review. Retrieved 27 September 2015. 
  21. ^ "Cruel and Unusual: Sentencing 13-and 14-Year Old Children to Die in Prison" (PDF). Equal Justice Initiative. Retrieved 27 September 2015. 

External links[edit]