Buccal administration

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Buccal administration refers to a topical route of administration by which drugs held or applied in the buccal (/ˈbʌkəl/) area (in the cheek) diffuse through the oral mucosa (tissues which line the mouth) and enter directly into the bloodstream. Buccal administration may provide better bioavailability of some drugs and a more rapid onset of action compared to oral administration because the medication does not pass through the digestive system and thereby avoids first pass metabolism.[1]

As of May 2014, buccal forms of the psychiatric drug, asenapine; the opioid drugs buprenorphine, naloxone, and fentanyl; the cardiovascular drug nitroglycerin; the nausea medication Prochlorperazine; the hormone replacement therapy testosterone, and nicotine as a smoking cessation aid, were commercially available in buccal forms,[1] as was midazolam, an anticonvulsant, used to treat acute epileptic seizures.[2]

Buccal administration of vaccines has been studied, but there are challenges to this approach due to immune tolerance mechanisms that prevent the body from over-reacting to immunogens encountered in the course of daily life.[3]

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References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Sattar, M; Sayed, OM; Lane, ME (Aug 2014). "Oral transmucosal drug delivery--current status and future prospects". Int J Pharm. 471 (1-2): 498–506. doi:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2014.05.043. PMID 24879936. 
  2. ^ Brigo, F; et al. (2015). "Nonintravenous midazolam versus intravenous or rectal diazepam for the treatment of early status epilepticus: A systematic review with meta-analysis". Epilepsy Behav. 55: 555. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2015.02.030. PMID 25817929. 
  3. ^ Kraan, H; et al. (Sep 2014). "Buccal and sublingual vaccine delivery". J Control Release. 190: 580–92. doi:10.1016/j.jconrel.2014.05.060. PMID 24911355. 

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