|Named for||James Buchanan|
|• Total||504 sq mi (1,310 km2)|
|• Land||503 sq mi (1,300 km2)|
|• Water||1.1 sq mi (3 km2) 0.2%|
|• Density||40/sq mi (16/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC−5 (Eastern)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−4 (EDT)|
Buchanan County (//) is a United States county in far western Virginia, the only county in the state to border both West Virginia and Kentucky. The county is part of the Southwest Virginia region and lies in the rugged Appalachian Plateau portion of the Appalachian Mountains. Its county seat is Grundy.
Buchanan County was established in 1858 from parts of Russell and Tazewell counties, and it was named in honor of then-President James Buchanan. Local pronunciation differs from that of the 15th president's surname; here the county is pronounced as "Búh-can-nin". In 1880, part of Buchanan County was taken to form Dickenson County.
As of the 2020 census, the county population was 20,355. Its population has decreased by double digits over the last forty years. As of 2012, Buchanan was the fifth-poorest county in Virginia, when ranked by median household income; it has consistently been in the bottom 5% over the past decade.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (October 2022)
The county was formed in 1858 from parts of Russell and Tazewell counties. It was named for James Buchanan, the 15th President of the United States. In 1876, Grundy was chosen and designated by the legislature as the county seat of Buchanan County, it was named in honor of Felix Grundy, a United States Senator from Tennessee.
Helen Timmons Henderson (1877–1925) participated in the work of the Buchanan Mission School at Council, Virginia. She and Sarah Lee Fain (1888–1962) of Norfolk were the first two women to be elected to the Virginia General Assembly. They were both Democrats in the House of Delegates. When Henderson was in office, delegates approved construction of 6.2 miles (10.0 km) of improved road to be built from Russell County, across Big "A" Mountain, to Council. What is now Route 80 is also known as "Helen Henderson Highway".
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 503.8 square miles (1,304.8 km2), of which 502.7 square miles (1,302.0 km2) is land and 1.1 square miles (2.8 km2) (0.2%) is water. Outdoor recreation is provided by Poplar Gap Park near Grundy and William P. Harris Park located in Council.
The county is divided into seven supervisor districts: Garden, Hurricane, Knox, North Grundy, Prater, Rock Lick, and South Grundy.
- Mingo County, West Virginia – north
- McDowell County, West Virginia – east
- Tazewell County, Virginia – southeast
- Russell County, Virginia – south
- Dickenson County, Virginia – southwest
- Pike County, Kentucky – northwest
|U.S. Decennial Census|
1990–2000 2010 2020
|Race / Ethnicity||Pop 2010||Pop 2020||% 2010||% 2020|
|White alone (NH)||23,205||19,210||96.29%||94.37%|
|Black or African American alone (NH)||614||613||2.55%||3.01%|
|Native American or Alaska Native alone (NH)||18||15||0.07%||0.07%|
|Asian alone (NH)||53||49||0.22%||0.24%|
|Pacific Islander alone (NH)||2||1||0.01%||0.00%|
|Some Other Race alone (NH)||4||10||0.02%||0.05%|
|Mixed Race/Multi-Racial (NH)||107||280||0.44%||1.38%|
|Hispanic or Latino (any race)||95||177||0.39%||0.87%|
Note: the US Census treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns them to a separate category. Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.
As of the census of 2000, there were 26,978 people, 10,464 households, and 7,900 families residing in the county. The population density was 54 people per square mile (21 people/km2). There were 11,887 housing units at an average density of 24 units per square mile (9.3 units/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 96.75% White, 2.62% Black or African American, 0.06% Native American, 0.14% Asian, 0.10% from other races, 0.33% from two or more races, and 0.47% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 10,464 households, out of which 30.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.90% were married couples living together, 10.60% had a female householder with no husband present, and 24.50% were non-families. Of all households, 22.50% were made up of individuals, and 9.40% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.87.
In the county, the population was spread out, with 21.40% under the age of 18, 8.50% from 18 to 24, 31.20% from 25 to 44, 27.50% from 45 to 64, and 11.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 102.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.30 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $22,213, and the median income for a family was $27,328. Males had a median income of $29,540 versus $17,766 for females. The per capita income for the county was $12,788. About 19.80% of families and 23.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.20% of those under age 18 and 16.90% of those age 65 or over.
Board of Supervisors
- Garden District: Jeff Cooper
- Hurricane District: Tim Hess
- Knox District: Trey Adkins (D)
- North Grundy District: James Carroll Branham (D)
- Prater District: Drew Keene (chairman)
- Rock Lick District: Craig Stiltner (R)
- South Grundy District: Gary Roger Rife (R)
- Clerk of the Circuit Court: Beverly S. Tiller (D)
- Commissioner of the Revenue: A. Ruth Horn (R)
- Commonwealth's Attorney: M. Nikki Stiltner (R)
- Sheriff: John C. McClanahan (R)
- Treasurer: Keith Boyd ()
Buchanan County is represented by Republican Travis Hackworth in the Virginia Senate, Republican James W. "Will" Morefield in the Virginia House of Delegates, and Republican Morgan Griffith in the U.S. House of Representatives.
Buchanan County, a classically ancestral Democratic county, has become a Republican stronghold at the presidential level, in common with much of Appalachia.
Public high schools
All public schools in Buchanan County are operated by Buchanan County Public Schools system.
- Grundy Senior High School, Grundy
- Twin Valley High School, Pilgrims Knob
- Council High School, Council
- Hurley High School, Hurley
Public elementary and middle schools
- Twin Valley Elem/Middle School
- Council Elementary School
- Riverview Elementary Middle School
- Hurley Elementary/Middle School
- Harman Elementary (Demolished: 2009; site is now a baseball field.)
- Vansant Elementary (Demolished: 2007)
- Big Rock Elementary (Demolished: 2009)
- Grundy Jr. High School (Now the Appalachian School of Law)
- Garden Elementary (Demolished)
- Garden Middle School
- Garden High School (Now the Appalachian College of Pharmacy)
- Jewell Valley Elementary School (Demolished: ?)
- J.M. Bevins Elementary School (Closed: 2018)
- Whitewood Elementary School (Demolished)
- Whitewood High School (Demolished: 2010)
- D.A. Justus (Demolished)
- P.V. Dennis (Now the ASL Library)
- Russell Prater Elementary (Closed: 2014)
Other unincorporated communities
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
- "Buchanan County, Virginia". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 30, 2022.
- State and County Estimates through 2012. Small Area Income & Poverty Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on 2011-07-06.
- Salmon Jr, edited by Emily J.; Campbell, Edward D.C. (1994). The Hornbook of Virginia History: a ready-reference guide to the Old Dominion's people, places, and past (4th ed.). Richmond: Library of Virginia. ISBN 0884901777.
|first1=has generic name (help)
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
- "Census of Population and Housing from 1790-2000". US Census Bureau. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
- "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved January 1, 2014.
- "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 1, 2014.
- "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022. Retrieved January 1, 2014.
- "P2 HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE - 2010: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) - Buchanan County, Virginia". United States Census Bureau.
- "P2 HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE - 2020: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) - Buchanan County, Virginia". United States Census Bureau.
- "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 14, 2011.
- Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved December 9, 2020.
- Sutherland, Elihu Jasper. Some Sandy Basin Characters. Self-published by Elihu Jasper Sutherland: Clintwood, Virginia, 1962.