Buckingham's rebellion

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Buckingham's rebellion
Part of War of the Roses
Date October 1483
Goals Overthrow of Richard III
Parties to the civil conflict
Yorkshire rose.svg House of York (royal)
Lead figures

Richard III of England

John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk

Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham

Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond


Buckingham's rebellion was a failed but significant uprising, or collection of uprisings, of October 1483 in England and parts of Wales against Richard III of England. To the extent that these local risings had a central coordination, the plot revolved around Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, who had become disaffected from Richard, and had backing from the exiled Henry Tudor (the future king Henry VII), and his mother Margaret Beaufort. Seven ships from Brittany carrying over 500 Bretton soldiers, Henry Tudor, and many of his supporters were to have simultaneously rise against Richard III. A gale ended their dream, and in England, a premature uprising in Kent forewarned Richard that Buckingham had changed sides.

Buckingham's precise motivation has been called "obscure"; he had been treated well by Richard.[1] The traditional naming of the rebellion after him has been labelled a misnomer, with John Morton and Reginald Bray more plausible leaders.[2]

Rebels took arms against the king, who had assumed power from Edward V in June of that year. They included many loyalists of Edward V, and others who had been Yorkist supporters of his father Edward IV.

Preparations, however, did not live up to the broad base of the rebellion: Richard in the field defeated the rising in a few weeks. In those military terms it was a complete failure. However, it deepened many people's opinion about Richard as king, and its effect over the next few months was to drive a number of leading figures into Henry Tudor's camp. 500 Englishmen slipped the King's net and found their way to Rennes, the capital of Brittany, who, in desperation, forged an alliance with the unknown Welshman, Henry Tudor.[3]

Rebels[edit]

Name Area Position Part in rebellion Aftermath
Sir Robert Willoughby Brooke in Westbury, Wiltshire High Sheriff of Devon and High Sheriff of Cornwall under Edward IV Openly supported Henry of Richmond Joined Richmond in Brittany. Fought at Bosworth, became Lord Steward and created Robert Willoughby, 1st Baron Willoughby de Broke
Thomas Grey, 1st Marquess of Dorset Westminster Abbey in sanctuary as Richard took the throne, Yorkshire, Exeter[4] Constable of the Tower of London for Edward V Openly supported Henry of Richmond in Exeter.[4] Joined Richmond in Brittany.[4]
Edward Courtenay South-west England Commission of the peace in Cornwall He went Brittany, and was attainted in 1484. He took part in the battle of Bosworth, and was created Earl of Devon by Henry VII. (ODNB)
Giles Daubeny
Richard Guildford
John Fogge
Amias Paulet Somerset, south-west England Landowner[5] Attainted after the rebellion; restored in 1485.[5]
John Cheyne Rebel leader in Salisbury.[6]
Richard Hill Diocese of Salisbury, southern England Cleric Probable support of local rebels.[7] Suffered loss of income; may have become a supporter of Richmond at this point.[7]
Walter Hungerford of Farleigh Wiltshire Rebel leader[8] Pardoned, confined briefly to the Tower of London.[8]
John Morton In Buckingham's custody in Brecon Castle Bishop of Ely, conspirator Planning[9] Attainted, escaped to Flanders, pardoned December 1484 but went to Rome.[9]
Thomas Nandyke Astrologer At Brecon with Buckingham and Morton.[10] He took part in a later revolt against Richard around Colchester, and was outlawed.[10]
Reginald Bray Conspirator and go-between North-west England and Wales Liaison between Morton and Margaret Beaufort. Recruited Daubeny, Cheyne, Richard Guildford.[11] Pardoned January 1484.[11]

Loyalists[edit]

Name Position Part in rebellion Aftermath
Ralph de Ashton Vice-constable of England.[12] Rewarded with land in Kent.[12]
John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk Military commander Defended London for the king.[13] Killed at the Battle of Bosworth on the king's side.

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Christine Carpenter (13 November 1997). The Wars of the Roses: Politics and the Constitution in England, C.1437-1509. Cambridge University Press. p. 212. ISBN 978-0-521-31874-7. Retrieved 5 April 2013. 
  2. ^ Ronald H. Fritze; William Baxter Robison (2002). Historical dictionary of late medieval England, 1272-1485. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-313-29124-1. Retrieved 5 April 2013. 
  3. ^ Bosworth: The Birth of the Tudors; Phoenix Press; 2013; pp. 153-4 Recorded by Polydore Vergil.
  4. ^ a b c  Stephen, Leslie; Lee, Sidney, eds. (1890). "Grey, Thomas (1451-1501)". Dictionary of National Biography 23. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 
  5. ^ a b  Lee, Sidney, ed. (1895). "Paulet, Amias (d.1538)". Dictionary of National Biography 44. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 
  6. ^ Ford, David Nash (2010). "John Cheney (c.1442-1499)". Royal Berkshire History. Nash Ford Publishing. Retrieved 29 November 2010. 
  7. ^ a b Hayes, Rosemary C. E. "Hill, Richard". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/47267.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  8. ^ a b Hicks, Michael. "Hungerford, Sir Walter". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/14182.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  9. ^ a b Harper-Bill, Christopher. "Morton, John". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/19363.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  10. ^ a b Douglas L. Biggs; Sharon D. Michalove; Albert Compton Reeves, eds. (2004). Reputation and Representation in Fifteenth Century Europe. BRILL. p. 281. ISBN 978-90-04-13613-7. Retrieved 5 April 2013. 
  11. ^ a b Condon, M. M. "Bray, Reginald". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/3295.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  12. ^ a b Horrox, Rosemary. "Ashton, Sir Ralph". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/776.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  13. ^ Crawford, Anne. "Howard, John". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/13921.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)