Buckland, Oxfordshire

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Buckland
The Church of St Mary the Virgin, Buckland (3445157967).jpg
St Mary the Virgin parish church
Buckland House, Buckland (geograph 3448074).jpg
Buckland House with a wooded escarpment which mark one edge of the parish before the Vale of the Ock (White Horse) and the North Wessex Downs visible beyond .
Buckland is located in Oxfordshire
Buckland
Buckland
Buckland shown within Oxfordshire
Area 18.23 km2 (7.04 sq mi)
Population 588 (parish, including Gainfield) (2011 Census)
• Density 32/km2 (83/sq mi)
OS grid reference SU3498
Civil parish
  • Buckland
District
Shire county
Region
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town Faringdon
Postcode district SN7
Dialling code 01367
Police Thames Valley
Fire Oxfordshire
Ambulance South Central
EU Parliament South East England
UK Parliament
List of places
UK
England
OxfordshireCoordinates: 51°40′44″N 1°30′22″W / 51.679°N 1.506°W / 51.679; -1.506

Buckland is a village and large civil parish about 4 miles (6.4 km) northeast of Faringdon[1] in the Vale of White Horse District. Buckland was part of Berkshire until the 1974 boundary changes transferred it to Oxfordshire. The 2011 Census recorded the parish's population as 588.[2]

Geography[edit]

The River Thames forms the northern boundary of the parish, just over 1 mile (1.6 km) north of the village. St Mary the Virgin parish church is at grid reference SU342982 and Buckland House at grid reference SU338981.[3]

The soil of the parish is a rich, sandy loam on a geology of Corallian Limestone and Oxford Clay.[4]

Toponym[edit]

Buckland's toponym evolved through spellings that include Boclande in the 10th century,[5] Bocheland in the 11th century, Bochelanda in the 12th century, and Boclonde, Bokeland and Bikeland in the 13th century.[4]

Manor[edit]

The earliest known record of Buckland is from AD 957 in a charter in which King Edgar the Peaceful granted Ælfheah ten hides[5] of land at Buckland. In the reign of Edward the Confessor (1042–1066) Ulvric Chenp held the manor of Buckland.[4] The Domesday Book of 1086 lists Buckland as part of the lands of Bishop Osbern of Gamesfel Hundret (now called Gainfield).[5] However, his right was not established and the case had already been sent before King William the Conqueror. The estate was assessed as eight hides and consisted of a mill, four fisheries and a dairy farm producing 10 wheys of cheese a year. Its value was given as £8.[4]

Hugh de Buckland is recorded as the next holder and occupier of the manor, as well as another estate in Buckland.[4][6] At the end of the 12th century William de Buckland, probably the great-grandson of Hugh de Buckland, held the manor. He died about 1215[4] leaving three daughters as his heirs – Maud Davranches, Hawise de Boville and Joan de Ferrers. His Buckland estate passed to Maud, wife of William Davranches.[4] In 1230 Maud's husband died. She was then married Hamo de Crevequer, and in 1245, they bestowed the manor on their daughter Agnes and any future heirs.[4] Hamo de Crevequer died in 1262, survived by Maud and their daughters Agnes, Elenanor, Isabel and Iseult. Buckland was assigned to Iseult, wife of Nicholas de Lenham.[4] Iseult died shortly after her father. She and Nicholas left a son, John, a minor. In 1263, wardship of Buckland was given to Eubold de Montibus who in turn have the manor to Philip Bassett until John came of age. In 1267 John de Lenham took possession of the manor.[4]

Before 1545 the manor of Buckland was held by the De La Poles, Dukes of Suffolk.[7] In 1545 it passed to the Yate family.[7] In 1690 it passed by marriage to the Throckmortons of Coughton Court in Warwickshire. They went on to build much of the current estate.[8] In the mid-1750s, Sir Robert Throckmorton had a new house built, Buckland House. The old manor house became his stables.

For the later history of the manor, see Buckland House.

Notable buildings[edit]

Buckland House[edit]

Main article: Buckland House

Buckland House is a large Georgian stately home and the manor house of Buckland. It is a masterpiece of Palladian architecture designed by John Wood, the Younger and built for Sir Robert Throckmorton in 1757.[6]

Other manor houses[edit]

Buckland Manor House was the manor house of Buckland until Buckland House was built in 1757 and it was converted into stables.[4] However, in the mid-20th century, the building again became a private house. It was built late in the 16th century and is a two storey eastward facing rectangular block, refaced in Georgian Gothic Revival style.

Barcote Manor or Park is a Tudor Revival house built in 1876 for Lady Theodora Guest. She sold it to the millionaire, William West, Director of the Great Western Railway, in 1881. It later became a boarding school, the Barcote School of Coaching, and has now been converted into flats.[9] A previous building on the site was the home of the Holcott family from 1230 to 1586.[4]

Carswell House is a gabled building originally built by John Southby, both JP and MP for Berkshire, in the early 17th century. Major additions were added in the Victorian period. The Southbys lived on the site from 1584 to 1892.[4]

Churches[edit]

The Church of England parish church of St Mary the Virgin is largely a 12th-century building, with 13th-century chancel, tower and transepts and some minor Victorian additions. The main north and south nave doors are unusual in having a matching pair of Norman arches. In the chancel is a triangular locker containing the heart-burial (1575) of William Holcott of Barcote Manor. He was a staunch Protestant who only just avoided being burnt at the stake by Mary Tudor. After the Reformation, he became a zealous lay preacher, often gracing the pulpit in his "velvet bonnet and damask gown...sometimes with a gold chain". There is a number of 14th century tomb recesses, an inscribed slab with a floriated cross to Dame Felice la Blonde and a number of monuments to the Yates of Buckland Manor, including the brass of John Yate (1578). The church has a 14th-century octagonal font, a late 12th-century Crusader chest, hatchments to the Throckmortons. The Barcote Chapel is noted for its decorative mosaic (1890–92) in memory of Clara Jane, wife of William West, of Barcote Manor.[4]

The crossing tower had a ring of six bells[4] until 1915, when they were increased to eight by the addition of a new treble and second bell.[10] In 1636 Roger I Purdue of Bristol cast what are now the fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh bells.[4] In 1721 Abraham II Rudhall of Gloucester cast the tenor bell. Mears and Stainbank of the Whitechapel Bell Foundry cast the third bell in 1898 and the new treble and second bell in 1915, and recast the seventh bell in 1960. St Mary's has also a Sanctus bell that John Warner and Sons of Cripplegate cast in 1854.[10]

St Mary's church is a Grade I listed building.[11] Its parish is part of the Benefice of Cherbury with Gainfield.[12]

St George's Roman Catholic Church is a Gothic Revival building, completed in 1848[13] for the Throckmortons of Buckland House. It has a chancel, north chapel, nave, south porch and western bellcote.[4]

Other buildings[edit]

Buckland used to have a post office reporting to Faringdon.[1] A photograph sold by a commercial website shows the post office in existence in 1965.[14] The building is unow a private home called the Old Post House.[15] The former Draper's shop, built in the 18th century, is now a house called Hedges.[16]

In 1793 Henry Southby of Carswell House founded a free school for boys and girls in Buckland. Others contributed further funds for the school and in 1868 it had an income of £60 per annum, £40 from Henry Southby and £20 from other charities.[7]

The Lamb Inn, Buckland

The main part of The Lamb Inn is 17th-century[17] or 18th[18] century, and the restaurant was added toward the end of the 20th century.[17] In 2008 the Lamb Inn was owned by Peta and Paul Barnard who previously owned The Plough at Clanfield (the winner of a Michelin star).[17]

In 1240 an almshouse was founded and stood in a place now called Warnfords.[4]

Statistics[edit]

19th and 20th century[edit]

Various sources have been collated by the University of Portsmouth and others to give an insight into Buckland in the 19th and 20th centuries. The information quoted is for the civil parish of Buckland as defined at each period.

The earliest published figure for the population of Buckland is from the 1801 Census, which recorded it as 727 people. The population increased until the 1851 Census, which recorded 987 people living in the parish. Thereafter was a decline until the 1901 Census recorded Buckland's population as 665. It varied a little over the next 50 years, and the 1951 Census recorded a decline to 636. The 1971 Census recorded a rise to 597.[19] The 2001 Census recorded the population as 553, of whom 292 lived in the village itself.[20]

The 1831 Census recorded that 70.7% of the male Buckland population over 20 were working as labourers or servants. 13.3% were small farmers, master and skilled workers. 10.8% were employers and professionals.[21] A more detailed breakdown shows that 54.4% of people were employed as agricultural labourers, 12.9% in retail and handicrafts as well as 8.8% as servants.[22] (Based on 249 males aged 20 and over.)

Literature[edit]

In 1774 Henry James Pye, Poet Laureate to George III, wrote the poem Faringdon Hill. Part of it refers to Buckland:

See Buckland here her lovely scenes display,
which rude erewhile in rich disorder lay
til Taste and Genius with corrective hand
spread Culture's nicest vesture o'er the land,
and called each latent beauty to the fight;
clothed the declining slopes with pendant wood,

and o'er the sedge grown meadows poured the floor.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Wilson 1870–72[page needed]
  2. ^ "Area: Buckland (Parish): Key Figures for 2011 Census: Key Statistics". Neighbourhood statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 19 April 2016. 
  3. ^ "Buckland House, Oxfordshire Summary". Parks & Gardens UK. Retrieved 20 September 2008. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Page & Ditchfield 1924, pp. 453–456
  5. ^ a b c d Wright 1966[page needed]
  6. ^ a b Ford, David Nash (2001). "Buckland Park". Royal Berkshire History. Retrieved 19 September 2008. 
  7. ^ a b c Hamilton 1868[page needed]
  8. ^ "The Dovecote: History". Retrieved 18 September 2008. 
  9. ^ "Barcote Park". Royal Berkshire History. Retrieved 3 October 2008. 
  10. ^ a b Davies, Peter (24 March 2010). "Buckland S Mary V". Dove's Guide for Church Bell Ringers. Central Council for Church Bell Ringers. Retrieved 21 April 2016. 
  11. ^ Historic England. "Church of St Mary  (Grade I) (1181905)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 21 April 2016. 
  12. ^ Archbishops' Council. "Benefice of Cherbury with Gainfield". Church of England. Retrieved 21 April 2016. 
  13. ^ Historic England. "Roman Catholic Church of St George  (Grade II) (1048662)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 21 April 2016. 
  14. ^ "Buckland, Square and Post Office c 1965". Francis Frith. Retrieved 20 September 2008. 
  15. ^ "My Vale Information". Vale of White Horse District Council. Retrieved 20 September 2008. 
  16. ^ James C Penny. "Hedges" (PDF). Retrieved 1 October 2008. 
  17. ^ a b c "Cotswold Review: The Lamb Inn" (PDF). Retrieved 18 September 2008. 
  18. ^ "The Mobile Food Guide: The Lamb at Buckland Restaurant Review". Retrieved 18 September 2008. 
  19. ^ "Buckland AP/CP – Total Population". A Vision of Britain Through Time. Retrieved 20 September 2008. 
  20. ^ "Area: Buckland CP (Parish): Parish Headcounts, 2001". Neighbourhood statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 14 September 2008. 
  21. ^ "Buckland AP/CP – 1831 Occupations By Status". A Vision Of Britain Through Time. Retrieved 20 September 2008. 
  22. ^ "Buckland AP/CP – 1831 Occupational Categories". A Vision Of Britain Through Time. Retrieved 20 September 2008. 

Sources and further reading[edit]

External links[edit]