|Born||January 13, 1922|
|Service/||United States Army Air Forces|
United States Air Force
|Years of service||1942–1972|
|Unit||357th Fighter Group|
|Commands held||69th Fighter-Bomber Squadron|
355th Tactical Fighter Wing
|Battles/wars||World War II|
|Awards||Legion of Merit (2)|
Distinguished Flying Cross (5)
Bronze Star Medal
Air Medal (16)
(m. 1945; died 2015)
|Relations||two children, four grandchildren and four great grandchildren|
|Other work||Manager of the McDonnell Aircraft Company's Flight Test Facility at Edwards AFB (1972–1998)|
Clarence Emil Anderson (born January 13, 1922) is a retired officer in the United States Air Force, a triple ace of World War II, and the highest scoring living American fighter ace. During the war he was the highest scoring flying ace in his P-51 Mustang squadron. Towards the end of Anderson's two combat tours in Europe in 1944 he was promoted to major at 22, a young age even for a highly effective officer in wartime. After the war Anderson became a well regarded fighter test pilot, and a fighter squadron and wing commander. He served his wing commander tour in combat in the Vietnam War. He retired as a full colonel in 1972, after which he worked in flight test management for McDonnell Douglas. A member of the National Aviation Hall of Fame, Anderson has remained a sought-after speaker at aviation and military events well into his 90s.
Anderson was born in Oakland, California, and reared on a farm near Newcastle, California. In high school, he played football and basketball. He was introduced to aviation at Oakland Municipal Airport. Anderson was working at the Sacramento Air Depot when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 .
In January 1942, he enlisted in the United States Army as an aviation cadet. He completed Primary Flight Training at Lindbergh Field, San Diego, and his Advanced Training at Luke Field, Arizona. Anderson received his wings and commission as a second lieutenant in the United States Army Air Forces at Hamilton Field, California in September 1942.
Anderson began flying Bell P-39 Airacobras with the 329th Fighter Squadron of the 328th Fighter Group at Hamilton Field and then at the Oakland Municipal Airport, from September 1942 to March 1943. He was later assigned to the 363rd Fighter Squadron of the 357th Fighter Group at Tonopah, Nevada, in March 1943, moving to various bases in California from May to October 1943, then at Casper, Wyoming, from October to November 1943, and finally deploying to England in November 1943.
World War II
The 357th Fighter Group was stationed at RAF Leiston, and the group was equipped the North American P-51 Mustang in January 1944. Anderson flew his first mission on February 5, 1944. On March 3, 1944, he shot down a Messerschmitt Bf 109 that was attacking a straggling B-17 Flying Fortress over Berlin, his first aerial victory. Anderson continued to score aerial victories until he shot down a Bf 109 over Frankfurt, his fifth aerial victory, thus making him a flying ace.
On June 29, 1944, Anderson shot down three Focke-Wulf Fw 190s over Leipzig. In July 1944, he took leave and returned to the United States. In Fall 1944, he returned to 357th FG and continued to score aerial victories. He scored his final aerial victories on December 5, 1944, when he shot down two Fw 190s over Berlin.
Anderson flew two tours of combat against the Luftwaffe in Europe while with the 363d Fighter Squadron of the 357th Fighter Group, based at RAF Leiston, England, and was the group's third leading ace with 16+1⁄4 aerial victories. The others only flew one tour so they had less time in the air. His P-51 Mustang, (P-51B-15-NA AAF Ser. No. 43-24823) the P-51D-10-NA Mustang, AAF Ser. No. 44-14450 B6-S, again nicknamed Old Crow (after the whiskey of the same name), carried him safely through 116 missions without being hit by fire from enemy aircraft and without Anderson ever having to turn back for any reason. He returned to the United States in February 1945 as a major.
Anderson returned to the U.S. in January 1945, serving at Perrin Field, Texas, until October 1945, when he was assigned as a recruiter in Ohio. He served as a recruiter until May 1948, when he transferred to the Flight Test Division with Headquarters Air Material Command at Wright Field, Ohio. Anderson served as a test pilot at Wright Field from May 1948 to February 1953, and then at Headquarters U.S. Air Force in the Pentagon from February 1953 to September 1954. During this time, he took part in the FICON project, a concept to increase the effective combat radius of jet fighters by attaching them to a propeller-driven bomber, one hooked up to each wingtip. The hope was that it would not only increase fuel efficiency and effective range, but also allow the bomber to carry its own fighter escort deep into enemy territory.
Anderson attended Air Command and Staff College at Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama, from September 1954 to August 1955, and then was assigned as Director of Operations for the 58th Fighter-Bomber Wing at Osan Air Base, South Korea, from August 1955 to February 1956. He served as commander of the 69th Fighter-Bomber Squadron of the 58th Fighter-Bomber Wing from February to August 1956, and then served as Executive Officer with the 6511th Parachute Test Group at NAAS El Centro, California, from August 1956 to November 1957.
Anderson continued serve as test pilot and was assigned as Assistant Chief and then Chief of the Flight Test Operations Division at Edwards Air Force Base from November 1957 to August 1962. He attended the Army War College at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, from August 1962 to July 1963. He was appointed as Deputy Director of Flight Test and then Assistant Deputy for System Test at Edwards AFB from July 1963 to August 1965, followed by service as Deputy Director and then Director for Operations with the 18th Tactical Fighter Wing at Kadena Air Base, Okinawa, from August 1965 to June 1967.
From June to December 1970, he commanded the 355th Tactical Fighter Wing, an F-105 Thunderchief unit, during its final months of service in the Vietnam War. Stationed at Takhli Royal Thai Air Force Base, Anderson flew strikes against enemy supply lines, and later was in charge of closing the base when 355th TFW was deactivated.
Anderson retired as a colonel in March 1972. He was decorated 25 times for his service to the United States. During his career, he flew over 100 types of aircraft and logged over 7,000 hours. Anderson was a close friend of Brigadier General Chuck Yeager during the end of World War II, where both served in the 357th Fighter Group.
Personal life and retirement
In 1990, Anderson co-authored the book To Fly & Fight—Memoirs of a Triple Ace.
Aerial victory credits
|Date||#||Type||Location||Aircraft flown||Unit Assigned|
|February 20, 1944||1||Messerschmitt Bf 109||Hanover, Germany||P-51B||363 FS, 357 FG|
|March 8, 1944||1||Bf 109||Hanover, Germany||P-51B||363 FS, 357 FG|
|March 8, 1944||0.20||Heinkel He 111||Hanover, Germany||P-51B||363 FS, 357 FG|
|April 30, 1944||1||Focke-Wulf Fw 190||Orléans, France||P-51B||363 FS, 357 FG|
|May 8, 1944||1||Fw 190||Soltau, Germany||P-51B||363 FS, 357 FG|
|May 12, 1944||1||Bf 109||Frankfurt, Germany||P-51B||363 FS, 357 FG|
|May 27, 1944||2||Bf 109||Strasbourg, France||P-51B||363 FS, 357 FG|
|May 30, 1944||1||Bf 109||Schönebeck, Germany||P-51B||363 FS, 357 FG|
|June 29, 1944||3||Fw 190||Leipzig, Germany||P-51B||363 FS, 357 FG|
|July 7, 1944||1||Bf 109||Leipzig, Germany||P-51B||363 FS, 357 FG|
|November 27, 1944||1||Fw 190||Magdeburg, Germany||P-51D||363 FS, 357 FG|
|November 27, 1944||1||Fw 190||Nordhausen, Germany||P-51D||363 FS, 357 FG|
|December 5, 1944||2||Fw 190||Berlin, Germany||P-51D||363 FS, 357 FG|
- SOURCES: Air Force Historical Study 85: USAF Credits for the Destruction of Enemy Aircraft, World War II
During his lengthy career, Anderson earned many decorations, including:
|Legion of Merit with one bronze oak leaf cluster|
|Distinguished Flying Cross with four bronze oak leaf clusters|
|Bronze Star Medal|
|Air Medal with three silver oak leaf clusters|
|Air Force Commendation Medal|
|Air Force Presidential Unit Citation|
|Air Force Outstanding Unit Award|
|American Campaign Medal|
|European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal with four bronze service stars|
|World War II Victory Medal|
|National Defense Service Medal with one bronze service star|
|Vietnam Service Medal with two bronze service stars|
|Korea Defense Service Medal|
|Air Force Longevity Service Award with one silver and one bronze oak leaf clusters|
|Small Arms Expert Marksmanship Ribbon|
|Legion of Honour (France)|
|Croix de Guerre, with silver star (France)|
|Republic of Vietnam Gallantry Cross|
|Vietnam Campaign Medal|
- American Fighter Aces Association life member
- Fellow, Society of Experimental Test Pilots
- Aerospace Walk of Honor, 1993
- Crystal Eagle Award, 2011
- Congressional Gold Medal, May 2015
- Anderson, Colonel Clarence "Bud" with Joseph P. Hamelin. To Fly and Fight, Memoirs of a Triple Ace, Pacifica Military History, Library of Congress. ISBN 0-935553-34-7
- "Biography". To Fly and Fight. Retrieved January 20, 2022.
- "Clarence E. "Bud" Anderson". Veteran Tributes. Retrieved January 20, 2022.
- "Bud Anderson - Triple Ace of 357th Fighter Group". Acepilots. Retrieved January 20, 2022.
- "Clarence E. Anderson". Ciel de Glorie. Retrieved January 20, 2022.
- "P-51 Mustang "Old Crow" World War 2 artwork". toflyandfight.com. July 11, 1944. Retrieved January 20, 2022.
- Mark Wolverton. "Project Tip-Tow". History Net. Retrieved January 20, 2022.
- "Caught by the Wing Tip". To Fly and Fight. Retrieved January 20, 2022.
- "Bud Anderson - FU Hero". Fighter Pilot University. 2009-10-16. Retrieved January 20, 2022.
- "Eleanor Cosby Anderson 1923-2015 - Obituary – Auburn, CA | Auburn Journal". Legacy.com. Retrieved January 20, 2022.
- "The 10th Annual 'Taste Of Flight' Gala, An Incredible Evening with Bud Anderson" (PDF). planesoffame.org. Retrieved January 20, 2022.
- "To Fly and Fight: Memoirs of a Triple Ace Paperback – August 7, 2017". amazon.com. Retrieved January 20, 2022.
- "Anderson, Clarence E. "Bud"". nationalaviation.org. 2008. Archived from the original on 2 January 2022. Retrieved January 20, 2022.
- Sprekelmeyer, Linda, editor. These We Honor: The International Aerospace Hall of Fame. Donning Co. Publishers, 2006. ISBN 978-1-57864-397-4.
- "#VeteranOfTheDay Air Force Veteran Clarence "Bud" Anderson". blogs.va.gov. Retrieved January 20, 2022.
- "Col. Clarence E. "Bud" Anderson Celebrates his 100th Birthday Today!". warbirdsnews.com. Retrieved January 20, 2022.
- "Happy Birthday, Bud! Auburn celebrates as World War II Triple Ace pilot Anderson turns 100". goldcountrymedia.com. Retrieved January 20, 2022.
- "Legion Of Honor Award". chuckyeager.com. 2003-07-18. Retrieved January 20, 2022.