|This article needs additional citations for verification. (January 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
The Budapest Metro (Hungarian: Budapesti metró) is a rapid transit system in the Hungarian capital Budapest. Opened in May 1896. It is the oldest electrified underground railway system on the European continent, predated only by the 1890 City & South London Railway (now part of the London Underground) and the third-oldest underground railway in the world, with the 1886 Mersey Railway now a part of Merseyrail being the second.
This original metro line followed a northeast-southwest route along Andrássy Avenue from Vörösmarty Square, in the centre of the city, to the City Park and Zoo (Széchenyi fürdõ), a distance of 3.7 kilometres (2.3 mi). There were a total of eleven stations on the line, with nine underground and two above-ground; the original terminus at the Zoo has since been supplanted (by Mexikói út station, further to the northeast, in 1973). With trains running every two minutes, the line was then capable of carrying up to 35,000 passengers per day. One of the original Budapest Metro cars has been preserved at the Seashore Trolley Museum. Original carriages can also be seen in the Underground Railway Museum at Deák Ferenc tér station
The line was originally scheduled for completion in 1955, but construction was put on hold for financial and political reasons from 1954 to 1963. Line 2 was built with help of soviet specialists and finally opened with seven stations on April 4, 1970. It follows an east-west route, connecting the major Keleti (Eastern) and Déli (Southern) railway stations. It has a joint station with the original line at Deák Ferenc Square.
The first line underwent a thorough between 1970 and 1973, which included replacement of its rolling stock and a switch from left-hand drive to right-hand drive for the sake of consistency.
Concurrently with the opening of Line 3, the metro adopted a colour-coding scheme for easier identification. The first line was given the colour yellow, the second line red, and the third, blue. Additionally, green is used to mark the suburban railways (HÉV) in and around Budapest.
In the 1980s and 1990s, Line 1 underwent major reconstruction.
Lines and developments
The metro consists of four lines (M1–M4), each denoted by a different colour. M1 Földalatti runs from Mexikói út south-west towards the river. The M2 (red) line travels east-west through the city, crossing the Duna. The M3 runs in a broadly north-south alignment, interchanging with the three other lines. The M4 (green) line commences at Keleti pályaudvar and travels south-west, crossing the river, to terminate at Kelenföld vasútállomás.
|Yellow||Vörösmarty tér ↔ Mexikói út||4.4 km (3 mi)||11||1896|
|Red||Déli pályaudvar ↔ Örs vezér tere||10.3 km (6 mi)||11||1970|
|Blue||Újpest-Központ ↔ Kőbánya-Kispest||16.5 km (10 mi)||20||1976|
|Green||Kelenföld vasútállomás ↔ Keleti pályaudvar||7.4 km (5 mi)||10||2014|
|TOTAL||38.6 km (24 mi)[Note 1]||52|
Tickets and transfer system
The implementation of latest generation automated fare collection and e-ticket system with NFC compatibility and reusable contactless smart cards for making electronic payments in online and offline systems in Budapest is started in 2014, the project is implemented and operated by the operator of Hong Kong Octopus card jointly with one of the leading European companies of e-ticket and automated fare collection, Scheidt & Bachmann. The deployment of 300 new digital contactless ticket vending machine mainly at the metro stations, will be finished by the end of 2014 in harmonization with the e-ticket system.
Hours of operation
Lines run from approximately 4:30AM until 11:30PM every day, though times vary slightly between lines.
|Line 1||Ganz Works||3-car articulated-units locally built by Ganz Works. The sets are specifically designed for the unusual loading gauge determined by the shallow tunnel.|
|Line 2||AM5-M2||Alstom Metropolis, 5-car sets. A trainset is structured as A-B-C-B-A, where the A-B cars are motor cars forming a single electronic unit and coupled semi-permanently, with a C-type trailer car in between the two A-B units.|
|Line 3||81-717.2/714.2||Soviet-made motor cars forming sets of 6. The first and last cars, equipped with control cabs, are of the type 81-717. The four middle motor cars are of the cabless type 81-714. This type also appears in many metros in the former Eastern Bloc.|
|81-717.2K/714.2K||Reconstruction of existing 81-717/714 rolling stock. First set delivered in May 2016.|
|Ev3||Soviet-made motor cars forming sets of 6. Although all have a driver's cab, only the designated head cars are equipped with the automatic train control system AVR.|
|Line 4||AM4-M4||Alstom Metropolis, 4 unit car sets structured as A-B-B-A, where the A-B cars are motor cars forming a single electronic unit and coupled semi-permanently.|
- The total length listed here does not match the total given in the Infobox due to difference in how the line lengths are calculated, and the references used. In general, it is assumed that the figure given in the Infobox is the more accurate figure for the system's total route length.
- Mátyás Jangel (September 2010). "Közszolgáltatási szerződés, utasjogok, a szolgáltatástervezés és ellenőrzés folyamata a kötöttpályás helyi- és elővárosi közforgalmú közlekedésben" [Public service contract, passenger rights, service planning and monitoring process of local and suburban public transport rail] (pdf) (in Hungarian). BKV Zrt. Közlekedési Igazgatóság [Directorate of Public Office. Transport]. pp. 10 (and 3). Retrieved 2015-04-19. Metro usage per day – Line 1: 120,000; Line 2: 405,000; Line 3: 630,000. (Line 4 began operations in 2014, with a 110,000 ridership estimated by Centre for Budapest Transport (BKK) based on the latest year.)
- "Annual Report 2011" (pdf). BKV Zrt. 2011. p. 4. Retrieved 2013-10-06.
- "Annual Report 2011" (pdf). BKV Zrt. 2011. p. 48. Retrieved 2013-10-06.
- "New Surface Transport Network Following Start of Metro Line 4 on 29 March 2014". bkk.hu. 28 March 2014. Retrieved 2014-03-30.
- Siemens.com Budapest Line 4[dead link]
- Electric Railway Society (2003). https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=9DdeAAAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y. Doppler Press. p. 61. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- Robert Schwandl. "Budapest". UrbanRail.net. Retrieved 5 August 2016.
- "Az M1 Millenniumi Földalatti..." (pdf) (in Hungarian). Budapesti Közlekedési Központ. 2012. p. 6. Retrieved 2014-04-02.
- "2-es metróvonal jellemzői" (in Hungarian). Retrieved 2014-04-02.
- Árpád Bodnár: A budapesti metró két évtizede ("Two decades of the Budapest Metro"), Városi Közlekedés, Year XXXI, Vol. 3, pp. 119-121, Budapest, 1991
- András Koós - Tamás Szirmay - Jenő Tiborcz: A budapesti 3-as metróvonal új szakasza ("The new section of Budapest Metro Line 3"), Városi Közlekedés, Year XXXI, Vol. 1, pp. 126-127, Budapest, 1991.
- "Budapest signed the Contract Agreement for the Automated Fare Collection system". BKK Zrt. 8 October 2014. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- "Purchase your ticket easier". BKK Zrt. 17 July 2014. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Metro (Budapest).|