# Buddhism and Hinduism: Difference between revisions

Buddhism and Hinduism are two closely related religions that are in some ways parallel each other and in other ways are divergent in theory and practice.

The Vedic, Buddhist, and Jain religions share a common regional culture situated near and around north eastern India - modern day eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Nepal. It was in this region that the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, considered to be among the very earliest Upanishads,[1] was compiled under King Janaka of Mithila. Both Siddhartha Gautama, later known as the Buddha, and Mahavira, the historical founder of Jainism, also hailed from this region.

Ancient India had two philosophical streams of thought, the Shramana religions and the Vedic religion, parallel traditions that have existed side by side for thousands of years.[2] Both Buddhism and Jainism are continuations of Shramana traditions, while modern Hinduism is a continuation of the Vedic tradition. These co-existing traditions have been mutually influential.

The Upanishads, from the Vedic tradition, had a separate influence on early Buddhism possibly derives from Upanishadic principles. One National Geographic[3] edition reads, "The essential tenets of Buddhism and Hinduism arose from similar ideas best described in the Upanishads, a set of Hindu treatises set down in India largely between the eighth and fourth centuries B.C." Early Buddhists rather questioned or debated ideas found in the Upanishads and examined if they were compatible with the Middle Path.[4] Since many early Buddhists belonged to the Brahmin caste of the day, they had been educated in the Upanishads. However, Gautama, the founder of Buddhism, for the most part rejected relying on Vedas for salvation, which included the Upanishads. He redefined Indian cosmology, incorporating many existing terms in his doctrine, but redefining them for his purposes in explaining the Middle Path, also teaching that to achieve salvation one did not have to accept the authority of the scriptures or the existence of God.[5] Later Indian religious thought was in turn influenced by the new interpretations and novel ideas of the Buddhist tradition.[6] Buddhism attained prominence on the Indian subcontinent, but was ultimately eclipsed at its point of origin by Hinduism and Islam. Conversely, Buddhism flourished outside of India. Tibetan Buddhism may be seen as a continuation of Buddhism as it existed in India prior to the Muslim invasions.[7] It predominates in the Himalayan region, as does Theravada Buddhism in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia, and Mahayana Buddhism in East Asia.

## Early history

The Buddha according to Buddhist texts was a descendant of either the Vedic sage Gautama or the Vedic sage Angirasa.[8]

Several Hindu texts, like the Puranas, are believed to have been composed after the birth of Gautama Buddha.[9] The Buddha is mentioned in many Puranas.[10] The scholarly consensus is that the Bhagavad Gita is post-Buddhistic.[11][12] The same is said by Buddhist scholars to hold for all but the five early prose Upanishads.[13][14] However, some commentators assert that the Bhagavad Gita predates Buddhism.[15]

Certain Buddhist teachings appear to have been formulated in response to ideas presented in the early Upanishads - in some cases concurring with them, and in other cases criticizing or re-interpreting them.[16]

In later years, some Hindu kings might have supported Buddhism as many Buddhist kings such as Ashoka supported Hinduism. One National Geographic[17] edition reads, "The flow between faiths was such that for hundreds of years, almost all Buddhist temples, including the ones at Ajanta, were built under the rule and patronage of Hindu kings."

## Similarities between Hinduism and Buddhism

### Technical language

Almost every technical and religious Sanskrit term in the Buddhist lexicon has a counterpart in Hindu philosophy. The Buddha adopted many of the terms already used in philosophical discussions of his era; however, many of these terms were then re-interpreted or redefined in the Buddhist tradition. For example, in the Samanna-phala Sutta, the Buddha is depicted presenting a notion of the 'three knowledges' (tevijja)- a term also used in the Vedic tradition to describe knowledge of the Vedas- in terms of knowledge of fundamental Buddhist doctrines.[18]

### Ahimsa

Ahimsa is a religious concept which advocates non-violence and a respect for all life. Ahimsa (अहिंसा ahiṁsā) is Sanskrit for avoidance of sacrificial himsa, or injury. The Buddha's dialogue in the Culakammavibhangasutta with the Brahmin Subha on killing is interesting considering the Vedic emphasis on sacrificial himsa. The focus on ahimsa, non-harm to all beings, in Buddhist ethics was a definitive move away from the killing inherent in the sacrifices of the Vedic ritual tradition. This move away from sacrificial himsa was also being made in other Sramana traditions. The Upanishadic literature, for example, is often critical of Vedic ritual and emphasises the internalization of the meaning and symbolism of sacrifice, rather than its literal enactment.[19] Long life-span was much sought after by the composers of the Vedas. The Buddha's explanation of karma in the Culakammavibhangasutta challenges the Vedic idea that a life of sacrifice accrues benefits and excellence for oneself and one's family. The Buddha expounds his view that intentionally killing living beings leads not to the good, but to something that was problematic for the brahmins of his day, that is, shortness of life.[20]

### Karma

Karma (Sanskrit: कर्म from the root kṛ, "to do") is a word meaning action or activity and, often implies its subsequent results (also called karma-phala, "the fruits of action"). It is commonly understood as a term to denote the entire cycle of cause and effect as described in the philosophies of a number of cosmologies, including those of Buddhism and Hinduism.

The general understanding of karma in Indian religion is that individuals undergo certain experiences throughout their lives as a result of actions which they have chosen. The effects of all deeds actively create past, present and future experiences, thus making one responsible for one's own life, and the pain and joy it brings to others. In religions that incorporate reincarnation, karma extends through one's present life and all past and future lives as well.[21]

Karma is a central part of Buddhist teachings. Buddhist teachings re-interpret certain aspects of the pre-Buddhist conception of karma, removing the idea of a perfect moral equilibrium present in some versions of those teachings.[22] Meanwhile, certain aspects of Buddhist teachings on karma, such as the transfer of merit or karma, seem to have been borrowed directly from earlier Hindu teachings, despite presenting apparent inconsistencies with the Buddhist doctrine of karma.[23][clarification needed]

### Dharma

Dharma (Sanskrit, Devanagari: धर्म or Pāli Dhamma, Devanagari: धम्म) means Natural Law or Reality, and with respect to its significance for spirituality and religion might be considered the Way of the Higher Truths. Hinduism is called Sanatana Dharma[citation needed] which translates to "the eternal dharma." Dharma forms the basis for philosophies, beliefs and practices originating in India. The four main ones are Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism, all of whom retain the centrality of Dharma in their teachings. In these traditions, beings that live in harmony with Dharma proceed more quickly toward Dharma Yukam, Moksha, Nirvana (personal liberation). Dharma can refer generally to religious duty, and also mean social order, right conduct, or simply virtue.

### Mantra

In Tibet, many Buddhists carve mantras into rocks as a form of devotion.

A mantra (मन्त्र) is a religious syllable or poem, typically from the Sanskrit language. Their use varies according to the school and philosophy associated with the mantra. They are primarily used as spiritual conduits, words or vibrations that instill one-pointed concentration in the devotee. Other purposes have included religious ceremonies to accumulate wealth, avoid danger, or eliminate enemies. Mantras existed in the Vedic religion and were later adopted by Buddhists, Sikhs and Jains, now popular in various modern forms of spiritual practice which are loosely based on practices of these Eastern religions.

### Meditation

Concentrated meditation was an aspect of the practice of the yogis in the centuries preceding the Buddha. They used it to search for knowledge of the Self. The Buddha built upon the yogic/Upanishadic concern with introspection and developed their meditative techniques, but rejected the yogis' doctrines of the Self.[24] Religious knowledge or 'vision' was indicated as a result of practice both within and outside of the Buddhist fold. According to the Saamaññaphala Sutta this sort of vision arose for the Buddhist adept as a result of the perfection of meditation (dhyana) coupled with the perfection of ethics. Some of the Buddha's meditative techniques were shared with other traditions of his day, but the idea that ethics are causally related to the attainment of religious insight was original.[25]

### Reincarnation

In India the concept of reincarnation is first recorded in the Upanishads, which are philosophical and religious texts composed in Sanskrit.

According to Hinduism, the soul (atman) is immortal, while the body is subject to birth and death. The idea that the soul reincarnates is intricately linked to karma, another concept first introduced in the Upanishads. Karma (literally: action) is the sum of one's actions, and the force that determines one's next reincarnation. The cycle of death and rebirth, governed by karma, is referred to as samsara.your an ass you fucker${\displaystyle [Insertformulahere]==--~~~~HeadlinetextSubscripttext
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The Buddha denied that beings have an eternal, immutable self that transmigrated- the 'dweller within the body' or atman. At the same time, Buddhist scriptures regularly discuss the future and past lives of living beings, and reincarnation is widely accepted among Buddhists. The details of reincarnation or rebirth- the process by which the end of one life gives rise to another- are explained in Buddhist terms in various scriptures.

### Yoga

Yoga is intimately connected to the religious beliefs and practices of Buddhism and Hinduism.[26] There are however variations in the usage of terminology in the two religions. In Hinduism, the term "Yoga" commonly refers to the eight limbs as defined in the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, which were written some time after 100 BCE. In the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism the term "Yoga" is used to refer to the six levels of teachings divided into Outer tantra (Kriyayoga, Charyayoga and Yogatantra) and Inner tantra (Mahayoga, Anuyoga and Atiyoga). Hindu Yoga is claimed to have had an influence on Buddhism, which is notable for its austerities, spiritual exercises, and trance states.[27]

Many scholars have noted that the concepts dhyana and samadhi are common to meditative practices in both Hinduism and Buddhism. The foundation for this assertion is a range of common terminology and common descriptions of meditative states seen as the foundation of meditation practice in both traditions. Most notable in this context is the relationship between the system of four Buddhist dhyana states (Pali jhana) and the samprajnata samadhi states of Classical Yoga.[28]

##### Zen Buddhism

Zen is a form of Mahayana Buddhism. The Mahayana school of Buddhism is noted for its proximity with Yoga.[29] In the west, Zen is often set alongside Yoga, the two schools of meditation display obvious family resemblances. [30] Zen Buddhism traces some of its roots to yogic practices. [31] Certain essential elements of Yoga are important both for Buddhism in general and for Zen in particular. [32]

##### Tibetan Buddhism

Buddhist Yoga was introduced to Tibet from India, in the form of Vajrayana teachings as found in the Nyingma, Kagyupa, Sakyapa and Gelukpa schools of Tibetan Buddhism.

File:3rdDalaiLama.jpg
Sonam Gyatso, 3rd Dalai Lama. Tibetan Heart Yoga is a part of the Gelukpa tradition of the Dalai Lamas of Tibet.

Yoga is central to Tibetan Buddhism. In the Nyingma tradition, practitioners progress to increasingly profound levels of yoga, starting with Mahā yoga, continuing to Anu yoga and ultimately undertaking the highest practice, Ati yoga. In the Sarma traditions, the Anuttara yoga class is equivalent. Other tantra yoga practices include a system of 108 bodily postures practiced with breath and heart rhythm timing in movement exercises is known as Trul khor or union of moon and sun (channel) prajna energies, and the body postures of Tibetan ancient yogis are depicted on the walls of the Dalai Lama's summer temple of Lukhang.

Tibetan Buddhist doctrines unite a seemingly diverse group of practices as as to offer a variety of ways to truth and enlightenment. These practices involve the use of tantra and yoga. Yoga used as a way to enhance concentration.[33]

Nagarjuna's Madhyamika philosophy and Yogacara's Mind-Only philosophy are used in Tibetian Buddhism as bases for Yoga practices. Focused meditation clears the mind of unenlightened concepts.[33]

In the 13th and the 14th centuries, the Tibetan developed a fourfold classification system for Tantric texts based on the types of practices each contained, especially their relative emphasis on external ritual or internal yoga. The first two classes, the so-called lower tantras, are called the Kriya and the Chatya tantras; the two classes of higher tantras are the Yoga and the Anuttara Yoga (Highest Yoga).[34]

### Nirvana

The word nirvana (Pali: Nibbana) was first used in its technical sense in Buddhism, and cannot be found in any of the pre-Buddhist Upanishads. The use of the term in the Bhagavad Gita may be a sign of the strong Buddhist influence upon Hindu thought.[35]

### Symbolism

• Mudra: This is a symbolic hand-gesture expressing an emotion. Depictions of the Buddha are almost always depicted performing a mudra.
• Dharma Chakra: The Dharma Chakra, which appears on the national flag of India and the flag of the Thai royal family, is a Buddhist symbol that is used by members of both religions.
• Rudraraksh: These are beads which devotees, usually monks use for praying.
• Tilak: Many Hindu devotees mark their heads with a tilak, which is interpreted as a third eye. A similar mark is one of the characteristic physical characteristics of the Buddha.
• Swastika: The swastika is a symbol to keep evil away. It can be either clockwise or counter-clockwise and both are seen in Hinduism and Buddhism. The Buddha is sometimes depicted with a swastika on his chest or the palms of his hands.[36]

### Cosmology and worldview

Both Hinduism and Buddhism have the concept of Naraka and Svarga lokas, the mountain Sumeru, Jambudvipa, entities such as devas, asuras, nāga, preta, yaksha, gandharvas, kinnars, brahma, etc. Cosmological time is measured in kalpas.

### Fire ritual

In Japan, the Shingon Fire Ritual is derived from Hindu traditions.[37] Similar rituals are common in Tibetan Buddhism.

## Differences between the two religions

Despite the similarities there exist differences between the two religions. The major differences are mentioned below.

### God

Gautama Buddha (as portrayed in the Pali scriptures, the agamas, set an important trend in nontheism in Buddhism in the sense of denying the notion of an omnipotent God. [38] Nevertheless, in many passages in the Tripitaka, the Buddha spoke about gods (devas in Sanskrit) and gave specific examples of individuals who were reborn as a god, or gods who were reborn as humans. Buddhist cosmology recognizes various levels and types of gods, but none of these gods is considered the creator of the world or of the human race.[38]

Buddhist canonical views about God and the priests are mentioned below:

13. 'Well then, Vasettha, those ancient sages versed in ancient scriptures, the authors of the verses, the utterers of the verses, whose, ancient form of words so chanted, uttered, or composed, the priests of to-day chant over again or repeat; intoning or reciting exactly as has been intoned or recited-to wit, Atthaka, Vamaka, Vamadeva, Vessamitta, Yamataggi, Angirasa, Bharadvaja, Vasettha, Kassapa, and Bhagu [11] -- did even they speak thus, saying: " We know it, we have seen it", where the creator is whence the creator is, whither the creator is?

From the Buddhist perspective, man has created God out of the psychologically deep-rooted idea of self-protection. Walpola Rahula writes that man depends on this creation "for his own protection, safety, and security, just as a child depends on his parent." He describes this as a product of "ignorance, weakness, fear, and desire," and writes that this "deeply and fanatically held belief" for man's consolation is "false and empty" from the perspective of Buddhism. He writes that man does not wish to hear or understand teachings against this belief, and that the Buddha described his teachings as "against the current" for this reason.[39]

### The authority of scriptures

The Buddha is recorded in the Canki Sutta (Majjhima Nikaya 95) as saying to a group of Brahmins:

O Vasettha, those priests who know the scriptures are just like a line of blind men tied together where the first sees nothing, the middle man nothing, and the last sees nothing.

In the same discourse, he says:

It is not proper for a wise man who maintains truth to come to the conclusion: This alone is Truth, and everything else is false.

He is also recorded as saying:

To be attached to one thing (to a certain view) and to look down upon other things (views) as inferior - this the wise men call a fetter.

Walpola Rahula writes, "It is always a question of knowing and seeing, and not that of believing. The teaching of the Buddha is qualified as ehi-passika, inviting you to 'come and see,' but not to come and believe... It is always seeing through knowledge or wisdom, and not believing through faith."[40]

### Nastika and Pasanda

In Buddhism, non-Buddhist Dharmas classified as heterodox are known as "Pasanda",

They are called pasanda because they lay out a snare (Be: pasam denti; Ce: pasam oddenti); the meaning is that they throw out the snare of views among the minds of beings. But the Buddha's dispensation frees one from the snare, so it is not called pasanda; the pasanda are found only outside the dispensation.[41]

In Hinduism, different philosophies within Indic traditions are classified either as Astika or Nastika, that is, philosophies which either affirm or reject the authorities of the Vedas. According to this tradition, Buddhism is a Nastika school since it rejects the authority of the Vedas.[42]

### Conversion

Since the Hindu scriptures are essentially silent on the issue of religious conversion, the issue of whether Hindus evangelize is open to interpretations.[43] Those who view Hinduism as an ethnicity more than as a religion tend to believe that to be a Hindu, one must be born a Hindu. However, those who see Hinduism primarily as a philosophy, a set of beliefs, or a way of life generally believe that one can convert to Hinduism by incorporating Hindu beliefs into one's life and by considering oneself a Hindu.[43] The Supreme Court of India has taken the latter view, holding that the question of whether a person is a Hindu should be determined by the person's belief system, not by their ethnic or racial heritage.[44]

Buddhism spread throughout Asia via evangelism and conversion[citation needed]. Buddhist scriptures depict such conversions in the form of lay followers declaring their support for the Buddha and his teachings, or via ordination as a Buddhist monk. Buddhist identity has been broadly defined as one who "takes refuge" in the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha, echoing a formula seen in Buddhist texts. In some communities, formal conversion rituals are observed. No specific ethnicity has typically been associated with Buddhism, and as it spread beyond its origin in India immigrant monastics were replaced with newly ordained members of the local ethnic or tribal group.[citation needed]

However Buddhism is not a conversion religion like Christianity where you are with or against them. Buddha is to have said that a person should not take his word for it but to decide whether to believe in and whether his teachings are right for them for themselves. Buddha believed in being a guide and a teacher, not some all knowing person who is right and should be blindly followed.

### Atman

In Hinduism, the atman is considered the essential 'self' of a person. Possibly the main philosophical difference is that this atman is denied in Buddhism. Terms like anataman (no-self), selflessness, emptiness (shunyata in Sanskrit), voidness are at the core of all Buddhist traditions. The realization of anatman forms the basis for enlightenment of an Arhat as well as the full enlightenment of a Buddha. B. Alan Wallace writes that the transcendental notion of the self is an "idol" that cannot "withstand empirical investigation or rational analysis."[45] Rahula writes,

Two ideas are psychologically deep-rooted in man: self-protection and self-preservation. For self-protection man has created God, on whom he depends for his own protection, safety, and security, just as a child depends on its parent. For self-preservation man has conceived the idea of an immortal Soul or Atman, which will live eternally. In his ignorance, fear, weakness, and desire, man needs these two things to console himself. Hence he clings to them deeply and fanatically. The Buddha's teaching does not support this ignorance, fear, weakness, and desire, but aims at making man enlightened by removing them and destroying them, striking at their very root. According to Buddhism, our ideas of God and Soul are false and empty. Though highly developed as theories, they are all the same extremely subtle mental projections, garbed in an intricate metaphysical and philosophical phraseology. These ideas are so deep-rooted in man, and so near and dear to him, that he does not wish to hear, nor does he want to understand, any teaching against them. The Buddha knew this quite well. In fact, he said that his teaching was 'against the current,' against man's selfish desires.[46]

### Bodhicitta

Together with above concept of emptiness (shunyata in Sanskrit), in the Buddhist Mahayana and Vajrayana traditions, the attitude of bodhicitta (Sanskrit) are seen as the two major aspects in order to achieve full enlightenment of a Buddha. Bodhicitta is defined as the wish to lead all sentient beings to enlightenment, and in order to do this, one aims to become a Buddha oneself. 'Bodhi' means enlightenment and 'citta' means mind, as combination it can be translated as a mind aimed at enlightenment. This concept is unknown in Hinduism.

### Caste

The Buddha repudiated the caste distinctions of the Brahmanical religion,[47] and was as a result described as a corrupter and opposed to true dharma in some of the Puranas.[48]

Buddhism implicitly denied the validity of caste distinctions by offering ordination to all regardless of caste.[49][50] The Buddhist writer Ashvaghosa directly opposed the caste system of Hinduism by drawing upon anomalous episodes in Hindu scriptures.[51] While the caste system constitutes an assumed background to the stories told in Buddhist scriptures, the sutras do not attempt to justify or explain the system, and the caste system was not generally propagated along with the Buddhist teachings.[52]

The notion of ritual purity also provided a conceptual foundation for the caste system, by identifying occupations and duties associated with impure or taboo objects as being themselves impure. Regulations imposing such a system of purity and taboos are absent from the Buddhist monastic code, and not generally regarded as being part of Buddhist teachings.[53]

## Notable views

Some scholars are of the opinion that Buddhism should be regarded as "reformed Hinduism",[54] and many Hindus believe that Buddhism is a sect of Hinduism. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan has claimed that the Buddha did not look upon himself as an innovator, but only a restorer of the way of the Upanishads,[55] despite the fact that the Buddha did not accept the Upanishads, viewing them as comprising a pretentious tradition, foreign to his paradigm.[56]

In many Puranas, the Buddha is described as an incarnation of Vishnu who incarnated in order to delude either demons or mankind away from the Vedic dharma. The Bhavishya Purana posits:

At this time, reminded of the Kali Age, the god Vishnu became born as Gautama, the Shakyamuni, and taught the Buddhist dharma for ten years. Then Shuddodana ruled for twenty years, and Shakyasimha for twenty. At the first stage of the Kali Age, the path of the Vedas was destroyed and all men became Buddhists. Those who sought refuge with Vishnu were deluded.[57]

It is believed by some scholars that the Buddha avatar, which occurs in different versions in various Puranas, may represent an attempt by orthodoxy to slander the Buddhists by identifying them with the demons.[58] Helmuth von Glasenapp attributed these developments to a Hindu desire to absorb Buddhism in a peaceful manner, both to win Buddhists to Vishnuism and also to account for the fact that such a significant heresy could exist in India.[59]

The Hindu philosopher, Vivekananda, wrote in glowing terms about Buddha, and visited Bodh Gaya several times.[60]

Ananda Coomaraswamy, a proponent of the Perennial Philosophy, claimed:

Hinduism is a religion both of Eternity and Time, while Gautama looks upon Eternity alone. it is not really fair to Gautama or to the Brahmans to contrast their Dharma; for they do not seek to cover the same ground. We must compare the Buddhist ethical ideal with the identical standard of Brahmanhood expected of the Brahman born; we must contrast the Buddhist monastic system with the Brahmanical orders; the doctrine of Anatta with the doctrine of Atman, and here we shall find identity. Buddhism stands for a restricted ideal, which contrasts with Brahmanism as a part contrasts with the whole.[61]

Hinduism regards Buddha (bottom right) as one of the 10 avatars of Vishnu

He also maintained:

The more superficially one studies Buddhism, the more it seems to differ from Brahmanism in which it originated; the more profound our study, the more difficult it becomes to distinguish Buddhism from Brahmanism, or to say in what respects, if any, Buddhism is really unorthodox. [62]

Some Hindu scholars have also accepted Buddhism as a fulfillment of Sanatana Dharma philosophy:[63]

The relation between Hinduism (by Hinduism, I mean the religion of the Vedas) and what is called Buddhism at the present day, is nearly the same as between Judaism and Christianity. Jesus Christ was a Jew, and Shakya Muni was a Hindu. The Jews rejected Jesus Christ, nay, crucified him, and the Hindus have accepted Shakya Muni as God and worship him. But the real difference that we Hindus want to show between modern Buddhism and what we should understand as the teachings of Lord Buddha, lies principally in this: Shakya Muni came to preach nothing new. He also, like Jesus, came to fulfill and not to destroy.[64]

Nineteenth century Indologist Richard Garbe believed that Samkhya was not Vedic in origin.[65] He also believed that Buddhism originated from Samkhya,[66] though Buddhism provided a "great change for the better." He also wrote that Samkhya said nothing of morality, and that Buddhism supplied this "in the most admirable way." He also alleged that Samkhya played a part in "the unfavorable development of Indian national character."[67] Modern scholarship, however, places Kapila, the traditional founder of Samkhya, in the period following the establishment of the Buddhist monastic system.[68]

Alan Watts wrote the following:

Being a Hindu really involves living in India. Because of the differences of climate, or arts, crafts, and technology, you cannot be a Hindu in the full sense in Japan or in the United States. Buddhism is Hinduism stripped for export. The Buddha was a reformer in the highest sense: someone who wants to go to the original form, or to re-form it for the needs of a certain time... Buddha is the man who woke up, who discovered who he really was. The crucial issue wherein Buddhism differs from Hinduism is that it doesn't say who you are; it has no idea, no concept. I emphasize the words idea and concept. It has no idea and no concept of God because Buddhism is not interested in concepts, it is interested in direct experience only.[69]

Buddhist scholar Rahula Walpole has written that the Buddha fundamentally denied all speculative views, such as the doctrinal Upanishadic belief in Atman.[70]

File:Ambedkar Dalit movement.jpg
Text is in Marathi. It reads Let your Dhamma wheel revolve over the whole world. Image shows mass conversion of Hindus to Buddhism in background. Image of B.R.Ambedkar, Gautama Buddha and Dhamma wheel are in foreground.

B. R. Ambedkar, the founder of the Dalit Buddhist movement, believed that Buddhism offered an opportunity for low-caste and untouchable Hindus to achieve greater respect and dignity because of its non-caste doctrines. Among the 22 vows he prescribed to his followers is an injunction against having faith in Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesh.[71] He also regarded the belief that the Buddha was an incarnation of Vishnu as "false propaganda".[72]

## Notes

1. ^ Helmuth von Glasenapp, from the 1950 Proceedings of the "Akademie der Wissenschaften und Literatur." Accessed at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/vonglasenapp/wheel002.html
2. ^ Y. Masih (2000) In : A Comparative Study of Religions, Motilal Banarsidass Publ : Delhi, ISBN 8120808150 Page 18. "There is no evidence to show that Jainism and Buddhism ever subscribed to vedic sacrifices, vedic deities or caste. They are parallel or native religions of India and have contributed to much to the growth of even classical Hinduism of the present times."
3. ^ January 2008, VOL. 213, #1
4. ^ (Gombrich 1997, p. 31)
5. ^ Sir Charles Eliot, Hinduism and Buddhism,Vol. I (London 1954)
6. ^ The Impact of Early Buddhism on Hindu Thought (with Special Reference to the Bhagavadgiitaa)
7. ^
8. ^ The Life of Buddha as Legend and History, by Edward Joseph Thomas
9. ^ Vinay Lal (2007), http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/southasia/Religions/texts/Puranas.html
10. ^ Bhag-P 1.3.24 "Then, in the beginning of Kali-yuga, the Lord will appear as Lord Buddha, the son of Anjana, in the province of Gaya, just for the purpose of deluding those who are envious of the faithful theist."
11. ^ "As with almost every major religious text in India no firm date can be assigned to the Gītā. It seems certain, however, that it was written later than the 'classical' Upanishads with the possible exception of the Maitrī and that it is post-Buddhistic. One would probably not be going far wrong if one dated it at some time between the fifth and the second centuries B.C." R. C. Zaehner, p. 7.
12. ^ K.N. Upadhaya, The Impact of Early Buddhism on Hindu Thought. Philosophy East and West Vol.18(1968) pp.163-173, accessed at http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-PHIL/ew27039.htm.
13. ^ V.A. Gunasekara, http://www.budsas.org/ebud/ebdha255.htm
14. ^ Helmuth von Glasenapp, from the 1950 Proceedings of the "Akademie der Wissenschaften und Literatur." Accessed at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/vonglasenapp/wheel002.html
15. ^ P. 109 Bhakti Karuna Agape with Raimundo Panikkar By Marko Zlomislić
16. ^ (Gombrich 1997, p. 31)
17. ^ January 2008, VOL. 213, #1
18. ^ (Gombrich 1997, p. 29-30)
19. ^ Dharmacarini Manishini, Western Buddhist Review. Accessed at http://www.westernbuddhistreview.com/vol4/kamma_in_context.html
20. ^ ibid
21. ^ Yogananda, Paramahansa, Autobiography of a Yogi, Chapter 21 ISBN 1-56589-212-7
22. ^ (Gombrich 1997, p. 37)
23. ^ (Gombrich 1997, p. 56-7)
24. ^ Michael Carrithers, The Buddha. Taken from Founders of Faith, published by Oxford University Press, 1986, page 30.
25. ^ Dharmacarini Manishini, Western Buddhist Review. Accessed at http://www.westernbuddhistreview.com/vol4/kamma_in_context.html
26. ^ The Yoga Tradition: its history, literature, philosophy and practice By Georg Feuerstein. ISBN 8120819233. pg 111
27. ^ "Yoga," Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2007 © 1997–2007 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Exact Quote : "The strong influence of Yoga can also be seen in Buddhism, which is notable for its austerities, spiritual exercises, and trance states."
28. ^ Samadhi: The Numinous and Cessative in Indo-Tibetan Yoga By Stuart Ray Sarbacker. ISBN 0791465535. pg 77
29. ^ Zen Buddhism: A History (India and China) By Heinrich Dumoulin, James W. Heisig, Paul F. Knitter (page 22)
30. ^ Zen Buddhism: A History (India and China) By Heinrich Dumoulin, James W. Heisig, Paul F. Knitter (Page xviii)
31. ^ Zen Buddhism: A History (India and China) By Heinrich Dumoulin, James W. Heisig, Paul F. Knitter (page 13). Translated by James W. Heisig, Paul F. Knitter. Contributor John McRae. Published 2005 World Wisdom. 387 pages. ISBN 0941532895 [Exact quote: "This phenomenon merits special attention since yogic roots are to be found in the Zen Buddhist school of meditation."]
32. ^ Zen Buddhism: A History (India and China) By Heinrich Dumoulin, James W. Heisig, Paul F. Knitter (page 13). Translated by James W. Heisig, Paul F. Knitter. Contributor John McRae. Published 2005 World Wisdom. 387 pages. ISBN 0941532895
33. ^ a b Simple Tibetan Buddhism: A Guide to Tantric Living By C. Alexander Simpkins, Annellen M. Simpkins. Published 2001. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0804831998
34. ^ The Circle of Bliss: Buddhist Mediational Art By John C. Huntington, Dina Bangdel. Published 2003. Serindia Publications, Inc.ISBN 1932476016. pg 25
35. ^ K.N. Upadhaya, The Impact of Early Buddhism on Hindu Thought. Philosophy East and West Vol.18(1968) pp.163-173, accessed at http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-PHIL/ew27039.htm.
36. ^ Buddha image
37. ^ R.K. Payne: The Tantric Ritual of Japan. Feeding the Gods: the Shingon Fire Ritual., and Koenraad Elst: Who is a Hindu. 2001
38. ^ a b Dr V. A. Gunasekara. "The Buddhist Attitude to God". Statement made to a Multi-religious Seminar. Retrieved 2007-04-27.
39. ^ Walpola Rahula, What the Buddha Taught, pages 51-52.
40. ^ This whole section is largely verbatim quotes from Rahula's What the Buddha Taught, pages 9-10.
41. ^ Discourses of the Ancient Nuns (Bhikkhuni-samyutta) Translated from the Pali by Bhikkhu Bodhi
42. ^ Broughton, Jeffrey L. (1999). The Bodhidharma Anthology: The Earliest Records of Zen. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-21972-4. p. 2.
43. ^ a b "Does Hinduism Accept Newcomers?"
44. ^ Brahmachari Siddheshwar Shai v. State of West Bengal (Supreme Court of India), available at [2]
45. ^ B. Alan Wallace, Contemplative Science. Columbia University Press, 2007, page 152.
46. ^ Rahula, pages 51-52.
47. ^ K.N. Upadhaya, The Impact of Early Buddhism on Hindu Thought. Philosophy East and West Vol.18(1968) pp.163-173, accessed at http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-PHIL/ew27039.htm.
48. ^ cf. Shiva Purana 2.5.1-6, Skanda Purana 4.1.39.26-70. Discussed in Wendy O'Flaherty, Origins of Evil in Hindu Mythology. University of California Press, 1976, pages 186 and 193.
49. ^ Mrozik, Susanne. "Upali" in McMillian Encyclopedia of Buddhism, pg. 870. "All account emphasize that caste has no bearing on a person's status in the monastic community."
50. ^ Andrew Skilton, A Concise History of Buddhism. Windhorse Publications, 1997, page 144.
51. ^ Andrew Skilton, A Concise History of Buddhism. Windhorse Publications, 1997, page 144.
52. ^ Cohen, Richard S. "India" in McMillian Encyclopedia of Buddhism, pg. 358. "Though Buddhist texts take the existence of "caste" for granted, they attempt neither to justify the social system, nor to disseminate it."
53. ^ (Robinson, Johnson & Thanissaro 2005, p. 51)
54. ^ e.g., John Woodroffe (Arthur Avalon): Shakti and Shakta. Koenraad Elst: Who is a Hindu (2001). Christian Lindtner: "From Brahmanism to Buddhism", Asian Philosophy, 1999
55. ^ Radhakrishnan: Indian Philosophy, vol.2, p.469.
56. ^ Carrithers, page 38.
57. ^ Wendy O'Flaherty, Origins of Evil in Hindu Mythology. University of California Press, 1976, page 203.
58. ^ O'Flaherty, page 200.
59. ^ von Glasenapp 1962 page 113, cited in O'Flaherty, page 206.
60. ^ Sister Nivedita: The Master as I Saw Him. Koenraad Elst 2001: Who is a Hindu
61. ^ COOMARASWAMY, Ananda Kentish: Buddha and the Gospel of Buddhism. Citadel Press, Secaucus NJ, 1988 (1916).
62. ^ [3] Ellora Concept and Style by Carmel Berkson
63. ^ Speech delivered in Colombo in 1927, quoted by Gurusevak Upadhyaya: Buddhism and Hinduism, p. iii., and Koenraad Elst: Who is a Hindu (2001)
64. ^ [4] Buddhism: A fulfilment of Hinduism
65. ^ Next ref, page 130.
66. ^ [5] The Monist, Hegeler Institute
67. ^ Above ref, same page.
68. ^ Robert Thurman, [6]
69. ^ Alan Watts edited Transcripts
70. ^ Walpola Rahula, What the Buddha Taught, page 51.
71. ^ Ambedkarite website, http://www.jaibheem.com/22%20Vows.htm
72. ^ Ambedkarite website, http://www.jaibheem.com/22%20Vows.htm

## References

• Gombrich, Richard (1997), How Buddhism Began: The Conditioned Genesis of the Early Teachings, New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd., ISBN 8121508126
• Robinson, Richard; Johnson, Willard; Thanissaro, Bhikkhu (Geoffrey DeGraff) (2005), Buddhist Religions: A Historical Introduction, Belmont, California: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, ISBN 0534558585
• Zaehner, R. C. (1969). The Bhagavad Gītā. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-501666-1.