Buddhism and Jainism
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Buddhism and Jainism are two branches of the śramaṇa tradition that still exist today. Mahavira and Gautama Buddha were contemporaries, and according to the Pāli Canon, Gautama was aware of Mahavira's existence as well as the communities of Jain monastics. Jainism and Buddhism share many features, including much of the same terminology.
Jainism has historically been largely confined to India, whereas Buddhism originated in India but subsequently flourished in other Asian countries.
Buddhism separates itself from the Jain tradition by teaching an alternative to "extreme asceticism". Buddhist scriptures record that during Prince Siddhartha's ascetic life (before attaining enlightenment) he undertook many fasts, penances and austerities, the descriptions of which are elsewhere found only in the Jain tradition (for example, the penance by five fires, plucking of hair, and the consumption of food using only one's cupped hands). Ultimately, the Buddha abandoned reliance upon these methods on his discovery of a Middle Way. In Jainism, there exists a non-extreme pathway for śrāvakas (lay practitioners) with minor vows. Some Buddhist teachings, principles, and terms used in Buddhism are identical to those of Jainism, but they may hold different or variant meanings for each.
Although both Buddhists and Jain had orders of nuns, Buddhist Pali texts record the Buddha saying that a woman has the ability to obtain nirvana in the dharma and Vinaya. Jain traditions differ on the issue of moksha (liberation) for women, with the Digambaras stating that women are capable of spiritual progress but must be reborn as a man in order to attain final spiritual liberation and the Śvētāmbaras maintaining that liberation is attainable by both men and women.
Whether or not it was an influence of Jain culture and philosophy in ancient Bihar that gave rise to Buddhism is unclear, but there are some striking similarities between the two traditions and Buddhism may have adopted many of its ideas and traditions from preexisting ones held by the Jains, including calendrical systems.
In fact, it is even possible that among the surviving calendars today, the Buddha Nirvana calendar (with a zero point in 544 BC) may actually be significantly older than the Kaliyuga calendar. And so, quite possibly, is the Mahavira Nirvana calendar of the Jains (with a zero point in 527 BC).
The ancient texts Ashokavadana and the Divyavadana mention that in one instance, a non-Buddhist in Pundravardhana drew a picture showing the Buddha bowing at the feet of Mahavira. On complaint from a Buddhist devotee, Ashoka, the Maurya Emperor, issued an order to arrest him, and subsequently, another order to kill all the Ājīvikas in Pundravardhana. Around 18,000 Ājīvikas were executed as a result of this order. Sometime later, another ascetic in Pataliputra drew a similar picture. Ashoka burnt him and his entire family alive in their house. He also announced an award of one dinara (silver coin) to anyone who brought him the head of a Jain. According to Ashokavadana, as a result of this order, his own brother, Vitashoka, was mistaken for a heretic and killed by a cowherd. Their ministers advised that "this is an example of the suffering that is being inflicted even on those who are free from desire" and that he "should guarantee the security of all beings". After this, Ashoka stopped giving orders for executions.
Buddhists texts have references about the chatur-yama-dharma ("fourfold restraint") of the Nirgrantha tradition. This is in reference to the teachings of Mahāvīra's predecessor Pārśva (877-777 BCE), traditionally the 23rd Tirthankara of Jainism—who propounded the four vows of ahimsa, satya (truth), aparigraha (non-possessiveness), and asteya (non-stealing), which may have been the template for the Five Precepts of Buddhism. Additionally, the Buddhist Aṅguttaranikāya scripture quotes the independent philosopher Purana Kassapa, a sixth century BCE founder of a now-extinct order, as listing the "Nirgranthas" as one of the six major classifications of humanity. Buddhist texts describe Mahavira as Nirgrantha Nataputta.
Leadership of the sangha
Mahavira and Gautama Buddha were contemporaries. The Pali Canon does not record that the two teachers ever met, though instances of Mahavira's disciples questioning Gautama Buddha are to be found in various suttas. The Buddhists have always maintained that by the time the Buddha and Mahavira were alive, Jainism was already an entrenched faith and culture in the region. Buddhist scriptures record philosophical dialogues between the wandering seeker Siddhartha Gautama (who was to become the Buddha) and Uddaka Ramaputta and the first of several teachers that he studied with before his enlightenment. Buddhist scriptures attest that some of the first Buddhists were Jains ("nirgranthas") who "converted", but were encouraged by the Buddha to maintain their Jain identity and practises such as giving alms to Jain monks and nuns.
Jain vegetarianism is required for both monastics and laity. In Buddhism, monks in China, Japan, Korea and Vietnam are vegetarian; however, strict vegetarianism is not required. By monastic tradition, a monk should eat whatever is placed in his bowl when receiving food. The exceptions not to eat given meat were if the monk knew an animal was killed especially for him or he heard the animal being killed.
Buddhist writings reflect that Jains had followers by the time the Buddha lived. Suggesting close correlations between the teachings of the Jains and the Buddha, the Majjhima Nikaya relates dialogues between the Buddha and several members of the "Nirgrantha community".
In many instances, both philosophies continue to share similar Prakrit terminology for important themes even though meaning may differ a bit, for example the term nirvana where its meaning is same in both the traditions but the state of nirvana described is somewhat different. The teachings may differ significantly in the interpretation. This method of teaching adopted by the Buddha points to the pragmatic aspect of his style of teaching wherein the Buddha uses words and terms that are familiar to the audience instead of introducing new and complex technical jargon. In this way, Buddhism sought to appeal to a broad audience.
The last tirthankara, Mahavira, whose philosophy, sometimes described as dynamism or vitalism, was a blend of the earlier Jain teacher Pārśva's order and the reforms instituted by Mahavira himself. Debates between Buddhists and Jains are recorded in Jain texts, and dialogues between Jains and the Buddha are included in Buddhist texts.
Indian Buddhist tradition categorized all non-Buddhist schools of thought as pāsaṇḍa "heresy" (pasanda means to throw a noose or pasha—stemming from the doctrine that schools labelled as Pasanda foster views perceived as wrong because they are seen as having a tendency towards binding and ensnaring rather than freeing the mind). The difference between the schools of thought are outlined in the Samaññaphala Sutta of the Digha Nikaya.
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