The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (March 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
This article needs additional citations for verification. (August 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Part of a series on|
Buddhist liturgy is a formalized service of veneration and worship performed within a Buddhist Sangha community in nearly every traditional denomination and sect in the Buddhist world. It is often done one or more times a day and can vary amongst the Theravada, Mahayana, and Vajrayana sects.
The liturgy mainly consists of chanting or reciting a sutra or passages from a sutra, a mantra (especially in Vajrayana), and several gathas. Depending on what practice the practitioner wishes to undertake, it can be done at a temple or at home. The liturgy is almost always performed in front of an object or objects of veneration and accompanied by offerings of light, incense, water and/or food.
Chinese Buddhist liturgy
The traditional Chinese Buddhist liturgy for morning chanting (simplified Chinese: 早课; traditional Chinese: 早課), evening chanting (simplified Chinese: 晚课; traditional Chinese: 晚課), and regularly scheduled Dharma services (simplified Chinese: 共修法会; traditional Chinese: 共修法會) in the Chan and Pure Land schools combine mantras, recitation of the Buddha's name and physical and spiritual practices, such as bowing and walking meditation and vow making. Sitting meditation often occurs before or after the liturgy. A typical order for chanting at these services is:
- Refuge in the Buddha (three times)
- Sutra Opening Verse
- Sutra Reading
- Sapta Jina Bhasitam Papa Vinas ana Dharani (simplified Chinese: 七佛灭罪真言; traditional Chinese: 七佛滅罪真言)
- Refuge in the Triple Gem
- Transfer of Merits
- Dhanya Dharani (simplified Chinese: 供养咒; traditional Chinese: 供養咒)
- Closing Verse (simplified Chinese: 结斋偈; traditional Chinese: 結齋偈)
Japanese Buddhist liturgy (Gongyō)
In Japan, gongyo is also sometimes called o-tsutome (お勤め) or shōjin (精進). All three terms are common Japanese words and none is specific to any particular sect or school.
Origin of the word "Gongyo"
The word Gongyo originated in ancient China; although nowadays it is more often used in Buddhism, it first appeared in the Taoism classic Zhuang Zi. Its original meaning is "very hard and frequent walking/practice".
Chinese philosopher Zhuangzi abstracted and modified this word from an earlier classic of Taoism - Laozi's Tao Te Ching, in which it states:“上士闻道，勤而行之”, which means taking effort and practicing. During the Sui and Tang dynasties, the buddhist philosophy developed dramatically in central China, and was influenced by Taoism. Chinese Buddhist philosophers borrowed this word from Taoism classics, and it spread to Korea, Japan, Vietnam with Buddhism.
Pure Land Buddhism
The concept of gongyō is also common in Japanese Pure Land Buddhist schools such as Jodo Shu and Jodo Shinshu. The central practice of these schools is the recitation of the name of Amida, also called the nembutsu, but in daily practice a Pure Land practitioner will also chant excerpts of the Larger Sutra of Immeasurable Life, particular the sections titled the Sanbutsuge or the Juseige, and in some temples chanting the entire Smaller Sutra of Immeasurable Life may occur once daily or alternatively only on more formal occasions.
In larger Pure Land temples, the daily service is performed by priests or ministers, and lay people can optionally attend and recite along if they wish. The times for these services will vary depending on the individual branch, and individual temple.
In traditional Jodo Shinshu Buddhism, lay practitioners may also chant a hymn written by Shinran called the Shoshinge, which is not a sutra per se, but expounds the lineage with which Jodo Shinshu owes its beliefs. A shorter hymn called the Junirai, the Twelve Praises of Amida, can be used as well.
- Junen: The nembutsu is recited 8 times in one breath, without the final 'tsu' sound, then recited fully in one breath, and recited a final time without the 'tsu' sound again. This is 10 recitations total
- Nembutsu Ichie: The nembutsu is repeated as many times as the practitioners choose to.
- Sanshorai: The nembutsu is recited 3 times in a long, drawn-out fashion, after which the practitioner bows. This process is repeated twice more for a total of 9 recitations.
The gongyo of Shingon Buddhism differs amongst various sub-sects, but all of them mainly recite the Hannya Shingyo, the mantras of the Thirteen Buddhas and other mantras, the Light Mantra, and the gohogo; the saintly name of Kukai. Gongyo is important for lay Shingon Buddhists to follow since the practice emphasizes meditation of the body, speech and mind of a buddha.
Nichiren Buddhists perform a form of gongyo that consists of reciting certain passages of the Lotus Sutra and chanting daimoku. The format of gongyo varies by denomination and sect. Some, like Nichiren Shoshu and Nichiren Shu has a prescribed formula which is longheld in their practice use, while others such as Soka Gakkai International variedly changes their Gongyo formats depending on modernity, the most recent being the 2015 edition of their liturgy format.
Sōka Gakkai International
In Soka Gakkai, gongyo includes reciting the "Expedient Means" or "Hoben" (2nd) chapter and "The Life Span of the Thus Come One" or "Juryo" (16th) chapter of the Lotus Sutra in front of the Gohonzon. Every morning and evening. Various formats of Gongyo have been used over the years, namely the following:
- In March 1977, the Soka Gakkai announced that it was adding two new silent prayers, one for the prosperity of Soka Gakkai and its Kosen Rufu and the gratitude to the first and second president of the organization; Makiguchi Tsunesaburo and Toda Josei.
- In 1992, the thanksgiving prayers for the first two Soka Gakkai presidents was retained in the SGI Gongyo booklet edition, making the format different from that followed by Nichiren Shoshu Buddhists, which reverted back its 1977 revision.
- On August 1994, the recitation of the prose section of the 16th chapter of the Lotus Sutra was removed, citing difficulty for Westerners to recite prolonged Kanji towards rationalizing the similar essence of the verse (Jigage portion) instead.
- On 30 April 2002, during the first day of the SGI Spring Training Course in Japan, an SGI Representatives Meeting was held with 205 SGI leaders representing 50 countries, together with members of the SGI Board of Directors, a shortened version of Gongyo was proposed and agreed.
- Changes were again introduced by November 2002 and once again in February 2004. SGI had standardized its prayer format until 2007, when it again changed the format.
- In December 2015, the Gongyo format changed once again, becoming much shorter and removing certain prayers such as the ones for the Buddhist protection gods of Shoten Zenjin, and replacing the gratitude towards the first three SGI presidents rather than the Nichiren Shoshu priesthood.
Morning and Evening Gongyo are now 100% identical, while the slower Hiki-Daimoku is also no longer recited. In addition, Juzu prayer beads also may now have colored cords and long string tassels used in Gongyo. The rubbing of Juzu beads during Gongyo is an accepted habit tolerated among Soka Gakkai members.
Sitting in front of the Gohonzon, so that it is in perfect view, one rings a bell and chants prolonged daimoku followed by Nam-Myoho-Renge-Kyo three times to commence gongyo. The recommended tempo of the recitation is likened to the "sonorous and vigorous rhythm of a galloping horse."
One then rings the bell and recites the Expedient Means chapter. Another is that if one is chanting with a group, only the leader of the prayer will recite the title of the chapter. Next, one rings the bell again and recites the Life Span chapter. Upon finishing the recitation, one rings the bell while commencing the repetitive chanting of daimoku for as long as one wishes. There is no rule as to how long one must chant daimoku during gongyo. Some chant for a few moments, some for up to an hour or even longer. One can usually tell when the level of satisfaction is reached in their daimoku as each individual is different.
When one feels enough daimoku has been chanted, one rings the bell and chants daimoku three more times. Clapping and uttering victorious expressions of self-empowerment are also tolerated after Gongyo services among Soka Gakkai members.
- Invocation (Invitation to the Buddha, Dharma and Samgha to be present at this service)
- Kaikyo-ge (Opening Canon)
- Lotus Sutra Ch. 2 Hoben-pon
- Lotus Sutra Ch. 16 Juryo-hon (Jiga-ge)
- Chanting Odaimoku Namu Myoho Renge Kyo
- Lotus Sutra last part of Ch. 11 Hoto-ge (The difficulty in keeping this Sutra)
- Four Great Vows:
- Sentient beings are innumerable; I vow to save them all.
- Our evil desires are inexhaustible; I vow to quench them all.
- The Buddha's teachings are immeasurable; I vow to study them all.
- The way of the Buddha is unexcelled; I vow to attain the path sublime.
- Chapter 2 (Hoben-pon) and Chapter 16 (Juryo-hon) are recited the most frequently;
- Chapter 12 Daibadatta-hon,
- Chapter 16 in its entirety
- Chapter 21 Jinriki-hon (whole or from "Shobukkusesha") or
- Chapter 25 Kannon-gyo.
Recitation of the Lotus Sutra can be performed in Japanese or one's own preferred language.
In Nichiren Shōshū, gongyo is in principle performed twice daily, upon rising ("morning gongyo") and before retiring ("evening gongyo"). It's recitations of the Lotus Sutra are composed of the following:
- The prose section of the second chapter
- The prose and verse section of the 16th chapter (2nd recitation only)
- The verse section of the 16th chapter.
- Prolonged Hiki-Daimoku with five or three silent prayers.
In total, the following format is observed:
- Five sutra recitations are made each morning (silent prayers 1-5).
- Three sutra recitations are made each evening (silent prayers 2,3,5).
It is the act of offering the sutra, daimoku (the invocation Nam-myoho-renge-kyo), and silent prayers to the Gohonzon, the object of veneration. Offering the sutra entails reciting the Expedient Means (second) and the Life Span of the Tathagata (sixteenth) chapters of the Lotus Sutra; the silent prayers are five formal meditations expressing gratitude for the Three Treasures as defined in Nichiren Shoshu, and the merit accrued through Buddhist practices. Buddhist piety is a common sentiment found in Gongyo among Nichiren Shoshu members.
Members of Nichiren Shoshu may only use Juzu prayer beads with pure white cords and white Pom-Pom ornaments, while Nichiren Shoshu priests use an additional set of Juzu prayer beads with white string tassels which they use towards Kito and Lotus Sutra blessings. The rubbing of Juzu prayer beads is prohibited during both Gongyo and Shodai or prolonged chanting in Nichiren Shoshu.
The sutra recitation is done in the Japanese pronunciation of Myōhō-Renge-Kyō, the Chinese translation of the Lotus Sutra by Kumarajiva. The number of recitations depends on which silent prayer is to be offered. The established format consist of five in the morning and three in the evening, with the Expedient Means and Life Span of the Tathagata chapters recited once for each silent prayer offered. The full Life Span of the Tathagata Chapter is recited only for the second prayer (an expression of appreciation to the Dai-Gohonzon); for all others, only the "verse" portion is recited. Each recitation of the sutra passages is followed three "prolonged daimoku" (hiki-daimoku, wherein each syllable pronounced distinctly and drawn out: "Na-Mu, Myō-Hō–Ren-Ge–Kyō–") and the corresponding silent prayer, except for the final recitation of the service, which is followed by the chanting of 100 or more daimoku and the final silent prayer. Note that the number of or the length of time daimoku is chanted between the final sutra recitation and silent prayer, is discretionary.
Variations on this basic gongyo format, consisting of different combinations of the Expedient Means Chapter and parts of the Life Span of the Tathagata Chapter, are also offered on certain occasions, such as at mid-day meetings, before chanting daimoku for extended periods, and at funerals and celebrations.
The most important gongyo service in Nichiren Shoshu is the Ushitora Gongyo performed daily by the high priest or his proxy (when he is unable to officiate). Ushitora Gongyo takes place in the Grand Reception Hall of Head Temple Taisekiji and follows the format of the five-prayer morning gongyo service. It is done between the eponymous hours of the ox (ushi, 02:00) and the tiger (tora, 04:00), usually starting at 02:30 and taking about 50 minutes. Its purpose is to pray for the worldwide propagation of Nichiren Shōshū Buddhism and—by extension—the peace and prosperity of all the world's peoples.
The significance of performing Ushitora Gongyo at this time of day derives from earlier Buddhist teachings that describe the hour of the ox as "the end of darkness" and the hour of the tiger as "the beginning of light," and ones that describe all Buddhas as having attained enlightenment at this time. The passage from the hour of the ox to the hour of the tiger therefore symbolizes the transition from the unenlightened condition of a common mortal to the enlightened condition of a Buddha, so the performance of gongyo at this hour serves as a reminder of the true purpose of Buddhist practice: to achieve enlightenment in this lifetime.
Though in principle Nichiren Shoshu clergy and lay practitioners alike perform gongyo following the three-prayer–five-prayer format passed down through the ages at Head Temple Taisekiji, sometimes people under schedule pressure perform shorter variations while increasing the amount of daimoku they offer. This is because chanting as much daimoku as possible is the main practice of the Nichiren Shoshu faithful, whereas the sutra recitations are an auxiliary practice. Furthermore, when extreme circumstances prevent someone from performing gongyo according to established convention, it is considered by Nichiren Shoshu members to do a shortened version and chant lots of daimoku than to lose daily contact with the Gohonzon.
- Buddhist Text Translation Society (2013). Daily Recitation Handbook, bilingual Chinese/English edition
- International Buddhist Association of Australia. The Buddhist Liturgy. Berkeley, Australia: IBAA.
- Sutra Translation Committee of the United States and Canada (1993). The Buddhist Liturgy, Taiwan: Buddha Educational Foundation.
- Amies, Alex. "English and Chinese text for the Buddhist Liturgy". chinesenotes.com. Archived from the original on February 5, 2014. Retrieved 2013. Check date values in:
- Zhuang Zi: “以德为循者，言其与有足者至于丘也；而人真以为勤行者也。”
- Daily Service, Jodo Shu Research Institute
- Shingonji Temple (2011). The Shingon School's Layperson's Morning Service Order, Lomita, California
- Soka Gakkai International - USA (2008).The Liturgy of Nichiren Buddhism, ISBN 978-1-932911-55-8
- Nichiren-Shu Service Book: Dharma, Nichiren Buddhist International Center, ISBN 0-9719645-3-X
- Lexington Nichiren Buddhist Community (2005). Jogyo-Shindoku, Traditional Auxiliary Practice, Lexington Kentucky
- Nichiren Shoshu Temple West Hollywood, California (2003). Nichiren Shoshu Basics of Practice
- Nichiren Shoshu liturgy
- Nichiren Shōshū Temple West Hollywood, California (2003). Nichiren Shoshu Basics of Practice, pp. 94-96.
- Chen, Pi-yen (2002). "The contemporary practice of the Chinese Buddhist daily service: Two case studies of the traditional in the post-traditional world". Ethnomusicology. 46 (2): 226–249. JSTOR 852780. – via JSTOR (subscription required)
- Gombrich, Richard (1981). "A New Theravadin Liturgy," Journal of the Pali Text Society 9, 47-73
- Gregory, Peter N. (1993). Tsung-mi's Perfect Enlightenment Retreat: Ch'an Ritual During the T'ang Dynasty, Cahiers d'Extrême-Asie 7, 115-147
- Kariyawasam, A.G.S. (1995). Buddhist Ceremonies and Rituals of Sri Lanka, The Wheel Publication No. 402/404, Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society. ISBN 9552401267
- Picard, Francois (1999). Marcus Güzel, die Morgen- und Abendliturgie der Chinesischen Buddhisten, T'oung Pao, Second Series, 85 (1/3), 205-210 – via JSTOR (subscription required)
- Tilakaratne, Asanga (2012). Theravada Buddhism: The View of the Elders, Honolulu: University of Hawaiʻi Press, pp. 155–158 (Appendix 1 A, Sample of Basic Theravada Liturgy: Vandana and Puja)
- Foulk, T. Griffith. "Soto School Scriptures for Daily Services and Practice (Sôtôshû nikka gongyô seiten)". Ho Center for Buddhist Studies at Stanford. Soto Zen Text Project. Archived from the original on April 8, 2015. Retrieved April 4, 2015.