Buddhist mummies

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Buddhist mummies, also called flesh body bodhisattvas, full body sariras, or living buddhas (Sokushinbutsu) refer to the bodies of Buddhist monks and nuns that remain incorrupt, without any traces of deliberate mummification. These are venerated by some Buddhists who believe they successfully were able to mortify their flesh to death.[1] The practice to purposely make undecomposed bodies is seen as controversial and contradictory to the Buddhist belief in impermanence. Many were destroyed or lost to history.[2] In 2015, the Hungarian Natural History Museum found a Buddhist mummy inside a statue of Buddha.[3]

Causes[edit]

Some were naturally formed. Some Mahayana buddhist monks left instructions to be followed after their deaths, which often included having them buried sitting in a lotus posture, put into a vessel with drying agents (such as coal, wood, paper, or lime) and surrounded by bricks, to be exhumed later, usually after three years. The preserved bodies would then be decorated with paint and adorned with gold.[4] It is a common method in China. Some covered the bodies with clay or salt. According to Victor H. Mair in the Discovery Channel series The Mystery of the Tibetan Mummy, the self-mummification of a Tibetan monk, who died ca. 1475 and whose body was retrieved relatively incorrupt in the 1990s, was achieved by the sophisticated practices of meditation, coupled with prolonged starvation and slow self-suffocation using a special belt that connected the neck with his knees in a lotus position.[5] The mummies of monks (Sokushinbutsu) in Japan practised nyūjō (入定), which caused their own death by adhering to a wood eating diet made up of salt, nuts, seeds, roots, pine bark, and urushi tea. They were then buried alive in a pine-wood box full of salt connected by a tube for air and would ring a bell signaling they were alive. When the bell stopped ringing the air tube was removed.[6][7] Japan banned unburying in 1879, and assisted suicide—including religious suicide—is now illegal.

My affair will become a big one, not only get known by the Xianghe county, but by the whole China and eventually by the whole world.(我的事大着呢,不但让香河县知道,还要让全中国知道,最后让全世界都知道。)

— Zhou Fengchen[8]

My original life span should have been 81 years, but I leave my fortune and life of the last 20 years to all suffering lives. After I leave this world for Sukhavati, don't burn my body, or bury it. Leave my body quietly, it would naturally achieve an incorruptible body of Buddhism. It would be a miracle of mankind and treasure of Buddhism.(本来我的寿命是81岁,我把后20年的福寿留给一切苦难的众生。我往生后,不要把我的身体火化,也不要安葬。给我一处静地,让我这个身体继续养着。自然就会成为佛门的金刚不坏之肉身舍利,也称为“紫磨真金色身”,是人类的奇迹,是佛门的珍宝。)

— Huang Yulan[9]

List[edit]

Theravada[edit]

Some names lost[10] or unknown.[11]

Mahayana[edit]

Some names lost,[35][36][37] Taoists[38][39] or Way of Former Heaven religion.

  • Shōnyo (証如)[40]
  • Zōga shōnin (増賀上人)[40]
  • Ninga (仁賀), a student of Zōga[40]
  • Gensan shōnin (源算上人)[40]
  • Komatsuji shōnin (小松寺上人)[40]
  • Ganzai (願西尼) (nun)[40]
  • Kaijin (沙門戒深)[40]
  • Senkaku (priest) (暹覚法師)[40]
  • Angin Kitsudō (案山吉道)[40]
  • Kyūen (久円), a student of Kitsudō[40]
  • Jikigyō Miroku (食行身禄)[40]
  • Nikkan (日鑑上人)[40]
  • Itō Sankō (伊藤産行), a student of Miroku[40]
  • Manzō (萬蔵)[41]
  • Shan Daokai (單道開)[40]
  • Huizhi (慧直)[42]
  • Zhiyi[40]
  • Zhikai (智鍇), a student of Zhiyi[40]
  • Zhixi (智晞), a student of Zhiyi[40]
  • Sengche (僧徹)[40]
  • Daoxiu (道休)[40]
  • Dayi Daoxin[40]
  • Daman Hongren[40]
  • Fapu (法普)[40]
  • Youxuan (幽玄)[40]
  • Suiduan (遂端)[40]
  • Hangxiao (行修)[40]
  • Wang (王羅漢)[40]
  • Laode (老德和尚)[42]
  • Baoyin (寶印)[42]
  • Chang (常羅漢)[42]
  • Chongyan (崇演)[42]
  • Chunan (楚南)[42]
  • Cunshou (存壽)[42]
  • Daxing (大行)[42]
  • Daoang (釋道昂)[42]
  • Daolin (釋道林)[42]
  • Daoyin (釋道因)[42]
  • Dexiu (德秀)[42]
  • Fachong (法充)[42]
  • Faqin (法欽)[42]
  • Guting (古庭)[42]
  • Guangyu (廣玉)[42]
  • Heluojie (訶羅謁)[42]
  • Faming (法明)[42]
  • Huanzhong (寰中)[42]
  • Hui (慧禪師)[42]
  • Huikong (慧空)[42]
  • Huishi (慧寔)[42]
  • Huiyan (慧嚴)[42]
  • Jianzhen[42]
  • Jueqing (覺慶)[42]
  • Pengpeng (沙門釋彭彭)[42]
  • Puyuan (普願)[42]
  • Ruyu (如玉)[42]
  • Shifan (師範)[42]
  • Shiyu (世瑜)[42]
  • Wenyan (文偃禪師)[42][43]
  • Qingliang Wenyi (清涼文益)[42]
  • Wuji (無迹)[42]
  • Wulou (無漏)[42]
  • Hangxiu (行修)[42]
  • Yefang (業方)[42]
  • Yi Xing[42]
  • Zhiyuan (智圓禪師)[42]
  • Zhutanyou (竺昙猷)[42]
  • Ziyu (子瑀)[42]
  • Zongyuan (宗淵)[42]
  • Niunao (拗撓)[42]
  • Baoan (寶安)[42]
  • Canghuan (藏奂)[42]
  • Daibing (代病)[42]
  • Daozhou (道舟)[42]
  • Guangyi (光儀)[42]
  • Guangji (沙門廣寄)[42]
  • Huayan (華嚴和尚)[42]
  • Huaiyu (懷玉)[42]
  • Sengbian (僧辯)[42]
  • Wenxi (文喜)[42]
  • Yuanshao (圓紹)[42]
  • Jinggan (靜感比丘尼) (nun)[4]
  • Lingjiao (靈覺比丘尼) (nun)[4]
  • Huiyin (惠隱尼) (nun)[4]
  • Wu (唐吳氏) (laywoman)[44]
  • Yingong (銀公)[45]
  • Mosi (摩斯)[45]
  • Hongyi Daci (宏一達慈)[46]
  • Danru (淡如)[47]
  • Longshan (隆山祖師)[48]
  • Defeng (德風和尚)[48]
  • Shengchuan (聖傳和尚)[48]
  • Chang'en (常恩和尚)[49]
  • Falong (法龍和尚)[48]
  • Dinghui (定慧和尚)[48]
  • Huade (華德和尚)[48]
  • Bi Yuexia (碧月俠) (Taoist)[50]
  • Bi Dengxia (碧燈俠) (Taoist),[50] a peer of Bi Yuexia
  • Bi Chenxia (碧塵俠) (Taoist),[50] a peer of Bi Yuexia
  • Jisheng (濟生和尚)[47]
  • Jingshen (淨參)[51]
  • Chushan (楚山和尚)[52]
  • Zhou (周老禪師)[53]
  • Liu (劉舍人) (folk)[54]
  • Chen Jinggu (陳靖姑) (Taoist woman)[55][56]
  • Chunsong (春松)(Taoist)[57]
  • Yibo (義波和尚)[58]
  • Qin (秦善人) (layman)[59]
  • Lingying (靈應祖師)[58][60][61]
  • Chen Yi (仁遠王)[62]
  • Zhang Liuchuan (章公六全祖師)[63]
  • Deqin (德欽)[64]
  • Xianhua (顯化禪師)[65][66]
  • Từ Đạo Hạnh (徐道幸)[67]
  • Tuệ Tĩnh (慧靜禪師)[68]
  • Wuji (無際大師)[69][70]
  • Shinsō Gyōjun (心相行順大行者)[71]
  • Kōchi (弘智法印)[71]
  • Tanzei (弾誓上人)[71]
  • Arisada (宥貞法印)[71]
  • Shungi (舜義上人)[71]
  • Shūkai (秀快上人)[71]
  • Myōshin (妙心法師)[72][73]
  • Longde (隆德禅师)[74]
  • Huihuan (慧寬法師)[75]
  • Xianliang (顯亮沙彌尼) (nun), student of Huihuan[75]
  • Benfeng (本丰长老)[76][77]
  • Haiyun (海雲禪師).[78]
  • Benru (本如)[79][80]
  • Zhou Fengchen (周凤臣) (laywoman)[81][82]
  • Tian Zhichao (田志超)[83]
  • Jiaofeng (焦豐居士) (layman)[84]
  • Yuantong (圓通和尚)[84]
  • Xinhui (性慧)[45]
  • Xintian (性添)[45]
  • Haicheng (海澄)[45]
  • Chanhua (禪化)[45]
  • Lijin (立謹)[45]
  • Zhiyuen (智遠)[45]
  • Faxing (法信)[45]
  • Yikong (一空)[45]
  • Yunhe (雲鶴)[45]
  • Mingyue (明月)[45]
  • Mingliang (明亮)[45]
  • Siben (思本)[85]
  • Huaide (懷德)[85]
  • Shixian (師顯)[85]
  • Zhixuan (智玄)[85]
  • Mingzhe (明哲)[85]
  • Shenyuan (神遠)[85]
  • Puqin (普欽)[85]
  • Yuankong (圓空)[85]
  • Xuanxu (玄虛道人) (Taoist)[85][86]
  • Xuanzhi (玄智道人) (Taoist), a student of Xuanxu[85]
  • Songfeng (松風道人) (Taoist)[85]
  • Songzhu (松竹道人) (Taoist)[85]
  • Tianran (天然尼师) (nun)[87]
  • Nengren (能忍法师) (nun)[88]
  • Fazhong Daci (法众达鉴)[89]
  • Haimo (海墨老和尚)[4]
  • Haiqing (释海庆)[90]
  • Wu Yunqing (吴云青) (Taoist)[91][92]
  • Changjing (昌净法师) (nun)[93]
  • Xukai (绪开和尚)[94]
  • Zhenshi (真实老和尚)[95]
  • Zongxu (宗旭)[96]
  • Guowu (釋果悟)[97]
  • Miguang (弥光老和尚), a student of Hsu Yun[98]
  • Dizang(Jin qiaojiao) (地藏(金喬覺))[99]
  • Haiyu (無瑕海玉)[100]
  • Daxing (大兴和尚)[101]
  • Ciming (慈明法师)[102]
  • Mingjing (明净法师)[103]
  • Puwen (普文和尚)[104]
  • Renyi (仁义比丘尼) (nun)[105]
  • Kuande (宽德和尚)[106]
  • Liaozhen (了真大師)[107][108]
  • Zongsheng (释宗胜)[109]
  • Shengchuan (聖傳禪師)[110]
  • Guo'an (果安)[111]
  • Miaoshan (妙山)[112]
  • Yongsen (永森)[113]
  • Huang Yulan (黄玉兰) (laywoman)[114]
  • Wu Qiaoying (宏英居士) (laywoman)[115]
  • Renguang (仁光上人)[47]
  • Yongci (永慈)[116][117]
  • Yang Fuxin (楊福信)[118]
  • Wang Chunrong (王春荣) (laywoman)[119]
  • Lin Guanrong (林观荣) (layman)[120]
  • Yinlian (隐莲法师)[121]
  • Ko-xiang (柯象)[122]
  • Pu-Chao (普照法師)[123]
  • De-Hsiu (得修法師) (nun)[124]
  • K'ai-Feng (釋開豐)[125]
  • Wuming (悟明長老)[126]
  • Qingyan (清嚴)[127]
  • Yingmiao (瀛妙)[128]
  • Xu Gui-Mei (徐桂妹) (laywoman)[129]
  • Ming-chien (明潔上人)[130]
  • Xie Shide (化智上人) (folk)[131]
  • Ma Jinying (三顯真仙) (Taoist woman)[132][133]
  • Gao Bangniang (高榜娘) (laywoman)
  • Gao Guaniang (高瓜娘) (laywoman), sister of Gao Bangniang[134][135]
  • Miaozhi (妙智和尚)[136][137]
  • Chen Zhu (珠姑) (Zhaijiao nun)[138]
  • Zou Wubi (鄒公祖師)[45]
  • Fuhou (福厚)[139]
  • Shi Yunji (史公祖師)[140]
  • Chen Miaoci(陳公祖師)[141]
  • Zhiliang (袒膊祖師)[142]
  • Wujinzhang (無盡藏比丘尼) (nun)[143]
  • Huineng[144][145]
  • Dantian (丹田禪師)[146]
  • Hanshan Deqing, teacher of Ouyi[147]
  • Bingong (賓公生佛)[148][149][150]
  • Yuet Kai (月溪法師)[151]
  • Chonghui (崇慧法师)[152][153]
  • Vũ Khắc Minh (武克明禪師)[154]
  • Vũ Khắc Trường (武克長禪師),[155] nephew of Vũ Khắc Minh
  • Chuyết Chuyết (拙公)[156]
  • Như Trí (如智禪師)[157]
  • Phochang (普淨法師)[158]
  • Liuquan[159][160][161][162]

Vajrayana[edit]

Some names are lost[163][164][165]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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Sources[edit]

  • 内藤正敏 (1999/5/10). ミイラ信仰の研究.(京都)法蔵館. ISBN 978-4-8318-7244-9
  • 日本ミイラ研究グループ (1993). 日本・中国ミイラ信仰の研究. 平凡社. ISBN 4-582-42002-8

External links[edit]