|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|Trade names||Pulmicort, Rhinocort, other|
|Oral, nasal, tracheal, rectal|
|Bioavailability||10-20% (first pass effect)|
|Biological half-life||2.0-3.6 hours|
|ATC code||A07 D07, R01, R03|
|Molar mass||430.534 g/mol|
|(what is this?)|
Budesonide (BUD), sold under the brand name Pulmicort among others, is a steroid medication. It is available as an inhaler, pill, and nasal spray. The inhaled form is used in the long term management of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The nasal spray is used for allergic rhinitis and nasal polyps. The pills may be used for inflammatory bowel disease including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
Common side effects with the inhaled form include respiratory infections, cough, and headaches. Common side effects with the pills include feeling tired, vomiting, and joint pains. Serious side effects include an increased risk of infection, loss of bone strength, and cataracts. Long term use of the pill form may cause adrenal insufficiency. Stopping the pills suddenly following long term use may therefore be dangerous. The inhaled form is generally safe in pregnancy. Budesonide is mainly a glucocorticoid.
Budesonide was initially patented in 1973. Commercial use as an asthma medication began in 1981. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medication needed in a basic health system. Some forms are available as a generic medication. The wholesale price for an inhaler containing 200 doses is about 5 to 7 USD as of 2014. In the United States an inhaler costs about 120 to 160 USD.
Inflammatory bowel disease
Formulations of delayed-release Budesonide can be effective treatment for mild-to-moderately active Crohn's disease involving the ileum and/or ascending colon. A Cochrane review found evidence for up to 3 months (but not longer) of maintenance of remission Crohn's disease.
Budesonide may cause:
- Nose irritation or burning
- Bleeding or sores in the nose
- Upset stomach
- Dry mouth
- Sore throat
- Bad taste in mouth
- Change in mucus
In addition, the following symptoms should be reported immediately:
- Difficulty breathing or swelling of the face
- White patches in the throat, mouth, or nose
- Irregular menstrual periods
- Severe acne
- On rare occasions, behavioral changes (mostly affecting children)
Budesonide is contraindicated as a primary treatment of status asthmaticus or other acute episode of asthma where intensive measures are required. It is also contraindicated for patients who have hypersensitivity to budesonide.
Mechanism of action
- Controls the rate of protein synthesis.
- Depresses the migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and fibroblasts.
- Reverses capillary permeability and lysosomal stabilization at the cellular level to prevent or control inflammation.
- Has a potent glucocorticoid activity and weak mineralocorticoid activity.
Those taking tablets or capsules orally should avoid grapefruit juice and echinacea.
- Grapefruit juice may double bioavailability of oral budesonide.
- Echinacea diminishes bioavailability.
Also, high fat meals delay absorption but do not impede absorption.
- Onset of action: Nebulization: 2-8 days; Inhalation: 24 hours
- Peak effect: Nebulization: 4-6 weeks; Inhalation: 1-2 weeks
- Distribution: 2.2-3.9 L/kg
- Protein binding: 85% to 90%
- Metabolism: Hepatic via CYP3A4 to two metabolites: 16 alpha-hydroxyprednisolone and 6 beta-hydroxybudesonide; minor activity
- Bioavailability: Limited by high first-pass effect; Capsule: 9% to 21%; Nebulization: 6%; Inhalation: 6% to 13%
- Half-life elimination: 2-3.6 hours
- Time to peak: Capsule: 0.5-10 hours (variable in Crohn's disease); Nebulization: 10-30 minutes; Inhalation: 1-2 hours; Tablet: 7.4-19.2 hours
- Excretion: Urine (60%) and feces as metabolites.
Aeronide (TH); Aquacort (DE); B Cort (CO); Bronex (PH); Budair (MY); Budecort DP (MY); Budenofalk (DE, GB, HK, KP, PH, SG); Budeson (AR); Budeson Aqua (AR); BudeSpray (TH); Budiair (KP); Budicort Respules (IL); Bunase (TH); Clebudan (CN); Cycortide (HK); Denecort (PH); Duasma (TW); Eltair (MY); Entocort (AR, AT, BE, BR, CH, CZ, DK, FI, FR, GB, HK, IE, IL, IT, KP, NL, NO, PL, PT, SE, TR); Giona Easyhaler (MY, SG, TH); Inflammide (PE); Miflonid (CZ); Miflonide (BE, DE, IL, IT, NZ, PT); Neumocort (PY); Novopulmon (DE, FR); Pulmicon Susp for Nebulizer (KP); Pulmicort (AT, BE, BG, BR, CH, CL, CN, CO, CR, CZ, DE, DK, DO, EE, FI, FR, GB, GR, GT, HN, ID, IN, NI, NL, NO, PA, PK, PL, PT, RU, SE, SV, TR, TW, UY, VE, ZA); Pulmicort Nasal Turbohaler (CL, KE, MU, NG); Pulmicort Turbuhaler (KE, MU, NG); Rafton (FR); Rhinocort (AU); Rhinocort Aqua (HK); Rhinoside (GR); Symbicort (FR, US) Uceris (US)
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