Jump to content


Page protected with pending changes
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Temporal range: Pliocene–Holocene [1]
Blue cere indicates male
Flaking brown cere indicates female in breeding condition
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Subfamily: Loriinae
Tribe: Melopsittacini
Genus: Melopsittacus
Gould, 1840
M. undulatus
Binomial name
Melopsittacus undulatus
(Shaw, 1805)
The range of the Budgerigar
Native range: green
Introduced range: light green

The budgerigar (/ˈbʌərɪˌɡɑːr, -ər-/ BUJ-ər-ih-gar, -⁠ə-ree-;[3] Melopsittacus undulatus), also known as the common parakeet, shell parakeet or budgie (/ˈbʌi/ BUJ-ee),[3][4] is a small, long-tailed, seed-eating parrot. Naturally, the species is green and yellow with black, scalloped markings on the nape, back, and wings.[5] Budgies are bred in captivity with colouring of blues, whites, yellows, greys, and even with small crests.[5][6] Juveniles and chicks are monomorphic, while adults are told apart by their cere colouring, and their behaviour.

The species is the only member of the genus Melopsittacus, which is the only genus in the Melopsittacini tribe.

The origin of the budgerigar's name is unclear. First recorded in 1805, budgerigars are popular pets around the world due to their small size, low cost, and ability to mimic human speech. They are likely the third most popular pet in the world, after the domesticated dog and cat.[7] Budgies are nomadic flock parakeets that have been bred in captivity since the 19th century. In both captivity and the wild, budgerigars breed opportunistically and in pairs.

They are found wild throughout the drier parts of Australia, where they have survived harsh inland conditions for over five million years. Their success can be attributed to a nomadic lifestyle and their ability to breed while on the move.[8] The budgerigar is closely related to lories and the fig parrots.[9][10][11][12]


Several possible origins for the name budgerigar have been proposed. One origin could be that budgerigar may be a mispronunciation or alteration of the Gamilaraay word gidjirrigaa (Aboriginal pronunciation: [ɡ̊iɟiriɡaː])[13][14] or gijirragaa from the Yuwaalaraay.[15] Another possible origin is that budgerigar might be a modified form of budgery or boojery (Australian English slang for "good") and gar ("cockatoo").[16] While many references mention "good" as part of the meaning, and a few specify "good bird", it is quite possible that reports by those local to the region are more accurate in specifying the direct translation as "good food".[17]

Alternative spellings include budgerygah and betcherrygah,[18] the latter used by Indigenous people of the Liverpool Plains in New South Wales.[19]

Alternative names for the budgerigar include the shell parrot or shell parakeet, the warbling grass parakeet, the canary parrot, the zebra parrot, the flight bird, and the scallop parrot. Although more often used as a common name for small parrots in the genus Agapornis, the name "lovebird" has been used for budgerigars, because of their habit of close perching, mutual preening, and their long term pair-bonds.[18]


Evolutionary history

  Lories and lorikeets  



  Fig parrots  

 ... other parrots

Phylogenetic chart[9][10][11][12]

The budgerigar was first described by George Shaw in 1805, and given its current binomial name by John Gould in 1840. The genus name Melopsittacus, from Ancient Greek, means "melodious parrot".[20] The species name undulatus is Latin for "undulated" or "wave-patterned".[21]

The budgerigar was once proposed to be a link between the genera Neophema and Pezoporus, based on the barred plumage.[22] However, recent phylogenetic studies using DNA sequences place the budgerigar very close to the lories (tribe Loriini) and the fig parrots (tribe Cyclopsittini).[9][10][11][12]


Anatomy of a male budgerigar

Wild budgerigars average 18 cm (7 in) long,[6] weigh 30–40 grams (1.1–1.4 oz), 30 cm (12 in) in wingspan, and display a light green body colour (abdomen and rumps), while their mantles (back and wing coverts) display pitch-black mantle markings (blackish in fledglings and immatures) edged in clear yellow undulations. The forehead and face is yellow in adults.

Prior to their adult plumage, young individuals have blackish stripes down to the cere (nose) in young individuals until around 3–4 months of age. They display small, iridescent blue-violet cheek patches and a series of three black spots across each side of their throats (called throat patches). The two outermost throat spots are situated at the base of each cheek patch. The tail is cobalt (dark-blue); and outside tail feathers display central yellow flashes. Their wings have greenish-black flight feathers and black coverts with yellow fringes along with central yellow flashes, which only become visible in flight or when the wings are outstretched. Bills are olive grey and legs blueish-grey, with zygodactyl toes.[22]

In their natural Australian habitat, budgerigars are noticeably smaller than those in captivity.[23] This particular parrot species has been bred in many other colours and shades in captivity (e.g. blue, grey, grey-green, pieds, violet, white, yellow-blue). Pet store individuals will commonly be blue, green, or yellow. Like most parrot species, budgerigar plumage fluoresces under ultraviolet light – a phenomenon possibly related to courtship and mate selection.[24][25]

The colour of the cere (the area containing the nostrils) differs between the sexes, being a lavender/baby blue in males, pale brownish/white (non breeding) to brown (breeding) in females, and pink in immature birds of both sexes (usually of a more even purplish-pink colour in young males).[5] Some female budgerigars develop brown cere only during breeding time, which later returns to the normal colour.[5] Young females can often be identified by a subtle, chalky whiteness that starts around the nostrils. Males that are either albino, lutino, dark-eyed clear or recessive pied (Danish pied or harlequin) retain the immature purplish-pink cere colour for their entire lives.[22][26]

Wild budgerigars in flight at Mount Hope, New South Wales, Australia

Mature males usually have a cere of light to dark blue, but in some particular colour mutations it can be periwinkle, lavender, purplish or pink – including dark-eyed clears, Danish pieds (recessive pieds) and inos, which usually display much rounder heads. Female budgerigars display more dominant behaviour compared to males of the species and may act agressively towards them.[27]

Budgerigars have tetrachromatic colour vision, although all four classes of cone cells will not operate simultaneously unless under sunlight or a UV lamp.[28] The ultraviolet spectrum brightens their feathers to attract mates. The throat spots in budgerigars reflect UV and can be used to distinguish individual birds.[25] While ultraviolet light is essential to the good health of caged and pet birds, inadequate darkness or rest results in overstimulation.[29]

Colour mutations[edit]

All captive budgerigars are divided into two basic series of colours; namely, white-based (blue, grey and white) and yellow-based (green, grey-green and yellow).[5] Presently, at least 32 primary mutations (including violet) occur, enabling hundreds of possible secondary mutations (stable combined primary mutations) and colour varieties (unstable combined mutations).[5]


Distribution map of budgerigar in Australia
Distribution area
 Frequent occurrence
 Occasional occurrence

Budgerigars are nomadic and flocks move on from sites as environmental conditions change.[7][30][6] Budgerigars are found in open habitats, primarily in scrublands, open woodlands, and grasslands of Australia.[7] The birds are normally found in small flocks, but can form very large flocks under favourable conditions.[7] The nomadic movement of the flocks is tied to the availability of food and water.[22] Budgerigars have two distinct flight speeds which they are capable of switching between depending on the circumstance.[31] Budgerigars sometimes swarm together in groups containing thousands of individuals.[32]

Drought can drive flocks into more wooded habitat or coastal areas. They feed on the seeds of spinifex and grass, and sometimes ripening wheat.[22][33][5][6] Budgerigars feed primarily on grass seeds.[30][5] The species also opportunistically depredates growing cereal crops and lawn grass seeds.[34] Due to the low water content of the seeds they rely on the availability of freshwater.[5]

Outside of Australia, the only long-term establishment of naturalised feral budgerigars is a large population near St. Petersburg, Florida.[22] Increased competition for nesting sites from European starlings and house sparrows is thought to be a primary cause of the Florida population declining from the 1980s.[30] The more consistent, year-round conditions in Florida significantly reduced their nomadic behaviour.[35] The species has been introduced to various locations in Puerto Rico and the United States.[36]



Breeding in the wild generally takes place between June and September in northern Australia and between August and January in the south, although budgerigars are opportunistic breeders and respond to rains when grass seeds become most abundant.[6][5][22] Budgerigars are monogamous and breed in large colonies throughout their range.[37] They show signs of affection to their flockmates by preening or feeding one another. Budgerigars feed one another by eating the seeds themselves, and then regurgitating it into their flockmate's mouth. Populations in some areas have increased as a result of increased water availability at farms. Nests are made in holes in trees, fence posts or logs lying on the ground; the four to six eggs are incubated for 18–21 days, with the young fledging about 30 days after hatching.[22][33][6][7] In the wild, virtually all parrot species require a hollow tree or a hollow log as a nest site.[5] Budgerigars will typically breed in captivity when provided with a nest box.[38]

The eggs are typically one to two centimetres long and are pearl white without any colouration if fertile. Female budgerigars can lay eggs without a male partner, but these unfertilised eggs will not hatch. Females normally have a whitish tan cere; however, when the female is laying eggs, her cere turns a crusty brown colour. Certain female budgies may always keep a whitish tan cere or always keep a crusty brown cere regardless of breeding condition. A female budgerigar will lay her eggs on alternating days.[39] After the first one, there is usually a two-day gap until the next. She will usually lay between four and eight eggs, which she will incubate (usually starting after laying her second or third) for about 21 days each.[39] Females only leave their nests for very quick defecations, stretches and quick meals once they have begun incubating and are by then almost exclusively fed by their mate (usually at the nest's entrance). Females will not allow a male to enter the nest, unless he forces his way inside.[39] Clutch size ranges from 6 to 8 chicks.[6]

There is evidence of same-sex sexual behaviour amongst male budgerigars.[24] It was originally hypothesised that they did this as a form of "courtship practice" so they were better breeding partners for females; however, an inverse relationship exists between participation in same-sex behaviour and pairing success.[24]

Chick health[edit]

The chicks and eggs of budgerigar in nest box

Breeding difficulties arise for various reasons. Some chicks may die from diseases and attacks from adults. Other budgerigars (virtually always females) may fight over the nest box, attacking each other or a brood. Another problem may be the birds' beaks being under-lapped, where the lower mandible is above the upper mandible.[40]

Most health issues and physical abnormalities in budgerigars are genetic. Care should be taken that birds used for breeding are active, healthy and unrelated. Budgerigars that are related or have fatty tumours or other potential genetic health problems should not be allowed to breed. Parasites (lice, mites, worms) and pathogens (bacteria, fungi and viruses), are contagious and thus transmitted between individuals through either direct or indirect contact.[citation needed]

In some cases, chicks will experience splay leg. This medical condition may be congenital or acquired through malnutrition. Chicks can be treated with splints although this method is not always successful in curing the affected bird. Preventative measures include using proper nesting box materials such as pine shavings[41] and cleaning the nest box between uses.[42]


A three-week-old chick beginning to develop feathers and adult coloration.

Eggs take about 18–20 days before they start hatching.[citation needed] The hatchlings are altricial – blind, naked, unable to lift their head and totally helpless,[5][6] and their mother feeds them and keeps them warm constantly. Around 10 days of age, the chicks' eyes will open, and they will start to develop feather down. The appearance of down occurs at the age for closed banding of the chicks.

They develop feathers around three weeks of age. (One can often easily note the colour mutation of the individual birds at this point.) At this stage of the chicks' development, the male usually has begun to enter the nest to help his female in caring and feeding the chicks. Some budgerigar females, however, totally forbid the male from entering the nest and thus take the full responsibility of rearing the chicks until they fledge.[citation needed]

Depending on the size of the clutch and most particularly in the case of single mothers, it may then be wise to transfer a portion of the hatchlings (or best of the fertile eggs) to another pair. The foster pair must already be in breeding mode and thus either at the laying or incubating stages, or already rearing hatchlings.[citation needed]

As the chicks develop and grow feathers, they are able to be left on their own for longer periods of time. By the fifth week, the chicks are strong enough that both parents will be comfortable in staying out of the nest more. The youngsters will stretch their wings to gain strength before they attempt to fly. They will also help defend the box from enemies, mostly with their loud screeching. Young budgerigars typically fledge (leave the nest) around their fifth week of age and are usually completely weaned between six and eight weeks old. However, the age for fledging, as well as weaning, can vary slightly depending on the age and the number of surviving chicks. Generally speaking, the oldest chick is the first to be weaned. Although it is logically the last one to be weaned, the youngest chick is often weaned at a younger age than its older sibling(s). This can be a result of mimicking the actions of older siblings. Lone surviving chicks are often weaned at the youngest possible age as a result of having their parents' full attention and care.[citation needed]

Hand-reared budgies may take slightly longer to wean than parent-raised chicks. Hand feeding is not routinely done with budgerigars, due to their small size and because young parent raised birds can be readily tamed.[citation needed]

Relationship with humans[edit]


Exhibition style "budgie" (left), as compared to pet-type budgerigars

The budgerigar has been bred in captivity since the 1850s. Breeders have worked to produce a variety of colour, pattern and feather mutations, including albino, blue, cinnamon-ino (lacewing), clearwing, crested, dark, greywing, opaline, pieds, spangled, dilute (suffused) and violet.[5]

"English budgerigars", more correctly called "show" or "exhibition budgerigars", are about twice as large as their wild counterparts and have puffier head feathers, giving them a boldly exaggerated look. The eyes and beak can be almost totally obscured by these fluffy head feathers. English budgerigars are typically more expensive than wild-type birds, and have a shorter life span of about seven to nine years. Breeders of English budgerigars show their birds at animal shows. Most captive budgerigars in the pet trade are more similar in size and body conformation to wild budgerigars.[43]

Budgerigars are social animals and require stimulation in the shape of toys and interaction with humans or with other budgerigars. Budgerigars, and especially females, will chew material such as wood. When a budgerigar feels threatened, it will try to perch as high as possible and to bring its feathers close against its body in order to appear thinner.[citation needed]

Tame budgerigars can be taught to speak, whistle and play with humans. Both males and females sing and can learn to mimic sounds and words and do simple tricks, but singing and mimicry are more pronounced and better perfected in males. Females rarely learn to mimic more than a dozen words. Males can easily acquire vocabularies ranging from a few dozen to a hundred words. Pet males, especially those kept alone, are generally the best speakers.[44]

Budgerigars will chew on anything they can find to keep their beaks trimmed. Mineral blocks (ideally enriched with iodine), cuttlebone and soft wooden pieces are suitable for this activity. Cuttlebones also supply calcium, essential for the proper forming of eggs and bone solidity. In captivity, budgerigars live an average of five to eight years, but life spans of 15–20 years have been reported.[45] The life span depends on breed, lineage, and health, being highly influenced by exercise and diet. Budgerigars have been known to cause "bird fancier's lung" in sensitive people, a type of hypersensitivity pneumonitis.[46] Apart from a handful of illnesses, diseases of the species are not transmittable to humans.[47]


Budgerigars, like many other species of parrot, are able to mimic human speech.[48] Puck, a male budgerigar owned by American Camille Jordan, holds the world record for the largest vocabulary of any bird, at 1,728 words. Puck died in 1994, with the record first appearing in the 1995 edition of Guinness World Records.[49][50] The budgerigar "Disco" became Internet famous in 2013.[51] Some of Disco's most repeated phrases included, "I am not a crook" and "Nobody puts baby bird in a corner!".[52]

In popular culture[edit]

Small bathing suits for men, commonly referred to as togs or "Speedos", are informally called "budgie smugglers" in Australia. The phrase is humorously based on the appearance of the tight-fitting cloth around the male's genitals looking like a small budgie. The phrase was officially added to the Oxford English Dictionary in 2016.[53]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ Boles, Walter E. (1998). "A budgerigar Melopsittacus undulatus from the Pliocene of Riversleigh, North-western Queensland". Emu. 98 (1): 32–35. Bibcode:1998EmuAO..98...32B. doi:10.1071/MU98004.
  2. ^ BirdLife International (2018). "Melopsittacus undulatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T22685223A132056957.en. Retrieved 10 September 2021.
  3. ^ a b "budgerigar". Dictionary.com Unabridged (Online). n.d. Retrieved 10 September 2021. "Budgerigar Definition & Meaning | Dictionary.com". Archived from the original on 7 August 2021. Retrieved 7 August 2021.
  4. ^ "budgie". Dictionary.com Unabridged. Archived from the original on 9 September 2021. Retrieved 10 September 2021.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Budgerigar". Birdlife Australia. Archived from the original on 3 June 2020. Retrieved 9 September 2021.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h "Budgerigar". The Australian Museum. 10 December 2020. Archived from the original on 24 July 2020. Retrieved 9 September 2021.
  7. ^ a b c d e Perrins, Christopher, ed. (2003). "Parrots, Lories, and Cockatoos". The New Encyclopedia of Birds. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198525066. Archived from the original on 9 September 2021. Retrieved 10 September 2021.
  8. ^ "Dr. Marshall's Philosophy on Breeding Exhibition Budgerigars". Bird Health. 2004. Archived from the original on 11 August 2004. Retrieved 4 November 2013.
  9. ^ a b c Wright, TF; Schirtzinger EE; Matsumoto T; Eberhard JR; Graves GR; Sanchez JJ; Capelli S; Mueller H; Scharpegge J; Chambers GK; Fleischer RC (2008). "A Multilocus Molecular Phylogeny of the Parrots (Psittaciformes): Support for a Gondwanan Origin during the Cretaceous". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 25 (10): 2141–2156. doi:10.1093/molbev/msn160. PMC 2727385. PMID 18653733.
  10. ^ a b c Tokita, M; Kiyoshi T; Armstrong KN (2007). "Evolution of craniofacial novelty in parrots through developmental modularity and heterochrony". Evolution & Development. 9 (6): 590–601. doi:10.1111/j.1525-142X.2007.00199.x. PMID 17976055. S2CID 46659963. Archived from the original on 5 October 2012.
  11. ^ a b c de Kloet, RS; de Kloet SR (2005). "The evolution of the spindlin gene in birds: Sequence analysis of an intron of the spindlin W and Z gene reveals four major divisions of the Psittaciformes". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 36 (3): 706–721. Bibcode:2005MolPE..36..706D. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.03.013. PMID 16099384.
  12. ^ a b c Schweizer, M.; Seehausen O; Güntert M; Hertwig ST (2009). "The evolutionary diversification of parrots supports a taxon pulse model with multiple trans-oceanic dispersal events and local radiations". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 54 (3): 984–94. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2009.08.021. PMID 19699808. S2CID 1831016.
  13. ^ "gidjirrigaa". Gamilaraay Dictionary. Archived from the original on 4 January 1997.
  14. ^ "budgerigar". Macquarie Dictionary. Macquarie Dictionary Publishers. Retrieved 10 September 2021.[permanent dead link]
  15. ^ "budgerigar". Merriam-Webster.com. Merriam-Webster. Archived from the original on 9 September 2021. Retrieved 10 September 2021.
  16. ^ "budgerigar (n.)". Online Etymology Dictionary. Douglas Harper. Archived from the original on 24 February 2017. Retrieved 10 September 2021.
  17. ^ Hansen, Dave (ed.). "History". Hamilton & District Budgerigar & Cage Bird Society. Archived from the original on 27 August 2021. Retrieved 9 September 2021 – via www3.sympatico.ca.
  18. ^ a b Lendon, Alan H. (1973). Australian Parrots in Field and Aviary (2nd ed.). Sydney, NSW, AU: Angus and Robertson. pp. 302–07. ISBN 0-207-12424-8.
  19. ^ Gould, John (2009). "Indigenous Bird Names of the Hunter Region of New South Wales". Australian Museum. Sydney, New South Wales. Archived from the original on 17 October 2009. Retrieved 22 February 2010.
  20. ^ Liddell, H.G. & Robert Scott (1980). A Greek-English Lexicon (Abridged ed.). United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-910207-4.
  21. ^ Simpson, D.P. (1979). Cassell's Latin Dictionary (5th ed.). London: Cassell Ltd. ISBN 0-304-52257-0.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h Forshaw, Joseph Michael; Cooper, William T. (1981) [and 1st edition in 1973]. Parrots of the World. Illustrated by Frank Knight (2nd ed.). Princeton University Press. pp. 175–176. ISBN 0-87666-959-3.
  23. ^ "Budgerigar.com". Archived from the original on 20 September 2018.
  24. ^ a b c Abbassi, Puya; Burley, Nancy Tyler (1 July 2012). "Nice guys finish last: same-sex sexual behavior and pairing success in male budgerigars". Behavioral Ecology. 23 (4): 775–782. doi:10.1093/beheco/ars030. hdl:10.1093/beheco/ars030. ISSN 1045-2249.
  25. ^ a b S M Pearn; A T Bennett & I C Cuthill (2001). "Ultraviolet vision, fluorescence and mate choice in a parrot, the budgerigar Melopsittacus undulatus". Proceedings: Biological Sciences. 268 (1482): 2273–9. doi:10.1098/rspb.2001.1813. PMC 1088876. PMID 11674876.
  26. ^ "Birds Online — How to tell the sex of a budgie". Archived from the original on 4 February 2019. Retrieved 25 April 2006.
  27. ^ Hile, Arla; Burley, Nancy; Coopersmith, Carol; Foster, Valerie (2005). "Effects of Male Vocal Learning on Female Behavior in the Budgerigar, Melopsittacus undulatus". Ethology. 111 (10): 901–923. Bibcode:2005Ethol.111..901H. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0310.2005.01105.x. Retrieved 2 June 2024.
  28. ^ Color Vision of the Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus): Hue Matches, Tetrachromacy, and Intensity Discrimination.
    Timothy H. Goldsmith and Byron K. Butler in Journal of Comparative Physiology A, Vol. 191, No. 10, pages 933–951; October 2005.
  29. ^ Hildegard Niemann (2007). Budgerigars: Everything about Purchase, Care, Nutrition, Behavior, and Training. Barron's Educational Series, 2008. p. 59. ISBN 9780764138973.
  30. ^ a b c Pranty 2001
  31. ^ Ingo Schiffner and Mandyam Srinivasan (2016) Budgerigar flight in a varying environment: flight at distinct speeds?, https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2016.0221 Archived 25 April 2022 at the Wayback Machine
  32. ^ Haskin, Emma (10 October 2017). "Budgies swarm in outback Australia as wildlife photographer stands ready to capture images". ABC News. Retrieved 2 June 2024.
  33. ^ a b "The Wild Budgerigar". Archived from the original (article) on 6 March 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2006.
  34. ^ Stevenson & Anderson 1994
  35. ^ Shapiro 1979
  36. ^ "IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Melopsittacus undulatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 9 August 2018. 9 August 2018.
  37. ^ Sims, Kelly. "Melopsittacus undulatus (budgerigar)". Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved 27 October 2023.
  38. ^ Brockway, Barbara (1964). "Hormonal and Experiential Factors Influencing the Nestbox Oriented Behaviour of Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus)". Behaviour. 35 (1): 2.
  39. ^ a b c "Talk Budgies — Breeding". Archived from the original on 23 September 2018. Retrieved 4 November 2013.
  40. ^ Helton, Lindsay (25 October 2021). "Cross Beak". American Poultry Association. Retrieved 26 April 2024.
  41. ^ "Splayed Legs in Budgerigars". Budgerigar Council of Australia. Retrieved 2 June 2024.
  42. ^ Baron, Hamish. "Splayed Legs" (PDF). World Budgerigar Organisation. Retrieved 2 June 2024.
  43. ^ birdy (2 June 2022). "English budgie vs American budgie | Which one is Better?". birdsology. Retrieved 29 April 2023.
  44. ^ Moustaki, Nikki (2007). Parakeets for dummies. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley. ISBN 9781118068281. OCLC 785572631.
  45. ^ "Birds Online — Life span of a budgie". Archived from the original on 4 February 2019. Retrieved 26 December 2005.
  46. ^ Hendrick, D. J.; Faux, J. A.; Marshall, R (July 1978). "Budgerigar-fancier's lung: the commonest variety of allergic alveolitis in Britain". Br Med J. 2 (6130): 81–4. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.6130.81. PMC 1605890. PMID 566603.
  47. ^ Hildegard Niemann (2007). Budgerigars: Everything about Purchase, Care, Nutrition, Behavior, and Training. Barron's Educational Series, 2008. p. 62. ISBN 9780764138973.
  48. ^ Bradbury, Jack; Balsby, Thorston (2016). "The functions of vocal learning in parrots". Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 70 (3): 294. doi:10.1007/s00265-016-2068-4.
  49. ^ Claire Folkard, ed. (2003). Guinness World Records 2004. Guinness World Records Limited. p. 54. ISBN 0-85112-180-2.
  50. ^ "The Bird with the Largest Vocabulary in the World". Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 4 November 2013.
  51. ^ Peralta, Eyder (23 July 2013). "WATCH: Disco, The Parakeet, Takes On 'Monty Python'". NPR. Archived from the original on 22 October 2013. Retrieved 4 November 2013.
  52. ^ "Disco the parakeet will blow your mind with his vintage banter". Archived from the original on 22 October 2013. Retrieved 4 November 2013.
  53. ^ "'Budgie smugglers' officially added to Oxford English Dictionary". ABC News. 8 July 2016. Archived from the original on 11 April 2018. Retrieved 6 April 2018.


  • Pranty, B. 2001. The Budgerigar in Florida: Rise and fall of an exotic psittacid. North American Birds 55: 389–397.
  • Forshaw, Joseph M. & Cooper, William T. (1978): Parrots of the World (2nd ed). Landsdowne Editions, Melbourne Australia ISBN 0-7018-0690-7
  • Collar, N. J. (1997). Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). Pg. 384 in: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. & Sargatal, J. eds. (1997).
    Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 4. Sandgrouse to Cuckoos. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. ISBN 84-87334-22-9

Further reading[edit]