Buffalo, New York
|Buffalo, New York|
|City of Buffalo|
|Nickname(s): The City of Good Neighbors, The Queen City, The City of No Illusions, The Nickel City, Queen City of the Lakes, City of Light|
Location in Erie County and the state of New York.
|United States of America|
|First settled (village)||1789|
|• Mayor||Byron Brown (D)|
|• Common Council||City council|
|• City||52.5 sq mi (136.0 km2)|
|• Land||40.6 sq mi (105.2 km2)|
|• Water||11.9 sq mi (30.8 km2)|
|Elevation||600 ft (183 m)|
|• City||258,959 (US: 73rd)|
|• Density||6,436.2/sq mi (2,568.8/km2)|
|• Urban||935,906 (US: 46th)|
|• Metro||1,134,210 (US: 49th)|
|• CSA||1,213,668 (US: 44th)|
|Time zone||EST (UTC−5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC−4)|
|GNIS feature ID||0973345|
Buffalo (//) is a city in Western New York and the seat of Erie County, on the eastern shores of Lake Erie at the head of the Niagara River. As of 2014[update], Buffalo is the state's second most populous city after New York City with 258,703 residents, and with a population of 1.13 million, the metropolitan area is the 50th largest in the United States.
Buffalo grew significantly in the 19th and 20th centuries as a result of the Erie Canal, railroads and Lake Erie, providing an abundance of fresh water and an ample trade route to the Midwestern United States, while grooming its economy for the grain, steel and automobile industries during the 20th century. After an economic downturn in the latter half of the 20th century, Buffalo's economy has transitioned to sectors that include financial services, technology, biomedical and education.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography and climate
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Culture
- 7 Sports
- 8 Parks and recreation
- 9 Government
- 10 Education
- 11 Infrastructure
- 12 Media
- 13 Public safety
- 14 Notable people
- 15 Dyngus Day
- 16 Twin towns – Sister cities
- 17 See also
- 18 Notes
- 19 References
- 20 External links
The city of Buffalo received its name from a nearby creek called Buffalo Creek. British military engineer Captain John Montresor made reference to 'Buffalo Creek' in his journal of 1764, which may be the earliest recorded appearance of the name. There are several theories regarding how Buffalo Creek received its name. While it is possible that Buffalo Creek's name originated from French fur traders and Native Americans calling the creek Beau Fleuve (French for "Beautiful River"), it is also possible that Buffalo Creek was named for the American buffalo, whose historical range may have extended into Western New York.
Prior to European colonization, French observers report the region's inhabitants were an Iroquoian-speaking tribal offshoot of the large Neutral Nation called the Wenro people or 'Wenrohronon', who lived along the south shore of Lake Ontario and east end of Lake Erie and a bit of its southern shore. Later, during the 1640s–50s Beaver Wars, the combined warriors of the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy conquered the populous Neutrals and their peninsular territory, while the Senecas alone took out their weak neighbors, the Wenrohronon, and their territory, c. 1651–1653
In 1804, as principal agent opening the area for the Holland Land Company, the architect of Washington D.C., Joseph Ellicott, designed a radial street and grid system that branches out from downtown like bicycle spokes similar to the street system he used in the nation's capital. Although Ellicott named the settlement "New Amsterdam," the name did not catch on.
On October 26, 1825, the Erie Canal was completed with Buffalo a port-of-call for settlers heading westward. At the time, the population was about 2,400. The Erie Canal brought about a surge in population and commerce, which led Buffalo to incorporate as a city in 1832.
In 1845, construction began on the Macedonia Baptist Church, an important meeting place for the abolitionist movement.[better source needed] Buffalo was a terminus point of the Underground Railroad with many fugitive slaves crossing the Niagara River to Fort Erie, Ontario in search of freedom.
During the 1840s, Buffalo's port continued to develop. Both passenger and commercial traffic expanded with some 93,000 passengers heading west from the port of Buffalo.[better source needed] Grain and commercial goods shipments led to repeated expansion of the harbor. In 1843, the world's first steam-powered grain elevator was constructed by local merchant Joseph Dart and engineer Robert Dunbar. "Dart's Elevator" enabled faster unloading of lake freighters along with the transshipment of grain in bulk from barges, canal boats, and rail cars. By 1850, the city's population was 81,000.
At the dawn of the 20th century, local mills were among the first to benefit from hydroelectric power generated by the Niagara River. The city got the nickname City of Light at this time due to the widespread electric lighting. It was also part of the automobile revolution, hosting the brass era car builders Pierce Arrow and the Seven Little Buffaloes early in the century. President William McKinley was shot and mortally wounded at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo on September 6, 1901. He died in the city eight days later and Theodore Roosevelt was sworn in at the Wilcox Mansion as the 26th President of the United States.
The Great Depression of 1929-39 saw severe unemployment, especially among working class men. The New Deal relief programs operated full force. The city became a stronghold of labor unions and the Democratic Party. During World War II, Buffalo saw the return of prosperity and full employment due to its position as a manufacturing center.
With the opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway in 1957, which cut the city off from valuable trade routes; deindustrialization; and the nationwide trend of suburbanization; the city's economy began to deteriorate. Like much of the Rust Belt, Buffalo, home to more than half a million people in the 1950s, has seen its population decline as heavy industries shut down and people left for the suburbs or other cities.
Like other rust belt cities such as Pittsburgh and Cleveland, Buffalo has attempted to revitalize its beleaguered economy and crumbling infrastructure. In the first decade of the 21st century, a massive increase in economic development spending has attempted to reverse its dwindling prosperity. In the early 2010s, growth from local colleges and universities continued to spur economic development.
Geography and climate
Buffalo is on Lake Erie's eastern end, opposite Fort Erie, Ontario, and at the beginning of the Niagara River, which flows northward over Niagara Falls and into Lake Ontario. The city is 50 miles (80 km) south-southeast from Toronto. Buffalo's position on Lake Erie, facing westward, makes it one of the few major cities on the East Coast to have sunsets over a body of water.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 52.5 square miles (136 km2), of which 40.6 square miles (105 km2) is land and 11.9 square miles (31 km2) is water. The total area is 22.66% water.
Buffalo's architecture is diverse, with a collection of buildings the 19th and 20th centuries. Most structures and works are still standing, such as the country's largest intact parks system designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux. At the end of the 19th century, the Guaranty Building—constructed by Louis Sullivan—was a prominent example of an early high-rise skyscraper. The 20th century saw works such as the Art Deco-style Buffalo City Hall and Buffalo Central Terminal, Electric Tower, the Richardson Olmsted Complex, and the Rand Building. Urban renewal from the 1950s–1970s gave way to the construction of the Brutalist-style Buffalo City Court Building and the One Seneca Tower—formerly the HSBC Center, the city's tallest building. Modern architecture since the 1980s includes office buildings such as the Robert H. Jackson United States Courthouse and the Key Center North and South Towers. Prominent architects include Frank Lloyd Wright, who designed the Darwin D. Martin House. Grain elevators were invented along the Buffalo River in 1842, and the city maintains one of the largest standing collection in the world.
Buffalo has a continental-type climate, which is common in the Great Lakes region. (Köppen climate classification "Dfb" – uniform precipitation distribution). The transitional seasons are very brief in Buffalo and Western New York.
Buffalo has snowy winters, but it is rarely the snowiest city in New York State. The Blizzard of 1977 resulted from a combination of high winds and snow previously accumulated on land and on frozen Lake Erie. Snow does not typically impair the city's operation, but can cause significant damage during the autumn as with the October 2006 storm. In November 2014, the region had a record-breaking storm, producing over 5½ feet of snow.
Buffalo has the sunniest and driest summers of any major city in the Northeast, but still has enough rain to keep vegetation green and lush. Summers are marked by plentiful sunshine and moderate humidity and temperature. It receives, on average, over 65% of possible sunshine in June, July and August.
Obscured by the notoriety of Buffalo's winter snow is the fact Buffalo benefits from other lake effects such as the cooling southwest breezes off Lake Erie in summer that gently temper the warmest days. As a result, temperatures only rise above 90 °F (32.2 °C) three times per year, and the Buffalo station of the National Weather Service has never recorded an official temperature of 100 °F (37.8 °C) or more. Rainfall is moderate but typically occurs at night. Lake Erie's stabilizing effect continues to inhibit thunderstorms and enhance sunshine in the immediate Buffalo area through most of July. August usually has more showers and is hotter and more humid as the warmer lake loses its temperature-stabilizing influence.
|Climate data for Buffalo, New York (Buffalo Niagara Int'l), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1871–present[a]|
|Record high °F (°C)||72
|Average high °F (°C)||31.2
|Daily mean °F (°C)||24.9
|Average low °F (°C)||18.5
|Record low °F (°C)||−16
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||3.18
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||25.3
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||19.2||16.0||15.1||13.1||12.7||12.1||10.6||10.1||11.4||12.9||15.0||18.3||166.5|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||16.3||13.1||9.2||3.1||0||0||0||0||0||0.4||4.9||14.0||61.0|
|Average relative humidity (%)||76.0||75.9||73.3||67.8||67.2||68.6||68.1||72.1||74.0||72.9||75.8||77.6||72.4|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||91.3||108.0||163.7||204.7||258.3||287.1||306.7||266.4||207.6||159.4||84.4||69.0||2,206.6|
|Percent possible sunshine||31||37||44||51||57||63||66||62||55||47||29||25||49|
|Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990), Weather Channel|
|Historical Population Figures
U.S. Decennial Census
|Black or African American||38.6%||30.7%||20.4%||3.1%|
|Hispanic or Latino (of any race)||10.5%||4.9%||1.6%||(X)|
|Largest ancestries (2000)||Percent|
Like most former industrial cities of the Great Lakes region in the United States, Buffalo is recovering from an economic depression from suburbanization and the loss of its industrial base. The city's population peaked in 1950, when it was the 15th largest city in the United States, and its population has been spreading out to the suburbs every census since then. The demographic change and the impact of such change on the industrial cities of the region, including Buffalo, was significant; based on the 2006 US Census estimate, Buffalo's population was equivalent to its population in the year 1890, reversing 120 years of demographic change. On the other hand, the populations of suburbs such as Amherst, Clarence, Orchard Park, and Cheektowaga have increased proportionally as automobile-centric lifestyles developed.
At the 2010 Census, the city's population was 50.4% White (45.8% non-Hispanic White alone), 38.6% Black or African-American, 0.8% American Indian and Alaska Native, 3.2% Asian, 3.9% from some other race and 3.1% from two or more races. 10.5% of the total population was Hispanic or Latino of any race.
The median income for a household in the city is $24,536, and the median income for a family is $30,614. Males have a median income of $30,938 versus $23,982 for females. The per capita income for the city is $14,991. 26.6% of the population and 23.0% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 38.4% of those under the age of 18 and 14.0% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.
Buffalo's economic sectors include industrial, light manufacturing, high technology and services.
The State of New York, with over 15,000 employees, is the city's largest employer. Other major employers include the United States government, Kaleida Health, M&T Bank, the University at Buffalo, General Motors, Time Warner Cable, and Tops Friendly Markets. In banking, Buffalo is the headquarters of M&T Bank and First Niagara Bank.
The loss of traditional jobs in manufacturing, rapid suburbanization and high labor costs have led to economic decline and made Buffalo one of the poorest U.S. cities with populations of more than 250,000 people. An estimated 28.7–29.9% of Buffalo residents live below the poverty line, behind either only Detroit, or only Detroit and Cleveland. Buffalo's median household income of $27,850 is third-lowest among large cities, behind only Miami and Cleveland; however the metropolitan area's median household income is $57,000. This, in part, has led to the Buffalo-Niagara Falls metropolitan area having the most affordable housing market in the U.S. The quarterly NAHB/Wells Fargo Housing Opportunity Index (HOI) noted nearly 90% of the new and existing homes sold in the metropolitan area during the second quarter were affordable to families making the area's median income of $57,000. As of 2014[update], the median home price in the city was $95,000.
Buffalo's economy has begun to see significant improvements since the early 2010s. Money from New York State Governor Andrew Cuomo through a program known locally as "Buffalo Billion" has brought new construction, increased economic development, and hundreds of new jobs to the area. As of March 2015, Buffalo's unemployment rate was 5.9%, slightly above the national average of 5.5%. In 2016, the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis valued the Buffalo area's economy at $54.9 billion.
The Buffalo area's varied cuisine is the result of variety of cultural contributions, including Italian, Irish, Jewish, German, Polish, African-American, Greek, Indian and American influences. In 2015, the National Geographic Society ranked Buffalo third on their list of "The World's Top Ten Food Cities". Locally owned restaurants offer Chinese, German, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, Thai, Mexican, Italian, Arab, Indian, Caribbean, soul food, and French cuisine. Buffalo's local pizzerias differ from that of the thin-crust New York-style pizzerias and deep-dish Chicago-style pizzerias, and is locally known for being a midpoint between the two.
The Beef on weck sandwich, kielbasa, sponge candy, pastry hearts, pierogi, and haddock fish fries are local favorites, as is a loganberry-flavored beverage that remains relatively obscure outside of the Western New York and Southern Ontario.
The city is home to breweries that continue the city's rich brewing traditions.
Buffalo has several well-known food companies. Non-dairy whipped topping was invented in Buffalo in 1945 by Robert E. Rich, Sr. His company, Rich Products, is one of the city's largest private employers. General Mills was organized in Buffalo, and Gold Medal brand flour, Wheaties, Cheerios and other General Mills brand cereals are manufactured here. Archer Daniels Midland operates its largest flour mill in the city. Buffalo is home to one of the largest privately held food companies in the world, Delaware North Companies, which operates concessions in sports arenas, stadiums, resorts, and many state & federal parks.
Fine and performing arts
Buffalo is home to over 50 private and public art galleries, most notably the Albright-Knox Art Gallery, home to a world-class collection of modern and contemporary art, and the Burchfield-Penney Art Center. In 2012, AmericanStyle ranked Buffalo twenty-fifth in its list of top mid-sized cities for art.
The Buffalo area's largest theater is Shea's Performing Arts Center, designed to accommodate 4,000 people with interiors by Louis Comfort Tiffany. Built in 1926 and long known as "Shea's Buffalo", the theater presents Broadway musicals and concerts.
The theater community in the Buffalo Theater District includes over 20 professional companies. Major theaters groups include The Alt at the Warehouse, American Repertory Theater of Western New York, The Irish Classical Theatre, The Kavinoky Theatre, Lancaster Opera House, The New Phoenix Theatre, Road Less Traveled Productions, The Subversive Theatre, The Theatre of Youth, and Torn Space Theatre. These companies present a variety of theater styles and many present original productions by Buffalo playwrights.
The Buffalo Philharmonic Orchestra, which performs at Kleinhans Music Hall, is one of the city's most prominent performing arts institutions. During the 1960s and 1970s, under the musical leadership of Lukas Foss and Michael Tilson Thomas, the Philharmonic collaborated with Grateful Dead and toured with the Boston Pops Orchestra.
Buffalo has the roots of many jazz and classical musicians, and it is also the founding city for several mainstream bands and musicians,  Jazz fusion band Spyro Gyra and jazz saxophonists Grover Washington Jr. also got their starts in Buffalo. Pianist and composer Leonard Pennario was born in Buffalo in 1924 and made his debut concert at Carnegie Hall in 1943.
Buffalo's "Colored Musicians Club", an extension of what was long ago a separate musicians' union local, is thriving today, and maintains a significant jazz history within its walls. Well-known indie artist Ani DiFranco hails from Buffalo.
Festivals have become part of the Buffalo's culture and tradition. Though most occur during the summer, the city has winter festivals that reflect its snowy reputation. Popular summer festivals include the Allentown Art Festival, Taste of Buffalo, National Buffalo Wing Festival, Thursday at the Square, and the Juneteenth Festival. Winter festivals include the Buffalo Ball Drop, Buffalo Powder Keg Festival, and Labatt Blue Pond Hockey.
The city of Buffalo's points of interest include the Edward M. Cotter fireboat, considered the world's oldest active fireboat and is a United States National Historic Landmark, Buffalo and Erie County Botanical Gardens, the Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society, Buffalo Museum of Science, the Buffalo Zoo, the third oldest zoo in the United States, Forest Lawn Cemetery, Buffalo and Erie County Naval & Military Park, the Anchor Bar, and Darwin D. Martin House.
Buffalo and the surrounding region is home to two major league professional sports teams. The NHL's Buffalo Sabres play in the City of Buffalo, and the NFL's Buffalo Bills play in suburban Orchard Park, New York. Buffalo is also home to several minor sports teams, including the Buffalo Bisons (baseball; an affiliate of the MLB's Toronto Blue Jays), Buffalo Bandits (indoor lacrosse) and FC Buffalo (soccer) as well as a professional women's team the Buffalo Beauts (Hockey). The Buffalo Bulls are a Division I college team representing the State University of New York at Buffalo, and several other Buffalo-area colleges and universities are also active in college athletics.
The Buffalo Bills, established in 1959, played in War Memorial Stadium until 1973, when Ralph Wilson Stadium was constructed. The team competes in the AFC East division. Since the AFL–NFL merger in 1970, the Bills have won the AFC conference championship four consecutive times (1990, 1991, 1992, 1993), resulting in four lost Super Bowls.
The Buffalo Sabres, established in 1970, played in Buffalo Memorial Auditorium until 1996, when Marine Midland Arena, now First Niagara Center, opened. The team is within the Atlantic Division of the NHL. The team has won one Presidents' Trophy (2006–07) and three conference championships (1974–75, 1979–80, 1998–99). However, like the Buffalo Bills, the team does not have a league championship.
The Buffalo Bandits, established in 1992, played their home games in Buffalo Memorial Auditorium until their move to Marine Midland Arena. They have won eight division championships and four league championships (1992, 1993, 1996, 2008).
|Football||NFL||Buffalo Bills||1960||New Era Field||2*||1964*, 1965*|
|Hockey||NHL||Buffalo Sabres||1970||First Niagara Center||0|
|Baseball||IL||Buffalo Bisons||1979†||Coca-Cola Field||3||1997, 1998, 2004|
|Lacrosse||NLL||Buffalo Bandits||1992||First Niagara Center||4||1992, 1993, 1996, 2008|
|Soccer||NPSL||FC Buffalo||2009||All-High Stadium||0|
|Basketball||PBL||Buffalo 716ers||2012||Burt Flickinger Center||0|
* American Football League (AFL) championships were earned prior to the NFL merging with the AFL.
† Date refers to current incarnation; Buffalo Bisons previously operated from the 1870s until 1970 and the current Bisons count this team as part of their history.
Parks and recreation
The Buffalo parks system has over 20 parks with several parks accessible from any part of the city. The Olmsted Park and Parkway System is the hallmark of Buffalo's many green spaces. Three-fourths of city park land is part of the system, which comprises six major parks, eight connecting parkways, nine circles and seven smaller spaces. Constructed in 1868 by Frederick Law Olmsted and his partner Calvert Vaux, the system was integrated into the city and marks the first attempt in America to lay out a coordinated system of public parks and parkways. The Olmsted designed portions of the Buffalo park system are listed on the National Register of Historic Places and are maintained by the Buffalo Olmsted Parks Conservancy (BOPC), a non-profit, for public benefit corporation which serves as the cities parks department. It is the first non-governmental organization of its kind to serve in such a capacity in the US.
Situated at the confluence of Lake Erie and the Buffalo River and Niagara Rivers, Buffalo is a waterfront city. The city's rise to economic power came through its waterways in the form of transshipment, manufacturing, and an endless source of energy. Buffalo's waterfront remains, though to a lesser degree, a hub of commerce, trade, and industry.
Beginning in 2009, a significant portion of Buffalo's waterfront began to be transformed into a focal point for social and recreational activity. To this end, Buffalo Harbor State Park, nicknamed "Outer Harbor", was opened in 2014. Buffalo's intent was to stress its architectural and historical heritage to create a tourism destination, and early data indicates that they were successful.
An ongoing project within downtown Buffalo is the development of "Canalside," intended to revitalize the original Erie Canal Harbor with shops, eateries, and tourist attractions. An early phase of the project was the excavation and filling of Erie Canal Commercial Slip, which is the original western terminus of the Erie Canal System. Work is continuing to restore the canal system displaced by the construction of the Buffalo Memorial Auditorium.
At the municipal level, the City of Buffalo has a mayor and a council of nine councilmembers. Buffalo also serves as the seat of Erie County with some of the 11 members of county legislature representing at least a portion of Buffalo. At the state level, there are three state assemblymembers and two state senators representing parts of the city proper. At the federal level, Buffalo is represented by three members of the House of Representatives.
In a trend common to northern "Rust Belt" regions, the Democratic Party has dominated Buffalo's political life for the last half-century. The last time anyone other than a Democrat held the position of Mayor in Buffalo was Chester A. Kowal in 1965. In 1977, Democratic Mayor James D. Griffin was elected as the nominee of two minor parties, the Conservative Party and the Right to Life Party, after he lost the Democratic primary for Mayor to then Deputy State Assembly Speaker Arthur Eve. Griffin switched political allegiances several times during his 16 years as Mayor, generally hewing to socially conservative platforms. His successor, Democrat Anthony M. Masiello (elected in 1993) continued to campaign on social conservatism, often crossing party lines in his endorsements and alliances. In 2005, however, Democrat Byron Brown was elected the city's first African-American mayor in a landslide (64%–27%) over Republican Kevin Helfer, who ran on a conservative platform. In 2013, the Conservative Party endorsed Brown because of his pledge to cut taxes.
This change in local politics was preceded by a fiscal crisis in 2003 when years of economic decline, a diminishing tax-base, and civic mismanagement left the city deep in debt and on the edge of bankruptcy. At New York State Comptroller Alan Hevesi's urging, the state took over the management of Buffalo's finances, appointing the Buffalo Fiscal Stability Authority. Mayor Tony Masiello began conversations about merging the city with the larger Erie County government the following year, but they came to naught.
The offices of the Buffalo District, US Army Corps of Engineers are next to the Black Rock Lock in the Erie Canal's Black Rock channel. In addition to maintaining and operating the lock, the District plans, designs, constructs and maintains water resources projects from Toledo, Ohio to Massena, New York. These include the flood-control dam at Mount Morris, New York, oversight of the lower Great Lakes (Lake Erie and Lake Ontario), review and permitting of wetlands construction, and remedial action for hazardous waste sites.
Buffalo is also the home of a major office of the National Weather Service (NOAA), which serves all of western and much of central New York State.
Buffalo is home to one of the 56 national FBI field offices. The field office covers all of Western New York and parts of the Southern Tier and Central New York. The field office operates several task forces in conjunction with local agencies to help combat issues such as gang violence, terrorism threats and health care fraud.
Buffalo is also the location of the chief judge, United States Attorney, and administrative offices for the United States District Court for the Western District of New York.
Buffalo Public Schools serve most of the city of Buffalo. The city has 78 public schools, including a growing number of charter schools. As of 2006[update], the total enrollment was 41,089 students with a student-teacher ratio of 13.5 to 1. The graduation rate is up to 52% in 2008, up from 45% in 2007, and 50% in 2006. More than 27% of teachers have a master's degree or higher and the median amount of experience in the field is 15 years. When considering the entire metropolitan area, there are 292 schools educating 172,854 students.
Buffalo's magnet school system features schools that attract students with special interests, such as science, bilingual studies, and Native American studies. Specialized facilities include the Buffalo Elementary School of Technology; the Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., Multicultural Institute; the International School; the Dr. Charles R. Drew Science Magnet; BUILD Academy; Leonardo da Vinci High School; PS 32 Bennett Park Montessori; the Buffalo Academy for Visual and Performing Arts, BAVPA; the Riverside Institute of Technology; Lafayette High School/Buffalo Academy of Finance; Hutchinson Central Technical High School; Burgard Vocational High School; South Park High School; and the Emerson School of Hospitality.
The city is home to 47 private schools and the metropolitan region has 150 institutions. Most private schools, such as Bishop Timon - St. Jude High School, Canisius High School, Mount Mercy Academy, and Nardin Academy have a Catholic affiliation. In addition, there are two Islamic schools, Darul Uloom Al-Madania and Universal School of Buffalo. There are also nonsectarian options including The Buffalo Seminary (the only private, nonsectarian, all-girls school in Western New York state), Nichols School and numerous Charter Schools.
Complementing its standard function, the Buffalo Public Schools Adult and Continuing Education Division provides education and services to adults throughout the community. In addition, the Career and Technical Education Department offers more than 20 academic programs, and is attended by about 6,000 students each year.
The State University of New York (SUNY) operates three institutions within the city of Buffalo. The University at Buffalo is known as "Buffalo" and is the largest public university in New York. The University at Buffalo is the only university in Buffalo and is a nationally ranked tier 1 research university. Buffalo State College and Erie Community College are a college and a community college, respectively. Additionally, the private institutions Canisius College and D'Youville College are located within the city. The total enrollment of these five institutions combined is approximately 61,700 students.
The Buffalo and Erie County Public Library has multiple branches across the city of Buffalo and Erie County, as well as maintaining the main building at the corner of Clinton and Ellicott streets.
The city is home to two private healthcare systems, which combined operate eight hospitals and countless clinics in the greater metropolitan area, as well as three public hospitals operated by Erie County and the State of New York. Buffalo General/Gates Vascular Institute have earned top rankings in the US for their cutting edge research and treatment into stroke and neurological care. ECMC has been accredited as a Level One Trauma Center and serves as the trauma and burn care center for Western New York, much of the Southern Tier as well as portions of Northwestern Pennsylvania and Ontario, Canada. Over the years, Roswell Park has also become recognized as one of the United State's leading cancer treatment and research centers, and each year recruits physicians and researchers from across the world to come live and work in the Buffalo area.
- Mercy Hospital of Buffalo (South Buffalo)
- Sisters of Charity Hospital (Central Buffalo)
- Kenmore Mercy Hospital (Kenmore, NY)
- St. Joseph's Hospital (Cheektowaga, NY)
- Buffalo General Medical Center/Gates Vascular Institute (Downtown Buffalo)
- Women's & Children's Hospital of Buffalo (Elmwood Village, Buffalo)
- DeGraff Memorial Hospital (North Tonawanda, NY)
- Millard Fillmore Suburban Hospital (Amherst, NY)
The Erie County Medical Center (ECMC) (Eastern Buffalo)
Roswell Park Cancer Institute (Downtown Buffalo)
The Buffalo State Hospital (State operated facility for the mentally ill, located in Northwest Buffalo)
The Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority (NFTA) operates Buffalo Niagara International Airport, reconstructed in 1997 and located in the suburb of Cheektowaga. The airport serves Western New York and much of the Finger Lakes and Southern Tier Regions.
The Buffalo Metro Rail, also operated by the NFTA, is a 6.4 miles (10.3 km) long, single line light rail system that extends from Erie Canal Harbor in downtown Buffalo to the University Heights district (specifically, the South Campus of University at Buffalo) in the city's northeastern part. The line's downtown section runs above ground and is free of charge to passengers. North of Theater Station, at the northern end of downtown, the line moves underground until it reaches its northern terminus at University Heights. Passengers pay a fare to ride this section of the rail.
Two train stations, Buffalo-Depew and Buffalo-Exchange Street serve the city, and are operated by Amtrak. Historically, the city was a major stop on through routes between Chicago and New York City through the lower Ontario peninsula.
Buffalo is at the Lake Erie's eastern end, and it serves as a playground for many personal yachts, sailboats, power boats and watercraft. The city's extensive breakwall system protects its inner and outer harbors, which are maintained at commercial navigation depths for Great Lakes freighters. A Lake Erie tributary that flows through south Buffalo is the Buffalo River and Buffalo Creek.
Eight New York State highways, one three-digit Interstate Highway and one U.S. Highway traverse the city of Buffalo. New York State Route 5, commonly referred to as Main Street within the city, enters through Lackawanna as a limited-access highway and intersects with Interstate 190, a north-south highway connecting Interstate 90 in the southeastern suburb of Cheektowaga with Niagara Falls. NY 354 (Clinton Street) and NY 130 (Broadway) are east to west highways connecting south and downtown Buffalo to the eastern suburbs of West Seneca and Depew. NY 265 (Delaware Avenue) and NY 266 (Niagara Street and Military Road) both start in downtown Buffalo and end in the city of Tonawanda. One of three U.S. highways in Erie County, the other two being U.S. 20 and U.S. 219, U.S. 62 (Bailey Avenue) is a north to south trunk road that enters the city through Lackawanna and exits at the Amherst town border at a junction with NY 5. Within the city, the route passes by light industrial developments and high density areas of the city. Bailey Avenue has major intersections with Interstate 190 and the Kensington Expressway. Three major expressways serve the city of Buffalo. The Scajaquada Expressway (NY 198) is primarily a limited access highway connecting Interstate 190 near Unity Island to New York State Route 33. The Kensington Expressway (NY 33) starts at the edge of downtown and the city's East Side, continues through heavily populated areas of the city, intersects with Interstate 90 in Cheektowaga and ends at the airport. The Peace Bridge is a major international crossing near the city's Black Rock district. The bridge connects Fort Erie, Ontario with the city.
Buffalo's water system is operated by Veolia Water. To reduce large-scale ice blockage in the Niagara River, with resultant flooding, ice damage to docks and other waterfront structures, and blockage of the water intakes for the hydro-electric power plants at Niagara Falls, the New York Power Authority and Ontario Power Generation have jointly operated the Lake Erie-Niagara River Ice Boom since 1964. The boom is installed on December 16, or when the water temperature reaches 4 °C (39 °F), whichever happens first. The boom is opened on April 1 unless there is more than 650 square kilometres (250 sq mi) of ice remaining in Eastern Lake Erie. When in place, the boom stretches 2,680 metres (8,790 ft) from the outer breakwall at Buffalo Harbor almost to the Canadian shore near the ruins of the pier at Erie Beach in Fort Erie. Originally, the boom was made of wooden timbers, but these have been replaced by steel pontoons.
Buffalo's major newspaper is The Buffalo News. Established in 1880, the newspaper has 181,540 in daily circulation and 266,123 on Sundays. Other newspapers in the Buffalo area include Artvoice, The Public, The Beast, Buffalo Business First, the Spectrum, University at Buffalo's student-run newspaper, and the Record, Buffalo State College's student-run newspaper. Online news magazines include Artvoice Daily Online and Buffalo Rising, formerly a print magazine.
The Buffalo area is home to 14 AM stations and 21 FM stations. Major station operators include Entercom, Townsquare Media and Cumulus Media. In addition, National Public Radio operates a publicly funded station, WBFO 88.7.
According to Nielsen Media Research, the Buffalo television market is the 52nd largest in the United States as of 2013[update]. Although no major cable outlets have offices or bureaus in the Buffalo area, the four major networks have established affiliates in the area: WGRZ 2 (NBC), WIVB-TV 4 (CBS), WUTV 29 (FOX), and WKBW-TV 7 (ABC). Other stations in Buffalo with network affiliations include publicly funded WNED-TV 17 (PBS), WNLO 23 (The CW), WNYO-TV 49 (MyNetworkTV), and WBBZ-TV 67 (MeTV/independent). The area's major cable provider is Time Warner Cable, which operates the system-exclusive Time Warner Cable News Buffalo, part of the statewide Time Warner Cable News network. The Buffalo market also has access to multiple Canadian broadcast stations over-the-air from the Hamilton and Toronto areas, though only CBLT 5 (CBC) and CFTO 9 (CTV) are carried on Time Warner Cable.
Movies shot with significant footage of Buffalo include Bruce Almighty (2003),[better source needed] Buffalo '66 (1998),[better source needed] Henry's Crime (2010),[better source needed] Hide in Plain Sight (1980),[better source needed] Proud (2004),[better source needed] Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles 2 (2016), and The Natural (1984).[better source needed]
The city of Buffalo's public safety and emergency Services fall primarily upon the Buffalo Fire Department, the Buffalo Police Department and Rural/Metro Ambulance (AMR), with help from state, county and college police agencies, and organizations such as the International Red Cross and the United States Civil Defense Corps.
Buffalo is one of the largest Polish-American centers in the United States. As a result, many aspects of Polish culture have found a home within the city from food to festivals. One of the best example's is the yearly celebration of Easter Monday, known to many Eastern Europeans as Dyngus Day. Traditionally during Dyngus Day, men with Pussy Willow branches will "tap" women with them, and will in turn earn a good soaking with water from the women; modern festivities in the city include a large parade through the Old Polonia neighborhood, exhibitions of Polish arts and culture, Polka concerts and the consumption of copious amounts of traditional Polish foods and alcoholic beverages. The tradition's roots are from Slavic (pre-Christian) times where the celebration of Easter was one of fertility and sexuality, however since the Christian church's formation, the holiday has turned into a celebration of the end of Lent. Buffalo was the first US city to begin regular celebration of the tradition, when in the 1960s the children and grandchildren of immigrants began looking for ways to connect with their native cultures. As such it is the home to the Dyngus Day America Association and traditionally has the largest attendance of any city that publicly hosts a celebration, attracting people, Polish or not, from all corners of the US.
Twin towns – Sister cities
- Buffalo Airfield
- Buffalo Central Terminal
- Buffalo City Hall
- Buffalo Fire Department
- South Buffalo, Buffalo, New York
- Buffalo buffalo Buffalo buffalo buffalo buffalo Buffalo buffalo
- Official records for Buffalo kept January 1871 to June 1943 at downtown and at Buffalo Niagara Int'l since July 1943. For more information, see Threadex
- "Buffalo Widely Knows as 'City of Good Neighbors'". Washington Afro-American. August 14, 1951. p. 20. Retrieved April 4, 2010.
- Ketchum, William (1865). "Origin of the Name of Buffalo". An Authentic and Comprehensive History of Buffalo, with Some Account of Its Early Inhabitants, Both Savage and Civilized, Comprising Historic Notices of the Six Nations, Or Iroquois Indians, Vol. II. Buffalo, NY: Rockwell, Baker & Hill. p. 63. Retrieved August 19, 2015.
- Severance, Frank H. (1902). "The Achievements of Captain John Montresor". In Buffalo Historical Society. Buffalo Historical Society Publications. Buffalo, NY: Bigelow Brothers. p. 15. Retrieved August 14, 2015.
- You asked us: The 868–3900 line to your desk at the Star: How Buffalo got its name, Toronto Star, Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Toronto Star, September 24, 1992, Stefaniuk, W., Retrieved April 23, 2014.
- Worldly setting, sophisticated choices, atmosphere at Beau Fleuve, Buffalo News, Buffalo, NY: Berkshire Hathaway, March 19, 1993, Okun, J., Retrieved April 23, 2014.
- 'Beau Fleuve' story doesn't wash, Buffalo News, Buffalo, NY: Berkshire Hathaway, July 21, 2003, Retrieved April 23, 2014.
- Hornaday, William T. (1889). "Geographic Distribution". The Extermination of the American Bison. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office. pp. 385–386. Retrieved August 20, 2015.
- Editor: Alvin M. Josephy, Jr., by The editors of American Heritage Magazine (1961). "The American Heritage Book of Indians". In pages 187-219. ,. American Heritage Publishing Co., Inc. p. 189. LCCN 61-14871.
- Houghton, Frederick (1927). "The Migrations of the Seneca Nation". American Anthropologist. 29: 241–250. doi:10.1525/aa.1927.29.2.02a00050.
- Josephy, p. 189, [with the Neutrals]... " broken in 1651, with mopping up continuing for several years."
- Clinton, George W.; Hunt, Sanford B. (1862). Thomas' Buffalo City Directory for 1862, to which is Prefixed a Sketch of the Early History of Buffalo. Buffalo, NY: E.A. Thomas, Franklin Steam Printing House. p. 16. Retrieved August 31, 2015.
- Quimby, Robery (1997). The U.S. Army in the War of 1812: An Operational and Command Study. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press. p. 355. ISBN 0-87013-441-8.
- "Erie Canal opens". The History Channel website. Retrieved October 29, 2014.
- "Canal History". New York State Canals. New York State Canal Corporation. Retrieved October 29, 2014.
- Champieux, Robin (April 2003). "John W. Clark papers". William L. Clements Library. University of Michigan. Retrieved October 29, 2014.
- "A Brief Chronology of the Development of the City of Buffalo". National Park Service. Retrieved October 29, 2014.
- Switala, William J. (2014-05-14). Underground Railroad in New York and New Jersey. Stackpole Books. p. 126. ISBN 9780811746298.
- Priebe Jr., J. Henry. "The City of Buffalo 1840–1850". Archived from the original on September 5, 2013. Retrieved September 9, 2007.
- Baxter, Henry. "Grain Elevators" (PDF). Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society. Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society. Retrieved October 29, 2014.
- Believe it, or not. Clymer, Floyd. Treasury of Early American Automobiles, 1877–1925 (New York: Bonanza Books, 1950), p.178.
- "President William McKinley is shot". The History Channel website. Retrieved November 2, 2014.
- "Swearing-In Ceremony for President Theodore Roosevelt". Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies. Retrieved November 2, 2014.
- * Lansky, Lewis. "Buffalo and the Great Depression, 1929-1933," in Milton Plesur, ed., American Historian: Essays to Honor Selig Adler (1980), pp 204-13
- "1941–1945". History. Parkside Community Association. Archived from the original on July 8, 2010.
- Rizzo, Michael. "Joseph J. Kelly 1942–1945". Through The Mayor's Eyes. The Buffalonian. Archived from the original on September 26, 2011.
- "Back in business". The Economist. The Economist Newspaper Limited. June 30, 2012. Retrieved November 2, 2014.
- Goldman, Mark (1983). High hopes : the rise and decline of Buffalo, New York. State University of New York: State University of New York Press. pp. 270, 271, 294. ISBN 9780585093062.
- "Population of the 100 Largest Urban Places: 1950". United States Census. June 15, 1998. Retrieved November 2, 2014.
- Ouroussoff, Nicolai (November 14, 2008). "Saving Buffalo's Untold Beauty". The New York Times. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- "Buffalo, NY". Forbes. Forbes.com LLC. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- "Louis Sullivan still has a skyscraper in Buffalo, but Chicago has none". Retrieved 2015-09-23.
- E. Kaplan, Marilyn (June 1989). "Preservation Tech Notes: Guaranty Building" (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved September 23, 2015.
- Miller, Melinda (November 17, 2013). "Preparing for 38 floors of emptiness at One Seneca Tower". The Buffalo News. Retrieved 2015-09-26.
- Peel, M. C.; Finlayson B. L.; McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification" (PDF). Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11: 1633–1644. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007. ISSN 1027-5606.
- "Buffalo's Climate". National Weather Service. Retrieved August 19, 2015.
- Madsen, Steve. "Comparison Golden Snowball City Stats 1940 – 2007". Goldensnowball. Archived from the original on February 8, 2014., Retrieved May 31, 2013.
- WeatherBug Meteorologists (January 3, 2012). "What Are The Snowiest Cities in the U.S.?". Weatherbug., Retrieved May 31, 2013.
- "Buffalo remembers infamous blizzard of '77". USA Today. June 1, 2002. Retrieved 2015-09-19.
- "Buffalo socked by wintry October surprise". WISTV. October 13, 2006. Retrieved September 30, 2014.
- "October Surprise Storm: 7th Anniversary". WGRZ. Gannett.
- McClam, Erin; Arkin, Daniel (November 20, 2014). "Buffalo, Western New York Buried by Another Wave of Snow - NBC News". NBC News. Retrieved 2015-09-19.
- "Record high of 99 °F (37 °C) was recorded in August 1948". Weather.com. July 27, 2012. Archived from the original on December 7, 2013.
- "August Daily Averages for Buffalo, NY". weather.com. Archived from the original on March 16, 2014. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- "February Daily Averages for Buffalo, NY". weather.com. Archived from the original on March 16, 2014. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2011-12-22.
- "Station Name: NY BUFFALO". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-13.
- "WMO Climate Normals for Buffalo/Greater Buffalo, NY 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 10, 2013.
- "Monthly Averages for Buffalo, NY". The Weather Channel. Retrieved 2010-12-19.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015". Retrieved July 2, 2016.
- "Census". United States Census. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 24, 2013. page 36
- United States Census Bureau. "Census of Population and Housing". Archived from the original on April 22, 2013. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012". Retrieved June 14, 2013.[dead link]
- "Buffalo (city), New York". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014.
- "Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 6, 2012.
- From 15% sample
- "Buffalo Demographics: 2010". quickfacts.census.go. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. Retrieved November 8, 2011.
- Rott, Jerry (July 26, 2013). "List: Largest Employers". Buffalo Business First. American City Business Journals. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- / Archived June 26, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Poverty USA – Catholic Campaign for Human Development – A hand up, not a hand out". Usccb.org. July 27, 2011. Archived from the original on July 10, 2011.
- Buffalo 3rd Poorest Large City. WGRZ TV. Retrieved October 14, 2008.
- Buffalo falls to second-poorest big city in U.S., with a poverty rate of nearly 30 percent. Buffalo News. Retrieved September 2, 2007.[dead link]
- "Buffalo Market Trends". Trulia. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- "Buffalo Economy News". City of Buffalo. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
- "Signs of economic revival finally appear". The Buffalo News. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
- New York State Department of Labor (April 21, 2015). "State Labor Department Releases Preliminary March 2015 Area Unemployment Rates". Labor.ny.gov. Retrieved April 28, 2015.
- National Conference of State Legislatures (April 3, 2015). "National Employment Monthly Update". Ncsl.org. Retrieved April 28, 2015.
- Thomas, G. Scott (February 16, 2016). "Which industries are driving the Buffalo area's economy? Here are the top 10". Buffalo Business First. Retrieved 16 February 2016.
- "The World's Top Ten Food Cities". National Geographic. February 2015. Retrieved July 30, 2015.
- "Famous Buffalo and Western New York Foods, Restaurants & Food Festivals". Buffalo Chow.com. Archived from the original on September 7, 2013. Retrieved July 3, 2009.
- "Top 100 Buffalo/WNY Foods (and Restaurants), Part 1 of 5". Buffalo Chow.com. February 10, 2009. Archived from the original on September 13, 2013. Retrieved July 3, 2009.
- Addotta, Kip. "Pizza!". Kip Addotta dot com. Archived from the original on September 20, 2012. Retrieved July 3, 2009.
- Horwitz, Jeremy (January 2008). "Loganberry: The Buffalo Drink You'll Like or Love". Buffalo Chow.com. Archived from the original on September 6, 2013. Retrieved July 3, 2009.
- Trillin, Calvin. "The New Yorker". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on December 13, 2013.
- Shurtleff, William; Aoyagi, Akiko (2013). History of Non-Dairy Whip Topping, Coffee Creamer, Cottage Cheese, and Icing/Frosting (With and Without Soy) (1900-2013) (PDF). p. 6. ISBN 978-1-928914-62-4.
- "Leading Businesses and Brands". Buffalo Niagara Enterprise. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- World Grain Staff (May 13, 2013). "ADM to reopen flour mill after fire". World-Grain Report., Retrieved May 31, 2013.
- "Who We Are – A Global Leader in Hospitality and Food Service". Delaware North Companies Homepage. Archived from the original on January 26, 2014. Retrieved July 3, 2009.
- Algonquin Studios. "City of Buffalo Public Art Collection". City-buffalo.com. Archived from the original on June 3, 2013.
- Menzie, Karol. "Top 25 Mid-Size Cities for Art". AmericanStyle. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- Unofficial, Unbiased Guide to the 331 Most Interesting Colleges 2005. Simon and Schuster. 2004. Retrieved March 8, 2013.
- Jim Volz (2007). The Back Stage Guide to Working in Regional Theater: Jobs for Actors. Random House. Retrieved March 8, 2013.
- Mary Burzlaff Bostic (2010). 2011 Photographer's Market. Writer's Digest. Retrieved March 8, 2013.
- "History of the BPO". Buffalo Philharmonic Orchestra. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- "Ring in 2014 at the 26th Annual Buffalo Ball Drop and Fireworks". Buffalo, NY: City of Buffalo. December 27, 2013. Archived from the original on January 3, 2014. Retrieved January 2, 2014.
- "Buffalo Winterfest & Powder Keg Festival". Visit Buffalo Niagara.com. Archived from the original on December 24, 2013., Retrieved May 31, 2013.
- "Home". Labatt Blue Pond Hockey. Archived from the original on October 28, 2013., Retrieved May 31, 2013.
- "E.M. Cotter". E.M. Cotter. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- "The Buffalo & Erie County Historical Society Buffalo New York". Bechs.org. Archived from the original on October 27, 2013.
- "Buffalo Museum of Science – Home". Sciencebuff.org. Archived from the original on April 24, 2014.
- "Buffalo Zoo Mission Statement". Buffalo Zoo. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- Mark Sommer (August 27, 2014). "Buffalo's first state park to start taking shape on outer harbor". The Buffalo News. Retrieved April 12, 2015.
- "FBI Buffalo Division". Buffalo.fbi.gov. March 29, 2011. Archived from the original on March 10, 2011.
- The Buffalo News Archived October 3, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
- "SUNY Buffalo Regional Knowledge Network". Archived from the original on March 22, 2012.
- "Buffalo Seminary". Buffalo Seminary. Archived from the original on April 24, 2014.
- "Buffalo Public Schools Adult and Continuing Education Division". Archived from the original on October 31, 2013.
- "CTE High School Programs". Buffaloschools.org. Retrieved May 31, 2013.
- "SUNY: Complete Campus List". Suny.edu. Retrieved 2011-11-23.
- "SUNY Buffalo US News and World Report: National University Ranking". USnews. Retrieved 2016-03-31.
- Drury, George H. (1994). The Historical Guide to North American Railroads: Histories, Figures, and Features of more than 160 Railroads Abandoned or Merged since 1930. Waukesha, Wisconsin: Kalmbach Publishing. pp. 91, 229–231. ISBN 978-0-89024-072-4.
- Veolia Water (2012). "Treatment - Buffalo Water". Buffalowater.org. Retrieved April 21, 2015.
- The International Niagara Board of Control of the International Joint Commission (November 1999). "Lake Erie-Niagara River Ice Boom Information Sheet" (PDF). International Joint Commission. Retrieved April 21, 2015.
- "Local Television Market Universe Estimates" (PDF). Nielsen. Nielsen Media Research. Retrieved March 31, 2015.
- "Bruce Almighty (2003) Filming Locations". IMBD. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- "Buffalo '66 (1998) Filming Locations". IMBD. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- "Henry's Crime (2010) Filming Locations". IMBD. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- "Hide in Plain Sight (1980) Filming Locations". IMBD. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- "Proud (2004) Filming Locations". IMBD. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- "The Natural (1984) Filming Locations". IMBD. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- "Dyngus Day America".
- "Interactive City Directory: Buffalo, New York". Washington DC, USA: Sister-cities International. Retrieved March 14, 2015., Retrieved May 31, 2013.
- Sister Cities from Buffalo's website Archived November 30, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Siena, Italy – City of Buffalo". City of Buffalo, New York. Archived from the original on September 28, 2011. Retrieved December 24, 2008.
- "Buffalo-Kanazawa Sister City Committee". Japan in Buffalo.org. Archived from the original on July 22, 2015.
- "Dortmund, Germany – City of Buffalo". City of Buffalo, New York. Archived from the original on September 28, 2011. Retrieved December 24, 2008.
- "Serwis informacyjny UM Rzeszów – Informacja o współpracy Rzeszowa z miastami partnerskimi". www.rzeszow.pl. Archived from the original on April 19, 2014. Retrieved May 31, 2013.
- "History". Buffalo-Rzeszow Sister Cities, Inc. Archived from the original on December 10, 2012. Retrieved December 24, 2008.
- "Tver, Russia – City of Buffalo". City of Buffalo, New York. Archived from the original on September 28, 2011. Retrieved December 24, 2008.
- "Buffalo and Drohobych join ranks of sister cities". The Ukrainian Weekly. April 1, 2001. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved December 24, 2008.
- "Lille, France – City of Buffalo". City of Buffalo, New York. Archived from the original on September 28, 2011. Retrieved December 24, 2008.
- Kearns, Michelle (March 16, 2013). "Sister cities, a banquet of international friendships". The Buffalo News. Archived from the original on June 18, 2013., Retrieved May 31, 2013.
- "Buffalo gains sister city: St. Ann, Jamaica". Buffalo News. September 19, 2007. Archived from the original on September 25, 2007. Retrieved December 24, 2008.
- "Buffalo, N.Y. and Horlivka, Ukraine Foster Sister City Relationship". City of Buffalo, New York. May 25, 2007. Archived from the original on September 25, 2009. Retrieved December 24, 2008.
Find more about
Buffalo, New York
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Definitions from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|News from Wikinews|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Travel guide from Wikivoyage|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
||Grand Island||Kenmore, Tonawanda||Amherst|
|Fort Erie, Niagara River||Sloan, Cheektowaga|
|Lake Erie||Lackawanna||West Seneca|