Incilius melanochlorus

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Incilius melanochlorus
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Bufonidae
Genus: Incilius
Species: I. melanochlorus
Binomial name
Incilius melanochlorus
(Cope, 1877)

Bufo melanochlorus Cope, 1877
Cranopsis melanochlorus (Cope, 1877)
Ollotis melanochlorus (Cope, 1877)

Incilius melanochlorus (formerly Bufo melanochlorus; common names: dark green toad, wet forest toad) is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is found on the Atlantic versant of southeastern Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and western Panama.[1][2][3]


Incilius melanochlorus are moderately large toads, with males growing to 65 mm (2.6 in) and females 103 mm (4.1 in) in snout–vent length. The dorsal coloration is light brown, often with lighter brown bands toward the sides. There is a thin, light mid-dorsal stripe. In females, the dorsum has darker brown mottling. The sides are dark and bordered above by a row of light-colored warts. The upper surfaces of the thighs have dark bars. The dorsum is very warty and the cranial crests are well-developed, whereas the paratoid glands are small and triangular. The ventral surface is yellowish. Males have a vocal sac with a greenish cast.[3]

Habitat and conservation[edit]

The species' natural habitats are lowland moist and wet forests and the lower premontane wet forests at elevations to about 1,080 m (3,540 ft) asl. Breeding takes place in large streams, and the species is regularly seen during the breeding period (during the dry season[3]). It is threatened by alteration (siltation, pollution) of its breeding habitat.[1]


  1. ^ a b c Bolaños, F., Chaves, G. & Sunyer, J. (2010). "Incilius melanochlorus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2010: e.T54705A11187978. Retrieved 7 December 2015. 
  2. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2015). "Incilius melanochlorus (Cope, 1877)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 7 December 2015. 
  3. ^ a b c "Incilius melanochlorus Cope 1877". Amphibians of Panama. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. Retrieved 12 December 2015.