Bukhansanseong

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Bukhansanseong
Bukhansan National Park, Gyeonggi-do/Seoul, Republic of Korea
Korea-Bukhansan-09.jpg
Bukhansanseong Fortress
TypeKorean castle
Height7m
Site history
BuiltYear 1711
Built bySukjong of Joseon
MaterialsGranite, wood
Bukhansanseong
Hangul
북한산성
Hanja
Revised RomanizationBukhansanseong
McCune–ReischauerPukhansansŏng

The Bukhansanseong (Korean: 북한산성, "fortress of the mountains north of the Han") is a fortress located in Gyeonggi-do and Seoul, South Korea, dating back to the middle Joseon period.[1][2] The present fort was completed in 1711, though plans for the structure date back to 1659. The name is also given to a fortress mentioned in the Samguk Sagi, constructed by Gaeru of Baekje in 132 CE, and the two are often conflated although the putative connection is contested.

The modern Bukhansanseong was built to protect the approach to Seoul, filling a gap in Korea's defences that had become apparent during the second Manchu invasion of 1636 and the earlier Imjin War. The Bukhansanseong was used as a royal retreat in emergencies, and contains 120 rooms.

History[edit]

Three Kingdoms of Korea Era[edit]

It was first built in 132 CE by Gaeru of kingdom of Baekje.[3] During Baekje era, this fortress was used for the defense of the capital when Baekje set up its capital at Wiryeseong Fortress in Hanam.[4]

Joseon Era[edit]

The current Bukhansanseong Fortress was built in 1711 CE by King Sukjong of Joseon.[5] After the Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98) and Second Manchu invasion of Korea(1636), fierce discussion broke out in the royal court about constructing fortress that can protect the kingdom against external threats. Although discussion about building new fortress began in 1451 CE during the era of king Munjong of Joseon, Actual construction of the Bukhansanseong Fortress began on 3 April, in 1711 during 37th year of King Sukjong of Joseon.[6] The construction of Bukhansanseong Fortress was relatively faster than discussion and planning period. 12.7 km of Fortress outer wall was built just in 6 month time (October in 1711). Haeng-gung (Korean: 행궁, Temporary Palace), was built in May 1712, and Jong-seong-mun, (Korean: 중성문), which was built to protect inner fortress and essential facilities, such as Haeng-gung or jung-heung-sa (Korean: 중흥사), was finished in 1714.[7]

Structure[edit]

Total length of Bukhansanseong Fortress is 12.7 km and total area of the Fortress is 6.2 km².[8] There were 6 great gates, 8 secret gates, 2 water gates, and 143 seong-rang (Korean: 성랑, sentry post)

Names of Bukhansanseong Gates
Korean English Classification
북문 Buk-mun North Gate
대서문 Dae-seo-mun Great West Gate
중성문 Jung-seong-mun Great Gate
대동문 Dae-dong-mun Great East Gate
대성문 Dae-seong-mun Great Gate
대남문 Dae-nam-mun Great South Gate
수문 Su-mun Water Gate and Secret Gate
서암문 Seo-'am-mun Secret Gate
백운봉암문 Baek-wun-bong-'am-mun Secret Gate
용암문 Yong-'am-mun Secret Gate
보국문 Bo-guk-mun Secret Gate
가사당암문 Ga-sa-dang-'am-mun Secret Gate
부왕동암문 Bu-wang-dong-'am-mun Secret Gate
청수동암문 Chung-su-dong-'am-mun Secret Gate

Bukhansanseong Fortress also has one Temporary Palace, three Jang-dae (Korean: 장대, Commanding Post), three Yu-young (Korean: 유영, Military Camp)for defensive purpose. Three different units were stationed in Bukhansanseong Fortress, called Sam-gun-mun (Hun-ryeong-do-gam, Geum-wei-young, and Eo-young-cheong). They were stationed in three different location within Bukhansanseong Fortress, and the main responsibility of those units was the protection of the Bukhansanseong Fortress.

Defensive Structures
Korean English Classification
행궁 Haeng-gung Temporary Palace
북장대지 Buk-jang-dae-ji Northern Commanding Post
남장대지 Nam-jang-dae-ji Southern Commanding Post
동장대 Dong-jang-dae Eastern Commanding Post
훈련도감 유영지 Hun-ryeong-do-gam Yu-young-ji Military Camp
금위영 유영지 Geum-wei-young Yu-young-ji Military Camp
어영청 유영지 Eo-young-cheong Yu-young-ji Military Camp

13 Buddhist temples were also established within the wall of Bukhansanseong Fortress for Buddhist monks soldiers. Only 6 Buddhist temples remain today, but all lost temples are designated as historical site.

Name of Buddhist Temple in Bukhansanseong Fortress
Korean English Classification
중흥사 (지) Jeung-heung-sa(ji) Buddhist Temple & Historical site
서암사(지) Seo-'am-sa(ji) Buddhist Temple & Historical site
태고사 Tae-go-sa Buddhist Temple
상운사 Sang-wun-sa Buddhist Temple
진국사(노적사) Jin-gook-sa(No-jeok-sa) Buddhist Temple (*reestablished and renamed)
봉선암 Bong-seong-'am Buddhist Temple
국녕사 Guk-nyeong-sa Buddhist Temple
용암사(지) Yong-'am-sa(ji) Buddhist Temple & Historical site
원각사(지) Won-gak-sa(ji) Buddhist Temple & Historical site
원효암 Won-hyo-'am Buddhist Temple
보광사(지) Bo-gwang-sa(ji) Buddhist Temple & Historical site
보국사(지) Bo-guk-sa(ji) Buddhist Temple & Historical site
부왕사(지) Bu-wang-sa(ji) Buddhist Temple & Historical site

In addition, 7 Armories, 99 wells, and 22 small reservoirs were under the control of Bukhansanseong Fortress.[9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Oh, Du-hwan (30 September 2010). "Lush trails for fall trekking season". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
  2. ^ "Conquering the mountains of Seoul". Joongang Daily. 14 July 2005. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
  3. ^ "Bukhansanseong Fortress (북한산성)". KOREA TOURISM ORGANIZATION. KOREA TOURISM ORGANIZATION. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
  4. ^ "Bukhansanseong Fortress". Bukhansanseong Fortress. Culture Heritage Administration Korea. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
  5. ^ "Bukhansanseong". Bukhanssanseong Cultural Business Division Blog. Bukhansanseong Cultural Business Division. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
  6. ^ 재범, 이 (25 November 2011). 북한산 조사 연구 자료집. Suwon: GeyongGi Cultural Foundation. p. 51. ISBN 978-89-89553-74-8.
  7. ^ "중성문 Jong-seong-mun". Bukhansanseong Cultural Business Division Blog. Bukhansanseong Cultural Business Division. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
  8. ^ "북한산성 Bukhansanseong". Bukhansanseong Cultural Business Division Blog. Bukhansanseong Cultural Business Division. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
  9. ^ "북한산성 Bukhansanseong". Bukhansanseong Cultural Business Division Blog. Bukhansanseong Cultural Business Division. Retrieved 7 April 2015.

Coordinates: 37°38′42″N 126°59′04″E / 37.6451°N 126.9845°E / 37.6451; 126.9845