Bukola Saraki

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Sen. Dr.

Bukola Saraki
Senator Saraki (8509524281).jpg
Saraki with Foreign Office Minister Mark Simmonds in London, 26 February 2013.
President of the Nigerian Senate
Assumed office
9 June 2015
DeputyIke Ekweremadu
Preceded byDavid Mark
Governor of Kwara State
In office
29 May 2003 – 29 May 2011
Preceded byMohammed Alabi Lawal
Succeeded byAbdulfatah Ahmed
Senator for Kwara Central
Assumed office
29 May 2011
Preceded byGbemisola Saraki
Personal details
Born
Olubukola Abubakar Saraki

(1962-12-19) 19 December 1962 (age 56)
NationalityNigerian
Political partyPeople's Democratic Party
Spouse(s)Toyin Saraki
ParentsOlusola Saraki
Alma materLondon Hospital Medical College
OccupationMedical Doctor, Politician

Olubukola Abubakar Saraki (born 19 December 1962) is a Nigerian politician who has been the President of Nigeria's Senate since 2015. Previously he was the Governor of Kwara State under the platform of the PDP (People's Democratic Party) from 2003 to 2011. He devastatingly lost the 2019 election. He was first elected to the Senate in April 2011, also under the platform of the PDP, representing the Kwara Central senatorial district, and then re-elected in the March 2015 election, under the platform of the APC (All Progressive Congress). He decamped back to his former party, the People's Democratic Party, on 31 July 2018. [1] Saraki declared his intention to vie for the Office of President of Nigeria, under the People’s Democratic Party (PDP).[2] but lost to Atiku Abubakar, he was subsequently announced as the DG of Atiku’s Presidential Campaign Council.[3]

Early life and education[edit]

Olubukola Abubakar Saraki was born on 19 December,1962 to the family of Olusola Saraki, a senator (1979–1983) and a one time Senate Leader of the Federal Republic of Nigeria and his mother Florence Morenike Saraki. He attended Corona School in Victoria Island, Lagos before proceeding to King's College, Lagos, from 1973 to 1978, and Cheltenham College in the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1981 for his High School Certificate. He then studied at the London Hospital Medical College of the University of London from 1982 to 1987, where he obtained his M.B.B.S (London).[4]

Career[edit]

Saraki worked as a medical officer at Rush Green Hospital, Essex, from 1988 to 1989. He was a director of Société Générale Bank (Nig) Ltd from 1990 to 2000.[5]

In 2000, President Olusegun Obasanjo appointed Saraki as Special Assistant to the President on Budget.[6] During his tenure, Saraki initiated the Fiscal Responsibility Bill. Saraki also served on the Economic Policy Coordination Committee, where he was responsible for the formulation and implementation of several key economic policies for Nigeria.[7]

Governor of Kwara State[edit]

In 2003, he ran for the office of governor of Kwara State on the platform of the People’s Democratic Party (PDP), and won. He was sworn into office in May 2003. He ran again for re-election in 2007 and won his second term. [8] As governor of Kwara, he led reforms in agriculture, health, education, finance and environment policy. One of his major achievements was inviting displaced white farmers from Zimbabwe to Kwara State and offering them an opportunity to farm. This led to the establishment of Shonga Farms programme, which is now being replicated across Nigeria.[9]He was also appointed as the chairman of the Nigeria Governors' forum.[10]

Power generation and electricity[edit]

Under Saraki, Kwara became the first state to complete the Nigeria Independent Power Project. In collaboration with the Power Holding Company of Nigeria, Saraki re-energised the Ganmo Power Station at Ilorin, and connected over 3750 rural communities to the national grid through the development and installation of 725 transformers and 7 substations.[11] Kwara also completed 4 electrification projects which meant power became stable 18–22 hours a day. 90% of people living in Kwara have access to electricity, compared to a national average in Nigeria of 30%.[12]

Primary health care[edit]

While in office, Saraki introduced new health programmes, including a statewide campaign in 2008 to reduce maternal and child mortality from malaria. This included distribution of insecticide-treated nets and free malaria drugs to pregnant mothers and to children under the age of five.[13] A statewide programme of hospital development was also implemented, leading to the redevelopment of hospitals in Afon, Patigi and Lafiagi. Other measures included improved training and re-training for medical staff; refurbishment of hospitals and staff living quarters; and employment of qualified medical doctors and other health workers. Many of the primary care programmes were sponsored by international agencies such as WHO and UNICEF.[14]

Agriculture and farming[edit]

Saraki introduced agricultural policy reforms to increase the commercial viability of farming, and also the volume of exports to international markets. The New Nigerian Farmers Initiative was designed to improve the technical capability of farmers and to ensure farmers had a significant financial stake in new investment in agriculture. The scheme utilised the under-used agricultural expertise in the Zimbabwean farming industry, and worked with Zimbabwe's Commercial Farmers' Union to identify highly skilled farmers able to support Nigeria’s farming industry and to move to Kwara and develop the farming industry.[15][16] A commercial hub was also developed[when?] to build capacity support training for the indigenous farming community.

Infrastructure development[edit]

Saraki led significant and statewide infrastructure development, including improvements at the Ilorin International Airport Cargo Terminal, extensive road construction, and development of new sporting facilities such as Kwara Football Academy. [17]

Chairman of the Nigeria Governors Forum[edit]

Saraki became chairman of the Nigeria Governors Forum in 2007. Under Saraki’s Chairmanship, a reformed Forum was established, with a fully resourced secretariat, with a technical and administrative division that was entirely focused on delivery.[clarification needed] Under Saraki’s chairmanship, new processes such as the State Peer Review Mechanism were developed to ensure closer working and collaboration, and that best practices could be shared between states. The mechanism allowed case studies to be shared between states in a number of policy fields. including power projects, primary healthcare centres for villages and other rural locations, roadworks, water, solar schemes and the construction of specialist hospitals and state universities. Projects such as these had previously remained undisclosed.

Polio immunisation and the Immunisation Leadership Challenge[edit]

The Forum developed better and more extensive polio immunisation in Nigeria. A key part of this was the introduction in 2011 of the Immunisation Leadership Challenge. The Challenge was designed to reward states in Nigeria that made significant improvements in polio and routine immunisation coverage by the end of 2012.[18][19]

Observing the effects of the election cycle[clarification needed], the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation drove the challenge – launched in partnership with the NGF – which pledged to award US $500,000 to states that met a pre-defined threshold of improvement. The overall objective was to fast-track achievement of the milestone of interrupting further transmission of the wild polio virus in Nigeria. The grant would be used to support governors' top health priorities, including malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV prevention and treatment, safe drinking water and hygiene programmes. The Gates Foundation also promised to match contributions by states to their chosen health project up to US $250,000. By the end of 2012 the number of polio cases dropped by about 50%.[20]

The NGF and Global Development Partners[edit]

Under Dr Saraki’s chairmanship a number of Memoranda of Understanding (MOUs) have been signed, including but not limited to the World Bank, DFID, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, GAVI, UNICEF, UNDP.[21]

Senatorial career[edit]

After two term tenure as governor of Kwara State, Bukola Saraki ran for the office of Senator, representing the Kwara Central Senatorial District. He won, succeeding his sister, Gbemisola Saraki-Forowa. He was appointed as the Chairman of the Senate Committee on Environment and Ecology and is also a member of the Senate Committee on Capital Markets and Finance. He pushed a motion in the Senate to end the fuel subsidy regime in Nigeria, which has been an excessive waste of the country’s national resources.[22]

Senator Saraki has campaigned extensively on health, food security, education and the environment. He has argued for strengthened laws on the clean up of oil spills. His National Oil Spill and Detection and Response Agency Amendment Bill seeks to ensure oil companies pay appropriate levels of compensation to communities affected by oil spills.[when?]

Saraki intervened in the lead poisoning crisis in Zamfara State in 2010,[23] and has supported to the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, which ensures safe and healthy methods of cooking for millions of Nigerians while conserving the environment through reduced deforestation.[24] He has been a lead campaigner in the areas of desertification and climate change in the Senate and across Nigeria.[25] Saraki sponsored a motion on the floor of the Senate to end Nigeria’s fuel subsidy regime. Other motions and private member bills he has sponsored include the National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency Amendment Bill 2012, which was aimed at putting a halt to oil spills in the Niger Delta, the Gas Flaring Prohibition Bill 2012 and the Climate Change Commission Bill 2013.[26]

Saraki expressed regret after his supporters died in a human stampede at his residence. This was not the first time that people had been killed during his family's habit of distributing money and food to their supporters.[27]

Senate Presidency[edit]

After his re-election in the 2015 general elections, Saraki was on 9 June 2015 elected unopposed as President of the Senate by an across the party alliance comprising PDP and APC Senators. Saraki had faced stiff opposition from Senator Ahmed Ibrahim Lawan who was a preferred candidate by a group of senators-elect within the APC.[28] His deputy, Senator Ike Ekweremadu, emerged after a tightly contested election.

Senator Bukola Saraki and a delegation of Senators visited Maiduguri, Borno State on 3 August 2015 to get an on-ground assessment of the damage done in the north-eastern part of Nigeria by terrorist group Boko Haram and to give hope to internally displaced persons. The delegation was the first of its kind by the leadership of the Senate since the insurgency began.[29]

Saraki is currently a member of the People's Democratic Party (PDP) and was previously a member of the All Progressives Congress (APC). He defected from the All Progressives Congress on 31 July 2018, some days after 14 Senators defected to the opposition People's Democratic Party (PDP). [30] He blamed his defection on intolerance of the influential persons of his former party.[31]

Over the past 3 years, the Nigerian Senate under his leadership has surpassed all Senates in Nigeria's history, passing 201 bills and clearing 138 public petitions. Recently, the Petroleum Industry Governance Bill which was passed by the Nigerian Senate was rejected by President Muhammadu Buhari stating that it reduces the President's powers. The bill had been passed by the Nigerian National Assembly to promote transparency and accountability in the industry.[32] Senator Bukola Saraki contested the Peoples Democratic Party's presidential primaries in a bid to become Nigeria's president but lost to former Vice President of Nigeria, Atiku Abubakar.[33] [34]


In the February, 2019 elections, Saraki lost his Senatorial seat to APC's Dr. Ibrahim Oloriegbe. He polled a total of 68,994 votes against Oloriegbe's 123,808 votes in the four Local Government Areas of Kwara Central Senatorial District, leaving a margin of 54,814 votes.[35][36]

International work and appointments[edit]

In 2012, Saraki was appointed onto the leadership council of the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, an initiative led by the United Nations Foundation supporting public-private partnerships to create a market for clean cooking stoves and fuels. In 2013, Saraki established GLOBE Nigeria as an affiliate of the Global Legislators Organisation for a Balanced Environment (GLOBE International), establishing a platform for legislators to advance environmental and sustainable development laws in Nigeria. He currently serves as GLOBE Nigeria’s President.[37] Saraki has also spoken and campaigned internationally on issues such as better governance, deforestation and economic development.On April 19, 2019 Dr. Abubakar Bukola Saraki, was appointed the “Ambassador-at-Large” of the International Human Rights Commission (IHRC).[38]

Code of Conduct Tribunal[edit]

The Code of Conduct Bureau cited a 13-count charge of corruption against Saraki. In charge number ABT/01/15, dated 11 September 2015 and filed before the Code of Conduct Tribunal, Saraki is accused of offences ranging from anticipatory declaration of assets to making false declaration of assets in forms Saraki had filed with the Code of Conduct Bureau while he was governor of Kwara state. He was also accused of failing to declare some assets he acquired while in office as governor, acquiring assets beyond his legitimate earnings, and accused of operating foreign accounts while being a public officer.[39]

An official of the Code of Conduct Bureau, Peter Danladi, stated in a court affidavit that the investigation of the various petitions of corruption, theft, money laundering, among others, against Saraki in 2010, was conducted jointly by the officials of the EFCC, CCB and the DSS. “The EFCC conducted its investigation on the various petitions and made findings which showed that the defendant/applicant abused his office, while he was the governor of Kwara State and was involved in various acts of corruption as the governor of the state. The defendant/applicant borrowed huge sums of money running into billions from commercial banks, particularly Guaranty Trust Bank, and used the proceeds of the loan to acquire several landed properties in Lagos, Abuja and London, while he was the governor of Kwara State. [40][41][42]

Arrest Warrants Against Saraki[edit]

Bukola Saraki became the first Senate President in Nigeria to be issued with arrest warrants, when Danladi Umar, Chairman of the Code Of Conduct Tribunal, issued an arrest warrant against Saraki on 18 September 2015.[42]

Saraki's 79-Lawyer Legal Team[edit]

On 18 March 2016, Kanu Godwin Agabi, Saraki's lead counsel and ex-attorney general of Nigeria, led a delegation of 79 lawyers to defend Saraki at the tribunal.[43]

Corruption charges indictment by EFCC[edit]

The EFCC has reportedly indicted the Senate President, Bukola Saraki and some of his aides in the alleged laundering of up to N3.5 billion from the Paris Club Loan Refund. The EFCC investigation was presented to President Buhari in a report delivered on 10 March, five days before the senate rejected acting EFCC chairman, Ibrahim Magu. However, in a swift reaction, Special Adviser on Media and Publicity to Saraki, Yusuph Olaniyonu, in a statement released, denied the claims.[44][45]

Discharge and Acquittal at CCT[edit]

On Wednesday, 14 June 2017, the Code of Conduct Tribunal (CCT) sitting in Abuja discharged and acquitted Saraki, in the 18 count charge of corruption in the false declaration of assets charge brought against him in September 2015 by the federal government.

The tribunal held that the evidence proffered against Saraki by the federal government was bereft of probate value and manifestly unreliable to hold the charges against the defendant. The chairman of the tribunal Danladi Umar said the prosecution at the close of the case failed to establish a prima facie case against the defendant. Umar said the four witnesses called by the prosecution to testify in the matter gave contradictory evidence that were manifestly unreliable to convict the defendant or order him to enter his defense.[46]

Umar further said that the report of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) put at the disposal of the tribunal was more of intelligence gathering rather than conventional investigation.

Umar said that the defendant was never invited or be made to make statement so that truth can be unearthed if there are allegations against him.[47]

Court of Appeal Decision on Corruption Allegations[edit]

Although the CCT judgment discharged Saraki of all 18 count charges on grounds that the prosecution failed to prove its allegations beyond reasonable doubt, the Federal Government of Nigeria, unexpectedly filed an appeal. The Court of Appeal then ordered the tribunal to try Saraki on three out of the 18 counts amended charges bordering on false declaration of assets brought against him by the Federal Government. The Appeal Court also held that the prosecution failed to adduce evidence to substantiate the 15 of the counts preferred against Saraki.[48]

Discharge and Acquittal by Supreme Court of Nigeria on Corruption Allegations[edit]

On Friday, 6 July 2018, the Supreme Court of the Federal Republic of Nigeria dismissed all 18 charges of corruption and false asset declaration brought against the Senate President, Dr. Abubakar Bukola Saraki, by the Federal Government, following his election as Senate President. In a judgement on 6 July, a five-member panel of the Supreme Court, led by Justice Dattijo Mohammed, held that the decision of the appeal court to agree with the tribunal in one breath and order Mr Saraki’s return to the CCT in another, amounted to a “judicial summersault.” Therefore, the court affirmed the June 2017 decision of the Code of Conduct Tribunal which ruled that the prosecution failed to prove the case against Dr. Saraki. [49]

Personal life[edit]

Bukola Saraki is married to Toyin (née Ojora) Saraki. They have four children together.[50]

Saraki was made the Turaki of the Fulani emirate of Ilorin during his tenure as governor.[51] A Turaki is an officer at court in the Hausa-Fulani kingdoms.

A number of years later, the Emir of Ilorin elevated him to the position of Waziri (or Prime Minister) of Ilorin.[52]

Controversy[edit]

Paradise Papers[edit]

In November 2017 an investigation conducted by the International Consortium of Investigative Journalism cited his name in the list of politicians named in "Paradise Papers" allegations.[53]

According to data released as part of the Panama Papers, Landfield International Developments Limited and Renocon Property Development Limited were controlled by Bukola Saraki but at the time of these revelations, none of these offshore holdings were reported in Saraki’s official asset declarations.[54]

Offa Robbery Attack[edit]

On April 5, 2018 some armed robbers attacked five commercial banks in Offa community, Kwara State, killing at least 30 persons, including police officers, Bukola Saraki was invited by the Nigeria Police for questioning -- due to a plot by an erstwhile Inspector General of Police to implicate him -- but he was later cleared of all charges.[55]

Awards[edit]

  • Saraki was the first serving Nigerian governor to be awarded the National Honor of Commander of the Order of the Niger (CON) in 2010. Other former governors also received the award that year.[56]
  • Outstanding Leadership Award was conferred on Saraki by the Governor of Kwara State, Abdulfatah Ahmed on 27 May 2017 (Saraki is one of eighteen former Governors to receive the award).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Why I decamp from APC to PDP – Bukola Saraki". Retrieved 31 July 2018.
  2. ^ "UPDATED: Saraki declares his intention to run for presidency". Retrieved 30 August 2018.
  3. ^ "Saraki named Atiku's Presidential Campaign Council DG". Retrieved 16 October 2018.
  4. ^ "Bukola Saraki: Profile Of An Ambitious Political Gatekeeper". Retrieved 21 August 2018.
  5. ^ "Dr. Abubakar Bukola Saraki". Dr. Abubakar Bukola Saraki. Archived from the original on 8 April 2010. Retrieved 6 December 2009.
  6. ^ "Bukola Saraki: Epitome of service, standard and pace-setting at 50". The Sun. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
  7. ^ "Senator (Dr.) Abubakar Bukola Saraki". www.senatepresident.gov.ng.
  8. ^ "Opinion: The Past, Present and Future of the Saraki Dynasty - Ilorin, Kwara News". www.ilorin.info.
  9. ^ Okogba, Emmanuel (2 June 2017). "Food security challenge: From Kwara, a lifeline model". Vanguard News Nigeria.
  10. ^ "History". www.nggovernorsforum.org.
  11. ^ "In Rural Areas, Life Can Get Better". ThisDay. Archived from the original on 29 April 2015. Retrieved 2 September 2010.
  12. ^ "PDP crisis: Saraki denies asking for immunity from EFCC probe". Premium Times. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
  13. ^ "FLAG-OFF OF MALARIA-FREE KWARA". Ilorin.info. Retrieved 22 September 2008.
  14. ^ "UNICEF pledges support to eradicate Polio in Kwara State". Ilorin.info. Retrieved 10 March 2010.
  15. ^ "Farming Future: Lessons from Kwara". Think Africa Press. Archived from the original on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
  16. ^ "Zimbabwe farmers a boon for Nigerian agriculture". Reuters. Retrieved 19 November 2009.
  17. ^ "Investment Opportunity in Kwara State". Investor.ng. Retrieved 24 March 2014.
  18. ^ "Nigerian Governors Sign Up to Immunization Leadership Challenge". Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
  19. ^ "36 Govs sign up for polio eradication leadership challenge". Vanguard. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
  20. ^ "Bill Gates Visits Nigeria On Polio Eradication Drive As Polio Cases Drop 50%". Forbes. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
  21. ^ Admin. "The Secretariat". NG Governors Forum. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  22. ^ "Nigeria: Fuel Subsidy Probe - Saraki in the Eyes of the Storm". Premium Times. Retrieved 29 April 2012.
  23. ^ Eribake, Akintayo (13 March 2010). "Yar’Adua’s incapacitation : What do State Governors want?".
  24. ^ "Lead poison: Saraki seeks quick remediation of Zamfara community". Punch. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2013.
  25. ^ "Senate raises alarm over desertification, erosion and flooding". Vanguard. Retrieved 6 June 2012.
  26. ^ "Fuel subsidy: Saraki seeks Senate's probe". Vanguard. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
  27. ^ "Ilorin Sallah tragedy, Bukola Saraki still in shock as death toll rises". Economium Nigeria. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
  28. ^ "Saraki emerges new Senate President - Vanguard News". Retrieved 9 June 2015.
  29. ^ "Saraki Arrives Maiduguri, Expected To Visit IDP Camps". Retrieved 3 August 2015.
  30. ^ "Saraki finally dumps APC". Retrieved 31 July 2018.
  31. ^ Press, Fellow (31 July 2018). "Why I left APC- Saraki - Fellow Press". Fellow Press. Retrieved 7 August 2018.
  32. ^ "PIGB: FDI suffers setback as Buhari rejects bill". The Sun Nigeria. Retrieved 28 September 2018.
  33. ^ "BREAKING: 2019: Saraki formally declares for presidency". Premium Times Nigeria. 30 August 2018. Retrieved 20 October 2018.
  34. ^ Ebuzor, Chika. "Atiku Abubakar wins PDP presidential primary, to face Buhari in 2019". Retrieved 20 October 2018.
  35. ^ "IT'S OFFICIAL: Saraki will not return to senate". Oak TV Newstrack. oak tv. 25 February 2019. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
  36. ^ Published. "2019 Election: Saraki loses Senate seat to APC's Oloriegbe". Punch Newspapers. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
  37. ^ "Saraki chairs study session at German Parliament". The Herald. Archived from the original on 29 April 2015. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
  38. ^ "Saraki appointment Ambassador-at-Large" of the International Human Rights Commission (IHRC)". TonyGutsy. 28 May 2019. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
  39. ^ "Code of Conduct Tribunal orders Saraki's arrest - Premium Times Nigeria". premiumtimesng.com. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
  40. ^ "How Saraki looted Kwara – EFCC, CCB - The Nation Nigeria". thenationonlineng.net. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
  41. ^ "Alleged Corruption: I'm ready to cooperate with EFCC - Saraki's wife - Premium Times Nigeria". premiumtimesng.com. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
  42. ^ a b "Africa highlights: Friday 18 September 2015 as it happened - BBC News | BBC - Arrest order issued for Nigeria's senate president". bbc.com. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
  43. ^ "Nigeria's Senate President Corruption Trial: 80 Lawyers Appear For Saraki At The Code of Conduct Tribunal | Sahara Reporters". saharareporters.com. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
  44. ^ "EXCLUSIVE: How EFCC linked Saraki, aides to N3.5 billion Paris Club refund". premiumtimes.com. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
  45. ^ "Saraki denies EFCC's claim that he used his aides to launder N3.5 billion Paris Club Loan Refund". lindaikejisblog.com. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
  46. ^ "False Asset Declaration Charge: Saraki discharged, acquitted - Premium Times Nigeria". premiumtimesng.com. 14 June 2017. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
  47. ^ "CCT discharge and acquit Saraki of false asset declaration charge - BusinessDay : News you can trust". businessdayonline.com. 14 June 2017. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
  48. ^ "Saraki: Appeal Court upholds CCT decision on 15 counts, disagree on 3 - NigerianTribune". Tribune. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  49. ^ "Supreme Court frees Saraki, dismisses remnant assets declaration charges - Punch". punchng.com/. 6 July 2018. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  50. ^ "Toyin Ojora Saraki".
  51. ^ "Bukola Saraki: Sustaining a family's political heritage | The Guardian Nigeria Newspaper - Nigeria and World NewsPolitics — The Guardian Nigeria Newspaper – Nigeria and World News".
  52. ^ Admin. "PHOTOS: Saraki steps into father's shoes, becomes new Wazirin Ilorin". The Cable. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  53. ^ "Explore The Politicians in the Paradise Papers - ICIJ". ICIJ. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  54. ^ "UNEXPLAINED WEALTH ORDERS IN USE: HERE'S AT LEAST 5 CASES THE POLICE SHOULD CONSIDER TODAY!". Transparency International UK. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
  55. ^ "Offa robbery: Court summons Saraki over fresh criminal complaint".
  56. ^ "186 Nigerians to receive National Honours". Nigeria Exchange. Retrieved 30 June 2010.

External links[edit]