Jump to content

Bulleh Shah

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bulleh Shāh
بُلّھے شاہ
Syed Abdullah Shah Qadri

c. 1680
Diedc. 1757 (aged 77)
Kasur, Bhangi Misl (present-day Punjab, Pakistan)
Resting placeKasur, Punjab, Pakistan
  • Shah Muhammad Darvesh (father)
  • Fatima Bibi (mother)
Main interest(s)
TeachersShah Inayat Qadiri
TariqaQadri Shattari
Senior posting

Sayyid Abdullāh Shāh Qādrī (Punjabi: سید عبداللہ شاہ قادری; [səˈjəd̪ əbdʊllaːɦ ʃaːɦ qaːdɾiː]), known by his pen names Bulleh Shāh (بُلّھے شاہ)[a] and Bulleyā (بُلّھیا), was a Punjabi revolutionary philosopher, reformer and poet who is regarded as one of the most important figures in Punjabi literature and is revered as the "Father of Punjabi Enlightenment". His writings have continued to influence the Punjabi literature for centuries. He was critical of powerful religious, political and social institutions; and is regarded as the "Poet of the People" (لوکاں دا شاعر) and "Sheikh of Both Worlds" (دوۓ جہاناں دا شیخ).[1][2]

He lived and was buried in Kasur (present-day Punjab, Pakistan).[3]

He is regarded as the "Poet of the People,"[4] and the "Sheikh of Both Worlds" in the Punjab region.[5]

His poetry marked a new era in Punjabi literature and spread a wave of reformist ideas throughout the Punjab, which included social, religious and political reforms. His poetry has been sung at many important events, including one organized by UNESCO.[5]


Early life and education[edit]

He was born around 1680 in Uch, Multan province, Mughal Empire (present-day Punjab, Pakistan) in a Sayyid family.

Bulleh Shah's father, Shah Muhammad Darwaish, was well-versed in Arabic, Persian, and the Quran.[6] For unknown reasons he moved to Malakwal, a village near Sahiwal. Bulleh Shah had at least one sister who was also Sufi.[6][7] Both siblings never married.[7] According to another account, he had two sisters and none of them ever married.[8]

Later, when Bulleh Shah was six years old, his family moved to Pandoke, which is 50 miles southeast of Kasur. Bulleh Shah was schooled by his father along with the other children of the village. Most sources confirm that Bulleh Shah had to work as a child and adolescent herder in the village. It is confirmed that he received his higher education in Kasur. Some historians claim that Bulleh Shah received his education at a highly reputed madrassa run by Hafiz Ghulam Murtaza where he taught for some time after his graduation. After his early education, he went to Lahore where he studied with Shah Inayat Qadiri, a Sufi murshid of Lahore.[2][9] Bulleh Shah later became an eminent scholar of Arabic and Persian.[6]

Bulleh Shah was a peasant by profession.[7]


There is a fort-like Gurdwara in Daftuh that was built in the 18th century by the Sikh chieftain Bibi Isher Kaur who donated 80 Squares of lands for its construction.[10][11] Bulleh Shah took refuge in the Gurdwara after a group of Islamic fundamentalists had got after his life.[12][11]

In his bad times, when even his family looked down upon him (for accepting a lower-caste Shah Inayat Qadiri as a teacher), his sister loved him and stood with him.[7][6]

During his lifetime, he was outcast as kafir (non-Muslim) by some Muslim clerics.[13][14]


He died in 1757, at the age of 77.[15] He was declared non-Muslim by religious fundamentalists of Kasur who had claimed it was prohibited to offer the prayer at his funeral. He was buried in Kasur, where he had spent most of his life. His funeral prayer was led by Syed Zahid Hamdani, a renowned religious personality of Kasur.[16] A dargah was built over his grave.


Bulleh Shah lived after the Punjabi Sufi poet and saint Fariduddin Ganjshakar (1179–1266) and lived in the same period as other Punjabi Sufi poet Sultan Bahu (1629–1691). His lifespan also overlapped with the Punjabi poet Waris Shah (1722–1799) who is famous for Heer Ranjha, the Sindhi Sufi poet Sachal Sarmast (1739–1829) and the Pashtun poet Khushal Khattak (1613–1689). Amongst Urdu poets, Bulleh Shah lived 400 miles away from Mir Taqi Mir (1723–1810) of Delhi.[16]

Bulleh Shah practised the Sufi tradition of Punjabi poetry established by poets like Shah Hussain (1538–1599), Sultan Bahu (1629–1691), and Shah Sharaf (1640–1724).[16]

The verse form Bulleh Shah primarily employed is the Kafi, popular in Punjabi and Sindhi poetry.[2] His poetry is a mixture of traditional mystic thought and intellectualism.[17]

Many people have put his Kafis to music, from humble street-singers to renowned Sufi singers like Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, Fareed Ayaz, Pathanay Khan, Abida Parveen, the Waddali Brothers and Sain Zahoor, from the synthesised techno qawwali remixes of UK-based Asian artists to the Pakistani rock band Junoon.[15]

Among the most distinguished persons to be influenced by Bulleh Shah's poetry had been Muhammad Iqbal.[18] It is maintained that Iqbal took his last breath while listening to his kafi.[19][20]

He is the "most famous and celebrated" Punjabi poet[21] and is widely recognized as "poet par excellence".[22] A sample of his poetic work is presented below:

Verse 1:

"The mullah and the torch-bearer

Hail from the same stock;

They give light to others,

And themselves are in the dark."[23]

Verse 2:

"Let anyone who calls me Sayyid be punished

with the tortures of hell;

And let him revel in the pleasures of heaven,

who labels me an Arain."[24]

Philosophy and views[edit]

Bulleh Shah's non-orthodox views and simple language played important role in popularization of his poetry. It has been noted in literature that "one reason for his all-time popularity is relatively modern vocabulary."[25] Among the core tenets of his philosophy includes humanism, equality, tolerance, rejection of double standards, and defiance of the authority of Ulama and blind faith in their authority. For his criticism of replication of beliefs (blind faith and following), the "Oxford Textbook of Spirituality in Healthcare" compared Bulleh Shah with Percy Bysshe Shelley.[26] For his "ruthless [analysis of] human society" and an "unending quest" to change it, he is often compared with Karl Marx.[27] Among major taboos in his philosophy was reciting words without comprehending them.[28] He was a reformer with very much conscious of the contemporary religious, political and social situations.[17][29]

In Bulleh Shah's poetry, Sufism can be seen as an indigenous philosophy of political activism and class struggle[30] and resistance to powerful institutions like religion and imperialism.[1] Through his poems he spoke against "religious, political and social patriarchal high handedness" of his time.[31] This side of his poetry is evident from his defying of the imperial ban on dancing and singing,[32] and support for Sikhs, in general, and Guru Tegh Bahadur[33] and Guru Gobind Singh,[34] in particular, in their struggle against the imperialist Mughal Empire. Thus, his version of Sufism is usually considered opposite to that of Ali Hajweri and other 'more spiritual' sufis who were confined to their libraries and schools and rarely participated in public discourse.[13]

Bulleh Shah was a "revolutionary" and "rebel" poet who spoke against powerful religious, political and social institutions of his time[1][3][31] and, thus, his influence can be seen on many noted socialists, progressives and workers and women rights activists like Jam Saqi,[30] Taimur Rahman,[35] Bhagat Singh,[31] Faiz Ahmad Faiz,[36][37] Madeeha Gauhar,[38] and Major Ishaque Muhammad.[39]

Humanism is one of the key attributes of the life and works of Bulleh Shah.[40]

Modern renderings[edit]

Bands and albums[edit]

In the 1990s, Junoon, a rock band from Pakistan, rendered his poems "Bullah Ki Jaana" and "Aleph" ("Ilmon Bas Kareen O Yaar"). In 2004, Indian musician Rabbi Shergill turned the classical poem "Bullah Ki Jaana" into a rock/fusion song in his debut album Rabbi; the song was a chart-topper in 2005, helping the album to eventually sell over 10,000 copies and became immensely popular in India and Pakistan.[41][42]

The Wadali Bandhu, a Punjabi Sufi group from India, have also released a version of "Bullah Ki Jaana" in their album Aa Mil Yaar... Call of the Beloved. They also worked with British-Punjabi music composer, Mukhtar Sahota, to create their own rendition of a famous Punjabi folk song, "Charkha" which was released in May 2007.[43] Another version was performed by Lakhwinder Wadali and entitled "Bullah".[citation needed] Dama Dam Mast Qalandar, a qawwali composed in honour of Shahbaz Qalandar, has been one of Bulleh Shah's most popular poems and has been frequently rendered by many Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi singers including Noor Jehan, Ustad Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, Abida Parveen, Sabri Brothers, Wadali brothers, Reshman and Runa Laila. Other qawwali songs by Bulleh Shah, include "Sade Vehre Aya Kar" and "Mera Piya Ghar Aaya".[15] In 2008, a version of Bulleh Shah's famous verse, Aao Saiyo Ral Deyo Ni Wadhai, was sung by Shafqat Amanat Ali Khan, for his debut solo album, Tabeer. Ali named the song "Bulleh Shah" in honor of the poet.

Also in 2016, a collaboration between two EDM artists (Headhunterz and Skytech) named "Kundalini" used words created by Bulleh Shah, as well as having the words Bulleh Shah in the lyrics.[44] Bulleh Shah's verses have been an inspiration to painters as well, as in the two series of paintings (Jogia Dhoop and Shah Shabad) by an Indian painter Geeta Vadhera inspired by the poetry of Bulleh Shah and other Sufi poets and saints. In 2017, British-Pakistani singer Yasir Akhtar used Bulleh Shah's poetry in his song "Araam Naal Kar – Take it Easy".[45][46] In 2019, Sona Mohapatra used a verse of Bulleh Shah in her song "R.A.T. Mashup".[citation needed]


The 1973 movie Bobby song by Narendra Chanchal starts with the verse Beshaq mandir masjid todo, Bulleh Shah ye kahta. Some of Bulleh Shah's verses, including "Tere Ishq Nachaya", have been adapted and used in Bollywood film songs including "Chaiyya Chaiyya" and "Thayya Thayya" in the 1998 film Dil Se.., "Tere Ishq Nachaya" in the 2002 film Shaheed-E-Azam and "Ranjha Ranjha" in the 2010 film Raavan.[15] The 2007 Pakistani movie Khuda Kay Liye includes Bulleh Shah's poetry in the song "Bandeya Ho". The 2008 Bollywood film, A Wednesday, included a song titled "Bulle Shah, O Yaar Mere". In 2014, Ali Zafar sung some of his verses as "Chal Buleya" for Bollywood soundtrack album Total Siyapaa, and the song was reprised by Zafar same year in Pakistan Idol.[47] The 2016 Bollywood films "Sultan" and Ae Dil Hai Mushkil feature the song "Bulleya", sung by Papon and Amit Mishra respectively, which is short for Bulleh Shah.[citation needed] Poetry of Bulleh Shah was also used in 2015 film Wedding Pullav composed by Salim–Sulaiman.[15] A song "Hun Kis Theen" based on his poetry was also featured in Punjabi animated film Chaar Sahibzaade: Rise of Banda Singh Bahadur.[48] In the 1998 Bollywood film Dil Se one of the more popular songs chal chaiya chaiya is actually a rendition of the popular Bulleh Shah kalam Tera ishq nachaya bol thaiyya thaiyya. The film starred Bollywood actors Shah Rukh Khan and Malaika Arora. The song was composed and produced by A. R. Rahman, the lyricist was Gulzar. The singer were Sukhwinder Singh and Sapna Awasthi.

Coke Studio (Pakistan)[edit]

In 2009, the season 2 of Coke Studio featured "Aik Alif" performed by Sain Zahoor and Noori. Ali Zafar also used some of Bulleh Shah and Shah Hussain's verses in his "Dastan-e-Ishq".[49] In 2010, the season 3 featured "Na Raindee Hai" and "Makke Gayaan Gal Mukdi Nahi" performed by Arieb Azhar. In 2012, Shah's poetry was featured with Hadiqa Kiani performing "Kamlee".[50] In 2016, Ahmed Jahanzeb and Umair Jaswal performed "Khaki Banda";[51] and Rizwan Butt and Sara Haider performed "Meri Meri",[52] In third episode of season 11 Fareed Ayaz, Abu Muhammad Qawal & Brothers performed a Qawwali based on Kalam by Bulleh Shah.[53] In season 12 Hadiqa Kiani used verses of Bulleh Shah in the song "Daachi Waaleya".[54]


Academic and literary circles

The journalist Najam Sethi attempted to translate the verses of Bulleh Shah into English.[55] However, his friend Taufiq Rafat published the finest translation of Bulleh Shah's selected poems.[55]

The work of Bulleh Shah influenced and inspired many other poets and artists, such as Muhammad Iqbal, Faiz Ahmad Faiz, Ali Arshad Mir, and Mian Muhammad Bakhsh.[56]


In 2012, the government of Punjab, most populous province of Pakistan, renamed an important road in the provincial capital Lahore to "Bulleh Shah Road".[57] In 2021, the government of Pakistan also approved his name for a road in the country.[58] Pakistan's "largest renewable packaging facility" is also named after him.[59] There is a housing community in Kasur called "Bulleh Shah Colony." Also, a road in Kasur is called "Baba Bulleh Shah Road." A roadway junction on Lahore Ring Road is called "Bulleh Shah Interchange." In 2023, a public hospital in Kasur was renamed to "Baba Bulleh Shah Hospital."[60][61]

An educational institute called "Bulleh Shah Institute" is operating in Badhni Kalan, India, since 2003. Another educational institute called "Bulleh Shah Law College" (affiliated with University of the Punjab) operates in Kasur.[62] In 2007, Pakistani senator Chaudhry Manzoor Ahmed raised the proposal for establishment of Bulleh Shah University in Kasur.[63][64] In 2023, the National Assembly of Pakistan passed a bill, proposed by Asiya Azeem, for the establishment of "Bulleh Shah International University" in Kasur.[65]

The renowned Pakistani businessman Syed Babar Ali mentioned Bulleh Shah in his autobiography, and the role played by his team in publishing his works.[66]


In the 1960s and 1970s, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto exploited the rising popularity of the ideas of Bulleh Shah, and the slogan of "Roti Kapra aur Makan" (that inspired the film Roti Kapda Aur Makaan) among the common masses and emerged as a populist leader who eventually became the ninth Prime Minister of Pakistan.[67] Bhutto used the term “Dama Dam Mast Qalandar” (a song adapted by Bulleh Shah) in 1973 to predict the political turmoil ahead.[68]

In February 2006 then Chief Minister of Punjab Chaudhry Pervaiz Elahi addressed a conference at the University of the Punjab, in which he said, Bulleh Shah and other Sufi's "were not only preachers, but also historians of social history."[69]

In March 2013, Hamza Shahbaz (on the behalf of Punjab's chief minister Shehbaz Sharif) inaugurated "Yadgar-e-Baba Bulleh Shah" (a memorial to Bulleh Shah) in Kasur.[70] In 2015, in his address the Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif recited a verse of Bulleh Shah.[71][72]

In 2015, the cricketer-turned-politician Imran Khan (former Prime Minister) called Bulleh Shah "the great Sufi inspirational heritage of our region."[73]

In August 2023, the caretaker chief minister of Punjab Mohsin Raza Naqvi laid the foundation stone of the extension project of the dargah of Bulleh Shah. He said, the teachings of Bulleh Shah are "an enlightening as well as an illuminating chapter for us."[74] Among the attendees were Nayyar Ali Dada.

Aseff Ahmad Daula, former Minister of Foreign Affairs of Pakistan, was an admirer of Bulleh Shah. In one of his essays, he equated "Punjabi" with the language of Bulleh Shah.[75] Another Foreign Minister Khurshid Mahmud Kasuri praised Bulleh Shah for "always projecting truth in his verses."[76]


Bulleh Shah never published his works. However, a significant part of his work has been preserved and published formally in India, Pakistan and abroad. The following is a list of books and book chapters containing his poetic works (or its translation).

Works in English:

Works in Gurmukhi (Punjabi):

  • Bulleh Shah Jeevan Te Rachna [The Life and Career of Bulleh Shah] (Publisher: Punjabi University, Patiala, India), 2010. Editor: Jeet Singh Sital.[81]
  • Kalam Bulle Shah [The Verses of Bulleh Shah], 2009. Editor: Gurdev Singh.[82]

Works in Shahmukhi (Punjabi):

  • Kalam Hazrat Baba Bulleh Shah [The Verses of Saint Bulleh Shah] (Publisher: Karmanwala Book Shop), 2009. Editor: Sami Ullah Barkat.[83]
  • Bulleh Shah Kehende Nain [Bulleh Shah says], 1987. Editor: Maqbool Anwar Dawoodi.[84]

Works in Urdu:

  • Sayin Bulleh Shah [Master Bulleh Shah] (Publisher: Radha Soami Satsang Beas), 2000. Authors: T. R. Shangari and J.R. Puri.[85]
  • Bulleh Shah (Publisher: Sahitya Akademi), 1992. Author: Surinder Singh Kolhi. Translator: Kamil Qureshi.[86]
  • Tazkara [Discussion], 1984. Author: Mian Akhlaq Ahmad.[87]
  • Kulliyat Bulleh Shah (Publisher: Zahid Basheer Printers, Lahore). Editor: Faqir Muhammad Faqir.[88]
  • Ramooz e Irfan: Kafyan Hazrat Bulleh Shah [Secrets of Sainthood: The Kafis of Saint Bulleh Shah] (Publisher: Kashmir Research Institute, Srinagar). Translator: Fiza Jokalwai.[89]

Work in Sindhi:

  • Bulleh Shah Joon Kafiyoon [The Kafis of Bulleh Shah], 1983. Editor: Noor Haider.[90]

Works in Hindi:

  • Sai Bulle Shah Radha Swami Satsang Vyas (Publisher: Radha Soami Satsang Beas), 1995.[91]
  • Kafian Baba Bulleh Shah [The Kafis of Bulleh Shah] (Publisher: Sri Satguru Jagjit Singh Ji eLibrary/ Namdhari eLibrary).[92]

Other works:

"Dama Dam Mast Qalandar" is one of the most famous Sufi songs in India and Pakistan. It was originally written by Amir Khusrau, and was modified by Bulleh Shah. The version composed by Bulleh Shah was sung by Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, Abida Parveen, Laal (band) and numerous other singers from India and Pakistan.

"Tere ishq Nachaya," a popular poem by Bulleh Shah, has been sung numerous times both in public and film industry, e.g., the popular song Chaiyya Chaiyya is derived from its lyrics.

"Bullah Ki Jaana," one of the most popular poems by Bulleh Shah, has been sung by numerous singers in India and Pakistan.

A brief biographical sketches of him are found in "Encyclopaedia of Untouchables : Ancient Medieval and Modern" (2008)[93] and "Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature" (1987).[17]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ also romanized as Bullhe Shah


  1. ^ a b c Mara Brecht; Reid B. Locklin, eds. (2016). Comparative theology in the millennial classroom : hybrid identities, negotiated boundaries. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-51250-9. OCLC 932622675.
  2. ^ a b c J.R. Puri; T.R. Shangari. "The Life of Bulleh Shah". Academy of the Punjab in North America (APNA) website. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  3. ^ a b Abbas, Sadia (2014). At Freedom's Limit : Islam and the Postcolonial Predicament. New York, NY: Fordham University Press. ISBN 978-0-8232-5786-7. OCLC 1204032457.
  4. ^ "Poet Of The People: The Time And Kalam Of Bulleh Shah". The Friday Times. 8 April 2022. Retrieved 25 August 2023.
  5. ^ a b unesdoc.unesco.org https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000160005. Retrieved 8 September 2023. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  6. ^ a b c d Kumar, Raj (2008). Encyclopaedia of Untouchables, Ancient, Medieval and Modern. Delhi, India: Kalpaz Publications. p. 190. ISBN 978-81-7835-664-8. OCLC 277277425. It is said that from among the ancestors of Bulleh Shah, Syed Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari came to Multan from Surakh-Bukhara three hundred years earlier. [...] Bulleh Shah's family, of being Sayyiad caste, was related to prophet Muhammad [...] Bulleh Shah's father, Shah Mohammed Dervish, was well versed in Arabic, Persian and the holy Qura'n. [...] There is a strong historical evidence to show that Bulleh Shah was an eminent scholar of Arabic and Persian.
  7. ^ a b c d Shāh, Bullhe (1996). The Mystic Muse. Abhinav Publications. ISBN 978-81-7017-341-0.
  8. ^ "International Journal of Punjab Studies (Vol. 3) (1996)". www.google.com. Retrieved 28 April 2024.
  9. ^ "Bulleh Shah". Sufi Poetry. 25 November 2009. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
  10. ^ Indiablooms. "Pakistan 'neglects' Gurdwara dedicated to Baba Bulleh Shah | Indiablooms - First Portal on Digital News Management". Indiablooms.com. Retrieved 28 April 2024.
  11. ^ a b Qaiṣar, Iqbāl (1998). پاكستان وچ سكھاں دياں تواريخى پوتر تھاواں (in Punjabi). Punjabi History Board.
  12. ^ "An ode to Baba Bulleh Shah, historic gurdwara in Pakistan falls to nature's vagaries, govt's apathy". The Indian Express. 25 July 2023. Retrieved 28 April 2024.
  13. ^ a b Waheed, Sarah Fatima (2022). Hidden histories of Pakistan : censorship, literature, and secular nationalism in late colonial India. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-108-99351-7. OCLC 1263249486.
  14. ^ Ghulam, Chatha Akbar (2012). Faith, Not Religions : a Collection Of Essays. iUniverse.Com. ISBN 978-1-4759-6461-5. OCLC 1124524187.
  15. ^ a b c d e "Bulleh Shah's poetry in present day". Times Of India. 13 June 2012. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  16. ^ a b c Zia, Sidra (17 June 2019). "My visit to Bulleh Shah's tomb made me feel an otherworldly sense of peace". Dawn. Pakistan. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  17. ^ a b c Datta, Amaresh (1987). Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. p. 600. ISBN 9788126018031.
  18. ^ Sud, Kider Nath (1969). Iqbal and His Poems - A Reappraisal. Delhi: Sterling Publishers. p. 41.
  19. ^ Indian Horizons; Volumes 26-27. New Delhi: Indian Council for Cultural Relations. 1977. p. 43.
  20. ^ Duggal, Kartar Singh (1980). Literary Encounters; Volume 1. India: Marwah Publications. p. 8.
  21. ^ Snehi, Yogesh (2019). Spatializing popular Sufi shrines in Punjab : dreams, memories, territoriality. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-429-51220-9. OCLC 1098274711.
  22. ^ Roy, Anjali Gera; Huat, Chua Beng, eds. (1 February 2012). Travels of Bollywood Cinema: From Bombay to LA. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198075981.001.0001. ISBN 978-0-19-807598-1.
  23. ^ Bullhe, Shāh (1986). Puri, J.R.; Shangari, T.R. (eds.). Bulleh Shah : the love-intoxicated iconoclast. Punjab: Radha Soami Satsang Beas – via Internet Archive.
  24. ^ Shāh, Bullhe; Puri, J. R. (1986). Bulleh Shah: The Love-intoxicated Iconoclast. Radha Soami Satsang Beas.
  25. ^ Geeti Sen (1997). Crossing boundaries. New Delhi: Orient Longman. ISBN 81-250-1341-5. OCLC 38257676.
  26. ^ Cobb, Mark (2012). Oxford Textbook of Spirituality in Healthcare. Christina M. Puchalski, Bruce Rumbold. Oxford: OUP Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19-150218-7. OCLC 867929609.
  27. ^ Soofi, Mushtaq (26 August 2019). "Punjab Notes: Bulleh Shah: beyond caste and its polluting touch". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 8 September 2023.
  28. ^ Knight, Michael Muhammad (2009). Journey to the End of Islam. Berkeley: Soft Skull Press. ISBN 978-1-59376-552-1. OCLC 826853777.
  29. ^ Dhillon, Harish (2013). First Raj of the Sikhs : the Life and Times of Banda Singh Bahadur. Carlsbad: Hay House, Inc. ISBN 978-93-81398-39-5. OCLC 858762739.
  30. ^ a b Inam, Moniza (11 March 2018). "IN MEMORIAM: THE SUFI COMMUNIST". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 16 February 2023.
  31. ^ a b c Gaur, I. D. (2008). Martyr as bridegroom : a folk representation of Bhagat Singh. New Delhi, India: Anthem Press. ISBN 978-81-905835-0-3. OCLC 227921397.
  32. ^ Bullhe Shāh,?-1758? (1996). The mystic muse. Kartar Singh Duggal. New Delhi: Abhinav Publications. ISBN 81-7017-341-8. OCLC 35151781.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  33. ^ a b Shāh, Bullhe (2015). C. Shackle (ed.). Sufi lyrics. Translated by C. Shackle. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-25966-9. OCLC 1240164691.
  34. ^ Lakshman Singh, Bhagat (1995). Short sketch of the life and work of Guru Govind Singh, the 10th and last guru of the Sikhs. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0576-4. OCLC 858588727.
  35. ^ Loye Loye Bhar Ly Kurye Sung By Taimur Rehman, LAAL Band., retrieved 16 February 2023
  36. ^ Wolf, Richard K. (2014). The voice in the drum : music, language, and emotion in Islamicate South Asia. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-09650-1. OCLC 894227410.
  37. ^ Husain, Imdad (1989). An introduction to the poetry of Faiz Ahmed Faiz. Lahore: Vanguard Books. ISBN 969-402-000-X. OCLC 21322031.
  38. ^ "Ajoka holds festival to mark 9/11". DAWN.COM. 12 September 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2023.
  39. ^ Kazmi, Sara (2018). "Of subalterns and Sammi trees: Echoes of Ghadar in the Punjabi literary movement". Socialist Studies. 13 (2): 114–133. doi:10.18740/ss27242. S2CID 150355584.
  40. ^ Asfari, Amin, ed. (2020). Civility, Nonviolent Resistance, and the New Struggle for Social Justice. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-41758-8. OCLC 1130904784.
  41. ^ Zeeshan Jawed (4 June 2005). "Soundscape for the soul". The Telegraph (Kolkata newspaper). Calcutta. Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  42. ^ Bageshree S. (11 April 2005). "Urban balladeer". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 5 November 2012. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  43. ^ "Charka - Mukhtar Sahota & Wadali's - Unpredictable". 4 May 2007. Archived from the original on 24 March 2024. Retrieved 24 March 2024 – via YouTube.
  44. ^ "Headhunterz & Skytech – Kundalini (Official Music Video)". 10 May 2016. Archived from the original on 22 December 2021. Retrieved 17 January 2020 – via YouTube.
  45. ^ "Yasir Akhtar | Araam Naal Kar – Take it Easy ft.Martay M'Kenzy (Official Video)". Yasir Akhtar. 3 February 2017. Archived from the original on 22 December 2021. Retrieved 16 February 2017 – via YouTube.
  46. ^ "Yasir Akhtar, the singing sensation, is back with 'Aram Nal Kar'". Tanveer Khatana. 11 February 2017. Retrieved 16 February 2017 – via Geo News.
  47. ^ "Lady Dada's Nightmare – I | Instep". The News International. 15 June 2014. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  48. ^ "Sikh history hasn't been documented well and some of the versions available are inaccurate". The Indian Express. 9 November 2016. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  49. ^ "Dastaan-e-ishq, Ali Zafar – BTS, Coke Studio Pakistan, Season 2". Rohail Hyatt. 23 June 2009. Archived from the original on 22 December 2021 – via YouTube.
  50. ^ Ata ur Rehman (12 May 2012). "Hadiqa Kiani Kamlee, Coke Studio Season 5 Episode 1". Pakium.com. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  51. ^ "Watch Coke Studio 9 Episode 3 promo | the News Teller". Archived from the original on 9 October 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  52. ^ "Watch Coke Studio 9 Episode 6 | the News Teller". Archived from the original on 27 September 2016. Retrieved 4 November 2016.
  53. ^ "Coke Studio releases third episode of Season 11". The Nation. Pakistan. 25 August 2018. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  54. ^ "Coke Studio brings love ballads and Sufi poetry from top stars | Pakistani Cinema". Gulf News. 25 November 2019. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  55. ^ a b Aslam, Irfan (15 May 2015). "How Bulleh Shah was translated into English". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 9 June 2024.
  56. ^ Desk (1 December 2023). "The Universal Appeal of the Poetry of Bulhe Shah". Republic Policy. Retrieved 9 June 2024.
  57. ^ Hasnain, Khalid (31 January 2013). "Roads, intersections' naming: Shahbaz approves CDGL's summary". DAWN.COM. Dawn. Retrieved 27 July 2022.
  58. ^ Hasnain, Khalid (16 August 2021). "Lahore streets, intersections to be named after famous personalities". DAWN.COM. Dawn. Retrieved 27 July 2022.
  59. ^ "Home". www.bullehshah.com.pk. Bulleh Shah Packaging (Pvt.) Limited. Retrieved 27 July 2022.
  60. ^ "DHQ hospital named after Baba Bulleh Shah". Pakistan Observer. 7 August 2023. Retrieved 19 August 2023.
  61. ^ "Kasur DHQ Hospital renamed after Baba Bulleh Shah". Daily Pakistan Global. 4 August 2023. Retrieved 19 August 2023.
  62. ^ "University of the Punjab- Affiliated Colleges - Bulleh-Shah-Law-College-Main-Sadar-Diwan-Road-Kasur". pu.edu.pk. Retrieved 25 August 2023.
  63. ^ "Demand for Bulleh Shah university". DAWN.COM. Dawn. 27 August 2007. Retrieved 27 July 2022.
  64. ^ Shaikh, Ahsan ul haq (9 January 2022). "UNIVERSITY IN CHUNIAN". DAWN.COM. Dawn. Retrieved 27 July 2022.
  65. ^ "NA passes 26 bills to set up new universities, institutes amid criticism about quality education". www.thenews.com.pk. Retrieved 19 August 2023.
  66. ^ Babar Ali, Syed (2017). Learning From Others (PDF) (2nd ed.). Lahore: Topical Printers, Lahore. p. 99. ISBN 978-969-9251-71-9.
  67. ^ "Bhutto's ideology is need of the hour". Daily Times. 5 January 2020. Retrieved 18 February 2023.
  68. ^ Sharjeel, Shahzad (6 December 2019). "The myriad interpretations of Sufi anthem 'Mast Qalandar'". Deccan Chronicle. Retrieved 18 February 2023.
  69. ^ Drage, Teresa Ann (2015). The National Sufi Council: Redefining the Islamic Republic of Pakistan through a discourse on Sufism after 9/11 (PhD thesis). University of Western Sydney. p. 130.
  70. ^ "Facebook". www.facebook.com. Retrieved 18 February 2023.
  71. ^ "PM Nawaz Recties Bulleh Shah Poetry While Addressing Parsi Community - video Dailymotion". Dailymotion. 20 August 2015. Retrieved 18 February 2023.
  72. ^ "Nawaz pledges equal status to minorities". The Nation. 10 May 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2023.
  73. ^ Khan, Imran [@ImranKhanPTI] (28 August 2015). "Today is the Urs of the great Sufi poet Baba Bulleh Shah. He is part of the great Sufi inspirational heritage of our region" (Tweet). Retrieved 25 August 2023 – via Twitter.
  75. ^ "A question of identity: The Pakistani Southasian". Himal Southasian. 18 July 2005. Retrieved 25 August 2023.
  76. ^ "KASUR: Tribute paid to Bulleh Shah". DAWN.COM. 19 April 2004. Retrieved 25 August 2023.
  77. ^ Shāh, Bullhe (2015). Bulleh Shah : a selection. Translated by Taufiq Rafat. Karachi, Pakistan: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-940288-5. OCLC 927190615.
  78. ^ Mahmood Jamal. Islamic Mystical Poetry - Sufi Verse from the Early Mystics to Rumi. ISBN 9781101488348.
  79. ^ Kohli, Surindar Singh (1987). Bulhe Shah. Sahitya Akademi.
  80. ^ Puri, J. R.; Shangari, T. R. Bulleh Shah The Love Intoxicated Iconclast. Radha Soami Satsang Beas.
  81. ^ Jeet Singh Sital (2010). Bulleh Shah Jeevan.
  82. ^ www.DiscoverSikhism.com. Kalam Bulleh Shah (in Punjabi).
  83. ^ Bulle Shah.
  84. ^ Bulleh Shah Kehende Nain (in Malay).
  85. ^ T.R. Shangari and J.R. Puri (1987). Sain Bulleh Shah.
  86. ^ Surinder Kolhi (1992). Bulleh Shah. Sahitya Akademi.
  87. ^ Mian Akhlaq Ahmad (1984). Tazkera Hazrat Shah Inayat Qadiri Shattari.
  88. ^ Kulliyat Bulleh Shah (in Urdu).
  89. ^ Hazrat Bulle Shah. Rafooz E Irfan Kafyan Urdu Hazrat Bulle Shah.
  90. ^ Noor Haider (1983). Bulleh Shah Joon Kafiyoon.
  91. ^ Radha Swami Satsang Vyas. Sai Bulle Shah Radha Swami Satsang Vyas.
  92. ^ Baba Buley Shah. Kafian Baba Bulleh Shah.
  93. ^ Kumar, Raj (2008). Encyclopaedia of untouchables ancient, medieval and modern. Delhi: Kalpaz Publications. ISBN 978-81-7835-664-8. OCLC 277277425.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]