Bullying in medicine
Bullying in the medical profession is common, particularly of student or trainee physicians. It is thought that this is at least in part an outcome of conservative traditional hierarchical structures and teaching methods in the medical profession which may result in a bullying cycle. The rampant problem of medical student mistreatment and bullying was systematically studied and reported in a 1990 JAMA study by pediatrician Henry K. Silver which found that 46.4 percent of students at one medical school had been abused at some point during medical school; by the time they were seniors, that number was 80.6 percent.
In a 2002 test, 594 BMA members were randomly selected to complete a bullying survey, and 220 of the 594 junior doctors reported having been bullied in the previous year. This survey reported no variance in job grade or age.
While the stereotype of a victim as a weak inadequate person who somehow deserves to be bullied is salient, there is growing evidence that bullies, who are often driven by jealousy and envy, pick on the highest performing and most skilled staff or students, whose mere presence is sufficient to make the bully feel insecure. Threats (of exposure of inadequacy) must be ruthlessly controlled and subjugated. Psychological models such as transference and projection have been proposed to explain such behaviors, wherein the bully's sense of personal inadequacy is projected or transferred to a victim; through making others feel inadequate and subordinate, the bully thus vindicates their own sense of inferiority.
Displacement is another defense mechanism that can explain the propensity of many medical educators to bully students, and may operate subconsciously. Displacement entails the redirection of an impulse (usually aggression) onto a powerless substitute target. The target can be a person or an object that can serve as a symbolic substitute. Displacement can operate in chain-reactions, wherein people unwittingly become at once victims and perpetrators of displacement. For example, a resident physician may be undergoing stress with her patients or at home, but cannot express these feelings toward patients or toward her family members, so she channels these negative emotions toward vulnerable students in the form of intimidation, control or subjugation. The student then acts brashly toward a patient, channeling reactive emotions which cannot be directed back to the resident physician onto more vulnerable subjects.
Beyond its ramifications for victims, disrespect and bullying in medicine is a threat to patient safety because it inhibits collegiality and cooperation essential to teamwork, cuts off communication, undermines morale, and inhibits compliance with and implementation of new practices.
Medical training usually takes place in institutions that have a highly structured hierarchical system, and has traditionally involved teaching by intimidation and humiliation. Such practices may foster a culture of bullying and the setting up of a cycle of bullying, analogous to other cycles of abuse in which those who experience it go on to abuse others when they become more senior. Medical doctors are increasingly reporting to the British Medical Association that they are being bullied, often by older and more senior colleagues, many of whom were badly treated themselves when more junior.
Physician Jonathan Belsey relates in an emblematic narrative published in AMA Virtual Mentor entitled Teaching By Humiliation that "however well you presented the case, somewhere along the line you would trip up and give the predatory professor his opportunity to expose your inadequacies. Sometimes it would be your lack of medical knowledge; sometimes the question that you failed to ask the patient that would have revealed the root of the problem, or sometimes your ineptitude at eliciting the required clinical signs. On one memorable occasion, when I had appeared to cover all the bases clinically, the professor turned to me and berated me for attending his ward round wearing a plaid shirt that was clearly inappropriate for an aspiring doctor."
Bullying can significantly decrease job satisfaction and increase job-induced stress; it also leads to low self-confidence, depression, anxiety and a desire to leave employment. Bullying contributes to high rates of staff turnover, high rates of sickness absence, impaired performance, lower productivity, poor team spirit and loss of trained staff. This has implications for the recruitment and retention of medical staff.
Chronic and current bullying are associated with substantially worse health, according to research by Laura M. Bogart, associate professor of pediatrics at Harvard Medical School.
Studies have consistently shown that physicians have had the highest depression and suicide rates compared to people in many other lines of work—for suicide, 40% higher for male physicians and 130% higher for female physicians. Research has traced the beginning of this difference to the years spent in medical school. Students enter medical school with mental health profiles similar to those of their peers but end up experiencing depression, burnout, suicidal ideation and other mental illnesses at much higher rates. Despite better access to health care, they are more likely to cope by resorting to dysfunctional and self-injurious behaviors, and are less likely to receive the right care or even recognize that they need some kind of intervention.
Exposure to bullying and intimidation during formative years of medical training has been found to contribute to these consequences. Fear of stigmatisation among medical students was the subject of a study in JAMA by Thomas Schwenk and colleagues at the University of Michigan's Department of Family Medicine, MI, USA. 53% of medical students who reported high levels of depressive symptoms were worried that revealing their illness would be risky for their careers and 62% said asking for help would mean their coping skills were inadequate, according to the study published in September 2010. "Medical students are under extraordinary demands. They feel they are making life and death decisions and that they can never be wrong. There is such tremendous pressure to be perfect that any sense of falling short makes them very anxious", says Schwenk.
Medical students, perhaps being vulnerable because of their relatively low status in health care settings, may experience verbal abuse, humiliation and harassment (nonsexual or sexual). Discrimination based on gender and race are less common.
In one study, around 35% of medical students reported having been bullied. Around one in four of the 1,000 students questioned said they had been bullied by a medical doctor. Furthermore, bullying has been known to occur among medical students. Manifestations of bullying include:
- being humiliated by teachers in front of patients or peers
- been victimised for not having come from a "medical family" (often people who enter medicine have an older sibling pursuing the same degree or share ties with other individuals in the profession with whom familial relationship confers some degree of protection or special influence - especially within academic settings.) Such practices extend to admissions procedures, which are regularly influenced by factors far afield of candidates' intrinsic merits, such as being related to faculty members or well-known medical luminaries.
- being put under pressure to carry out a procedure without supervision.
- being ostracized by other medical students for asking questions (due to the medical content being confusing for some students) through social media networks (Facebook bullying), phone, or in person.
One study showed that the medical faculty was the faculty in which students were most commonly mistreated.
Junior (trainee) physicians
In a UK study, 37% of junior doctors reported being bullied in the previous year and 84% had experienced at least one bullying behaviour. Black and Asian physicians were more likely to be bullied than other physicians. Women were more likely to be bullied than men.
Trainee physicians who feel threatened in the clinical workplace develop less effectively and are less likely to ask for advice or help when they need it. Persistent destructive criticism, sarcastic comments and humiliation in front of colleagues will cause all but the most resilient of trainees to lose confidence in themselves.
The farewell interview from Sir Ian Kennedy (Chair of the HealthcareCommission) caused significant media interest following his statement that bullying is a 'corrosive' problem that the NHS must address.
Psychiatric trainees experience rates of bullying at least as high as other medical students. In a survey of psychiatric trainees in the West Midlands, 47% had experienced bullying within the last year with even higher percentages amongst ethnic minorities and females. Qualified psychiatrists are not themselves required to be psychiatrically assessed.
Patients and nurses
|This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (April 2011)|
Speaking of many doctors' predilection for bullying nurses, Theresa Brown writes:
...the most damaging bullying is not flagrant and does not fit the stereotype of a surgeon having a tantrum in the operating room. It is passive, like not answering pages or phone calls, and tends toward the subtle: condescension rather than outright abuse, and aggressive or sarcastic remarks rather than straightforward insults.
Nurses experience bullying quite frequently. It is thought that relational aggression (psychological aspects of bullying such as gossiping and intimidation) are commonplace. Relational aggression has been studied among girls but not so much among adult women.
Sir Lancelot Spratt, a character played by actor James Robertson Justice in the film series Doctor in the House, is often referenced as the archetypal arrogant bullying doctor ruling by fear. The film series also demonstrates bullying of student doctors by other doctors and the nursing matron.
In the American sitcom Scrubs, Dr. Cox uses intimidation and sarcasm as methods of tormenting the interns and expressing his dislike towards them and their company.
- "VM -- To Bully and Be Bullied: Harassment and Mistreatment in Medical Education, Mar 14 ... Virtual Mentor". virtualmentor.ama-assn.org. 2014-03-01. Retrieved 2015-02-09.
- Quine, Lyn (2002-04-13). "Workplace bullying in junior doctors: questionnaire survey". BMJ. 324 (7342): 878–879. doi:10.1136/bmj.324.7342.878. ISSN 0959-8138. PMC . PMID 11950736.
- Field, T. (2002). "Bullying in medicine". BMJ. 324 (7340): 786. doi:10.1136/bmj.324.7340.786/a.
- "Ways of Explaining Workplace Bullying: A Review of Enabling, Motivating and Precipitating Structures and Processes in the Work Environment". hum.sagepub.com. Retrieved 2015-02-09.
- The British Psychological Society (17 August 2006). "Youth offending and youth justice" (PDF). Educational and Child Psychology. 23 (2). Retrieved 2015-02-09.
- "http://www.arimhe.com/uploaded/abstractbook.4th-worldwide-conference.pdf#page=25" (PDF). arimhe.com. Retrieved 2015-02-09. External link in
- Einarsen, Stale; Hoel, Helge; Zapf, Dieter; Cooper, Cary (22 September 2010). "Bullying and Harassment in the Workplace: Developments in Theory, Research, and Practice" (Second ed.). CRC Press. Retrieved 2 November 2016 – via Google Books.
- "Harassment and bullying at work: A review of the scandinavian approach". Aggression and Violent Behavior. 5: 379–401. doi:10.1016/S1359-1789(98)00043-3. Retrieved 2015-02-09.
- Leape, Lucian L.; Shore, Miles F.; Dienstag, Jules L.; Mayer, Robert J.; Edgman-Levitan, Susan; Meyer, Gregg S.; Healy, Gerald B. (July 2012). "Perspective: A Culture of Respect, Part 1: The Nature and Causes of Disrespectful Behavior by Physicians". Academic Medicine. 87: 845–852. doi:10.1097/ACM.0b013e318258338d.
- "Can "pimping" kill? The potential effect of disrespectful be... : Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants". journals.lww.com. Retrieved 2015-02-09.
- Williams K (1998) Stress linked to bullying. BMA News Review, April 18
- "VM -- Teaching by Humiliation--Why It Should Change, Mar 14 ... Virtual Mentor". virtualmentor.ama-assn.org. 2014-03-01. Retrieved 2015-02-09.
- Björkqvist, K (2001). "Social defeat as a stressor in humans". Physiology & Behavior. 73 (3): 435–42. doi:10.1016/S0031-9384(01)00490-5. PMID 11438372.
- "Peer Victimization in Fifth Grade and Health in Tenth Grade". pediatrics.aappublications.org. Retrieved 2015-02-09.
- Rotenstein, Lisa S.; Ramos, Marco A.; Torre, Matthew; Segal, J. Bradley; Peluso, Michael J.; Guille, Constance; Sen, Srijan; Mata, Douglas A. (2016-12-06). "Prevalence of Depression, Depressive Symptoms, and Suicidal Ideation Among Medical Students: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". JAMA. 316 (21): 2214–2236. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.17324. ISSN 1538-3598. PMID 27923088.
- Douglas A. Mata; Marco A. Ramos; Narinder Bansal; Rida Khan; Constance Guille; Emanuele Di Angelantonio & Srijan Sen (2015). "Prevalence of Depression and Depressive Symptoms Among Resident Physicians: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis". JAMA. 314 (22): 2373–2383. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.15845. PMC . PMID 26647259.
- "The New York Times". nytimes.com. Retrieved 2015-02-09.
- "Doctors who kill themselves: a study of the methods used for suicide | QJM: An International Journal of Medicine". qjmed.oxfordjournals.org. Retrieved 2015-02-09.
- "The occupation with the highest suicide rate | Psychology Today". psychologytoday.com. Retrieved 2015-02-09.
- "An Error Occurred Setting Your User Cookie". thelancet.com. Retrieved 2015-02-09.
- Coverdale, J. H.; Balon, R.; Roberts, L. W. (2009). "Mistreatment of Trainees: Verbal Abuse and Other Bullying Behaviors". Academic Psychiatry. 33 (4): 269–73. doi:10.1176/appi.ap.33.4.269. PMID 19690101.
- Curtis P Medical students complain of bullying The Guardian 4 May 2005
- "VM -- Legacy Admissions in Medical School, Dec 12 ... Virtual Mentor". virtualmentor.ama-assn.org. 2012-12-01. Retrieved 2015-02-09.
- "Connections to University can affect admissions decision | Stanford Daily". stanforddaily.com. Retrieved 2015-02-09.
- Rautio, Arja; Sunnari, Vappu; Nuutinen, Matti; Laitala, Marja (2005). "Mistreatment of university students most common during medical studies". BMC Medical Education. 5: 36. doi:10.1186/1472-6920-5-36. PMC . PMID 16232310.
- Stebbing, J; Mandalia, S; Portsmouth, S; Leonard, P; Crane, J; Bower, M; Earl, H; Quine, L (2004). "A questionnaire survey of stress and bullying in doctors undertaking research". Postgraduate Medical Journal. 80 (940): 93–6. doi:10.1136/pmj.2003.009001. PMC . PMID 14970297.
- Bairy, KL; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, P; Sivagnanam, G; Saraswathi, S; Sachidananda, A; Shalini, A (2007). "Bullying among trainee doctors in Southern India: A questionnaire study". Journal of Postgraduate Medicine. 53 (2): 87–90. doi:10.4103/0022-3859.32206. PMID 17495372.
- Quine, L. (2002). "Workplace bullying in junior doctors: Questionnaire survey". BMJ. 324 (7342): 878–9. doi:10.1136/bmj.324.7342.878. PMC . PMID 11950736.
- Israël, E; Louwette, R; Lambotte, C (1975). "Two familial cases of congenital erythroderma ichthyosiforme". Revue médicale de Liège. 30 (13): 439–44. PMID 1096266.
- Paice E, Smith D (2009). "Bullying of trainee doctors is a patient safety issue" (PDF). The Clinical Teacher. 6: 13–7. doi:10.1111/j.1743-498x.2008.00251.x.
- Hoosen, I. A. (2004). "A survey of workplace bullying of psychiatric trainees in the West Midlands". Psychiatric Bulletin. 28 (6): 225–7. doi:10.1192/pb.28.6.225.
- Gadit AA Bullying in psychiatry must stop - Clinical Psychiatry News, May, 2007
- Doctor faces court-martial in patient abuse case Stars and Stripes January 16, 2010
- 'Groping' surgeon found guilty BBC News 28 July 2002
- title="Physician Heel Thyself"|url='http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/08/opinion/08Brown.html'
- Hutchinson, M; Wilkes, L; Vickers, M; Jackson, D (2008). "The development and validation of a bullying inventory for the nursing workplace". Nurse researcher. 15 (2): 19–29. doi:10.7748/nr2008.01.15.2.19.c6326. PMID 18283759.
- Porter-O'grady, T (2008). "Transforming work environments. Interview by Diane E Scott and Amanda Rosenkranz". The American nurse. 40 (2): 7. PMID 18494401.
- Richards A, Edwards SL A Nurse's Survival Guide to the Ward (2008)[page needed]
- Dellasega, Cheryl A. (2009). "Bullying among nurses". The American journal of nursing. 109 (1): 52–8. doi:10.1097/01.NAJ.0000344039.11651.08. PMID 19112267.
- Ahmer, Syed; Yousafzai, Abdul Wahab; Bhutto, Naila; Alam, Sumira; Sarangzai, Amanullah Khan; Iqbal, Arshad (2008). Syed, Ehsan, ed. "Bullying of Medical Students in Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Questionnaire Survey". PLoS ONE. 3 (12): e3889. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003889. PMC . PMID 19060948.
- Faruqui, R. A.; Ikkos, G. (2007). "Poorly performing supervisors and trainers of trainee doctors". Psychiatric Bulletin. 31 (4): 148–52. doi:10.1192/pb.bp.105.008730.
- Frank, E. (2006). "Experiences of belittlement and harassment and their correlates among medical students in the United States: Longitudinal survey". BMJ. 333 (7570): 682–0. doi:10.1136/bmj.38924.722037.7C. PMC . PMID 16956894.
- Gadit, A A M; Mugford, G (2008). "A pilot study of bullying and harassment among medical professionals in Pakistan, focussing on psychiatry: Need for a medical ombudsman". Journal of Medical Ethics. 34 (6): 463–6. doi:10.1136/jme.2007.021832. PMID 18511621.
- Imran, N; Jawaid, M; Haider, II; Masood, Z (2010). "Bullying of junior doctors in Pakistan: A cross-sectional survey" (PDF). Singapore medical journal. 51 (7): 592–5. PMID 20730401.
- Maida, Ana Margarita; Vásquez, Alicia; Herskovic, Viviana; Calderón, José Luis; Jacard, Marcela; Pereira, Ana; Widdel, Lars (2003). "A report on student abuse during medical training". Medical Teacher. 25 (5): 497–501. doi:10.1080/01421590310001606317. PMID 14522671.
- Mukhtar, F; Daud, S; Manzoor, I; Amjad, I; Saeed, K; Naeem, M; Javed, M (2010). "Bullying of medical students". Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP. 20 (12): 814–8. PMID 21205548.
- Paice, E.; Aitken, M; Houghton, A; Firth-Cozens, J (2004). "Bullying among doctors in training: Cross sectional questionnaire survey". BMJ. 329 (7467): 658–9. doi:10.1136/bmj.38133.502569.AE. PMC . PMID 15256417.
- Mistry M and Latoo J Bullying: a growing workplace menace BJMP Mar 2009 Volume 2 Number 1
- Paice, E; Firth-Cozens, J (2003). "Who's a bully then?". BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 326 (7393): S127. doi:10.1136/bmj.326.7393.S127. PMID 12689995.
- Quine, Lyn (1999). Clinical research, ed. "Workplace bullying in NHS community trust: Staff questionnaire survey". BMJ. 318 (7178): 228–32. doi:10.1136/bmj.318.7178.228. PMC . PMID 9915730.
- Vanderstar ES Workplace Bullying in the Healthcare Professions 2004 8 Employee Rights and Employment Policy Journal 455
- Wood, D. F (2006). "Bullying and harassment in medical schools". BMJ. 333 (7570): 664–5. doi:10.1136/bmj.38954.568148.BE. PMC . PMID 17008645.
- Wood DF Bullying in medical schools Student BMJ October 2006
||This article's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. (November 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
- Bullying and harassment British Medical Association 8 May 2007
- Guidance for medical students on harassment, intimidation, victimisation and bullying British Medical Association 21 December 2007
- Bullying and harassment of doctors in the workplace Report British Medical Association Health Policy & Economic Research Unit May 2006
- The cost of bullying to the NHS
- The Bullying Culture of Medical School
- News stories
- Bullying on the NHS BBC News January 22, 1999
- Bullying 'ruining NHS workers' lives' BBC News 6 December 2000
- Many junior doctors bullied BBC News 11 April 2002
- One in four junior doctors bullied BBC News 26 September 2002
- Dunne R 'My fellow doctors bullied me' BBC News 9 June 2003
- NHS anti-bullying culture ordered BBC News 12 January 2006
- Targets' triggering NHS bullying BBC News 18 May 2006
- Surgery team 'unsafe' - and at times 'dangerous' Staffordshire Newsletter 10 March 2011