Bunga mas

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A golden tree, part of the bunga mas for the Thai court

The bunga mas dan perak (lit. "golden and silver flowers"), often abbreviated to bunga mas (Jawi: بوڠا مس‎ "golden flowers"), was a tribute sent every three years to the king of Siam from its vassal states in the Malay Peninsula, in particular, Terengganu, Kelantan, Kedah, Pattani, Nong Chik, Yala and Rangae.[1] The tribute consisted of two small trees made of gold and silver, plus costly gifts of weapons, goods and slaves. [2]

There are several supposed origins of and reasons for the establishment of the tradition:

  • 17th-century Kedah rulers considered it to be a token of friendship.
  • Thai kings maintained it was a recognition of their suzerainty.[2]

The practice ended with Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909, which Siamese ruling in four states were ceded to Great Britain.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Cyril Skinner (1983). A Malay Mission to Bangkok during the reign of Rama II, Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, [1]
  2. ^ a b Leonard Y. Andaya, Barbara Watson Andaya (1984). A History of Malaysia, ISBN 0312381212, pp.65-68