Bunker Hill, Los Angeles

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Bunker Hill
Bunker Hill as seen from Los Angeles City Hall
Bunker Hill as seen from Los Angeles City Hall
Bunker Hill is located in Downtown Los Angeles
Bunker Hill
Bunker Hill
Location within Downtown Los Angeles
Coordinates: 34°03′07″N 118°15′01″W / 34.052035°N 118.250347°W / 34.052035; -118.250347
CountryUnited States
StateCalifornia
CountyCounty of Los Angeles
CityLos Angeles
Area code(s)213

Bunker Hill is a historic prominence that traditionally separated Downtown Los Angeles from the rest of the city to the west before the hill was tunneled through at Second Street in 1924.[1]

In the late 20th century, the hill was lowered in elevation, and the entire area was redeveloped to supplant old frame and concrete buildings with modern high-rises and other structures for residences, commerce, entertainment, and education.[2]

History[edit]

A view of Bunker Hill, 1900, with Pershing Square in the foreground

Early development[edit]

In 1867, two wealthy developers, Prudent Beaudry, a French-Canadian Immigrant, and Stephen Mott purchased a majority of the hill's land. Beaudry's land purchase ranged from present time Hill St. to Olive St. and 4th St. and 2nd St. Mott's land purchase ranged between 4th St. to Temple and Figueroa and Grand.[3] Because of the hill's excellent views of the Los Angeles Basin and the Los Angeles River, he knew that it would make for an opulent subdivision. Beaudry employed surveyor George Hansom to help divide up the land into 80 plots to sell to individual buyers.

Beaudry's started to build his house on the top of the hill, a modest two-story structure. He needed the infrastructure set up to reach the top of the hill, such as the water pipes. He asked the Los Angeles Water Company, to help build the water pipe up the hill. When they denied this plea, due to the nature of the hill and their initial concerns about the plan they denied his plea. As result, he built his own pipes and also formed the Canal and Reservoir Company [4]

He developed the peak of Bunker Hill with lavish two-story Victorian houses that became famous as homes for the upper-class residents of Los Angeles. The dominant architecture of the community of the houses of Bunker Hill was Queen Anne and Eastlake style. The geography of the Hill allowed these residents escape the hustle and bustle of the city as it slowly grew around at the flatland at the bottom of the hill. Some notable residents[5] during these times are:

  • Prudent Beaudry - 13th Mayor of Los Angeles, developer of Bunker Hill
  • L.J. Rose: Arrived from Iowa, due to the death of his son to serious bronchial trouble during a harsh winter. Wine maker and entrepreneur
  • Dr. Edmund Hildreth: Retired Clergyman from Chicago
  • D.F. Donigan: Self-made man. Own his own contracting business, which later was the contractor for the construction of the first railroad which led from Los Angeles to Pasadena. He became an indispensable adviser to Beaudry when it came to the beginning development of Bunker Hill in its early development.
  • Colonel Louis W. Bradbury and his wife - Made their fortune from a silver mine in Southern California. Original owner of the Bradbury Building in Downtown LA
  • Judge Robert M. Widney - Founder of University of Southern California. Helped create the first transportation for the residents up the Hill, a horse-drawn carriage.

Eventually after the introduction of the horse carriage to the Bunker Hill neighborhood, the iconic Angel's Flight was proposed.Angel's Flight, now dubbed "The World's Shortest Railway", took residents homeward from the bottom of the 33% grade and down again. Colonel J.W. Eddy petitioned the Los Angeles City Council to establish an electric cable railway, which was approved ten days later signed by the mayor at the time, Meredith P. Snyder. The first railways which was established and operational was on Third St, from Hill st. to Olive st.[6]

"Blighted Community"[edit]

Initially a residential suburb, Bunker Hill retained its exclusive character through the end of World War I. Around the 1920s and the 1930s, with the advent of the Pacific Electric Railway and the construction of the freeway, and the increased urban growth fed by an extensive streetcar system, its wealthy residents began leaving for enclaves Westward in Beverly Hills and Pasadena. Bunker Hill's houses were increasingly subdivided to accommodate renters. Still, Bunker Hill was at this time "Los Angeles's most crowded and urban neighborhood".[7] By World War II, the Pasadena Freeway, built to bring shoppers downtown, was taking more residents out. Additional postwar freeway construction left downtown comparatively empty of both people and services. The once-grand Victorian mansions of Bunker Hill became the home of impoverished pensioners.[8] Slowly these tenements became more prominent, and apartment buildings started being built on alongside these houses. As more and more people crowded into these cheap housing units, the population of the hill increased 19%. The increase was due to these new residents that landed on the lower income spectrum, which had moved into the existing living accommodations.[9] As the once extravagant and elaborate Victorian buildings began to fade and deteriorate, the community then had an uptake of crime which led to the community being called blighted and the slums of downtown Los Angeles. Which gained its notoriety in the genre of Film Noir.

Bunker Hill Redevelopment Project[edit]

In 1955, Los Angeles city planners decided that Bunker Hill required a massive slum clearance project. There were a couple of major political events which led to the "removal of the blight" and redevelopment of Bunker hill. The California Community Redevelopment Law of 1945, the Federal Housing Act of 1946 and 1949, the creation of the Community Redevelopment Agency in 1948, and also the Bunker Hill Urban Renewal Project in 1959.[10]

The California Community Redevelopment law of 1945 allowed counties and cities to create and implement these agencies to help deal with the redevelopment of local cities. Until 2011, these Agencies held much power and were still around, until Governor Jerry Brown signed into law two bills to dissolve these agencies.[11]

Along with those political factors, some of the factors which led to the conclusion of the blighted neighborhood came from some of the government offices. The LAPD called the area a "high frequency crime area", due to the fact that the area's apartments catered to known offenders. The Health department of Los Angeles also called the area a health hazard for its city. It wasn't until the CRA had won an ongoing court case against the residents of Bunker Hill. This loss for the residents of Bunker Hill led to the displacement of many families and removal of many of the low income residents of the area.[12] This victory for the CRA led to them being able to buy land to redevelop as they see fit. Within the plans for the redevelopment, there was a section for the rehabilitation of the buildings of Bunker Hill. The section was slated to preserve the historical buildings of Bunker Hill, but instead were demolished since there was no actual rehabilitation planned.[13]

The development of Bunker Hill caused much controversy. The creation of the Public Works Administration and the 1949 U.S. Federal Housing Act helped quickly to clear and acquire the land on which "slum and blighted" areas of Downtown's Bunker Hill were situated on. The city cleared the land and sold this land to private and public (re)development according to the plan made by the CRA.[14] The top of Bunker Hill was cleared of its houses and then flattened as the first stage of the Bunker Hill Redevelopment Project to populate Bunker Hill with modern plazas and buildings. When the height limit of buildings for Los Angeles was finally raised (previously buildings were limited to 150 feet), developers built some of the tallest skyscrapers in the region to take advantage of the area's existing dense zoning. In approving such projects, the city sought to project a modern, sophisticated image.

The project is the longest redevelopment project in Los Angeles history. The majority of the skyscrapers on Bunker Hill were built in the 1980s, with a new skyscraper or two being finished nearly every year. However, the momentum died down in the 1990s, shortly after the 52-story Two California Plaza was finished.[15] In 1999, the vacancy rate for downtown commercial skyscrapers was 26%, one of the highest in the nation for that time. Planned office towers were canceled, including California Plaza Three,[16] and the nearby four-towered Metropolis (brought back to life in 2005).

Current area[edit]

Aerial view in 2014
The Wells Fargo Center, One California Plaza and Two California Plaza, today stands on the highest point of Bunker Hill. As seen from the top of the Westin Bonaventure Hotel.
John Ferraro Building, Bunker Hill, home to the Los Angeles Department of Water & Power

Many of the older buildings and the early high-rises surrounding Bunker Hill are undergoing adaptive reuse from commercial to residential. This trend began in 2000, when the Los Angeles City Council passed an adaptive reuse ordinance, allowing old unused office buildings to be redeveloped as apartments or "lofts". Developers realized there was a high level of pent-up demand for living in or near downtown by artists and employees of various firms in the Financial District and government workers in the Civic Center, and that they could profit by supplying housing to meet such demand.

Because of the popularity of the New Urbanism in California, the city has required developers to build mixed-use residential buildings as much as possible. This means that the first floor of such residential developments is devoted to commercial retailers, so that residents do not have to constantly drive around for all their shopping trips and buildings present a more welcoming facade to passersby on the sidewalk.

Contributing to the resurgence of Bunker Hill has been the construction of public venues, such as Walt Disney Concert Hall and Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels, and the Museum of Contemporary Art, as well as the Colburn School, a community performing arts school and collegiate conservatory.

In February 2007, $2.05 billion was approved for the Grand Avenue Project, which over the next 10 years will bring in over 2,000 new residential units, over 400 of them being affordable units for all degrees of low-income families; a million square feet (93,000 m²) of office space; a Mandarin Oriental hotel; 600,000 square feet (56,000 m²) of retail and entertainment space; and the Grand Park, connecting City Hall to Bunker Hill. Office space and residential units will be in several skyscrapers ranging between 35-55 stories each. Nearby planned projects include L.A. Live on Figueroa Street and Olympic Boulevard in South Park (the southern end of the Bunker Hill area). A new major modern art museum, The Broad, opened on September 20, 2015, next to Disney Hall.[17]

The Angels Flight tramway, which was rebuilt in 1996 near where it was originally located and shut down after a fatal accident in 2001, reopened on March 15, 2010, to provide a link between Bunker Hill and the revitalized downtown area. One sign of the success of the downtown renaissance is that the office vacancy rate for the fourth quarter of 2004 was 16%, compared to 19% for 2003, and 26% for 1999.[18]

Mix of housing options[edit]

While developers are primarily building market-rate housing on Bunker Hill today, the City of Los Angeles has very strict laws, rules, and ordinances established that promote the inclusion of all income levels into the residential mix. Some examples include incentives for the creation of affordable housing (rather than market-rate housing), the preservation of existing affordable housing, the development of affordable housing by the city itself (rather than waiting for private developers), and others. The city has written documentation regarding the development of affordable housing.[19]

On the topic of building affordable housing for very low-income to moderate-income, Principal City Planner Jane Blumenfeld said, "We are trying to make it attractive to build [downtown] and get this added affordable housing that we normally wouldn't have. We need an adequate amount of lower income housing so that in 20 years Downtown doesn't become an exclusive neighborhood."[20]

The Emerson apartment building, owned by the Related Companies, has 271 units, of which 216 are leased at market rates. The other 55 units are at subsidized rates to tenants whose annual incomes are less than 50% of the local median, which was $42,700 for a family of four in 2014.[21]

In popular culture[edit]

Angels Flight, December 2011

Radio[edit]

On "The Adventures of Philip Marlowe" radio program with episode named "Baton Sinister" dated September 17, 1949, Angels Flight is referenced as Marlowe has a rendezvous set in Bunker Hill.

Film[edit]

In the 1940s and 1950s, Bunker Hill was a popular film setting, especially in the film noir genre, because of its Victorian homes, its rambling hillside apartments and flophouses, its Angels Flight funicular, and its mean (or at least mean-looking) streets.[22][23] It was used extensively in such crime films as Cry Danger (1951), Kiss Me Deadly (1956), Criss Cross (1949), Joseph Losey's M (1951), and Angel's Flight (1965).

Director Curtis Hanson re-created Bunker Hill in another hilly neighborhood altogether in his Oscar Award–winning L.A. Confidential (1997).[24][25][26] Kent Mackenzie made a film in 1956 called Bunker Hill about the displacement of the residents who had to make way for construction.[27][28][29] Another film by Mackenzie that was set in the area —his neo-realist and semi-documentary feature The Exiles (1961) — depicts the lives of a tribe of urban Indians on Bunker Hill in the late 1950s.[30]

Bunker Hill was a destination of many local artists and photographers, some in its heyday, others as it was being demolished and rebuilt. Among the latter was the Los Angeles photographer Ray McSavaney.

Angels Flight and its Third Street neighborhood, c. 1930s, were re-created in South Africa for the filming of Ask the Dust (2006), based on the novel by John Fante, which was set in the district in the 1930s. Fante also wrote a book called Dreams From Bunker Hill, his last novel, dictated near death to his wife.

The 2nd Street Tunnel under Bunker Hill is widely used in film and advertising.

Music[edit]

Bunker Hill is also the title of (and referenced in) the 1992 song from the Free-for-All album by Angeleno transplant Michael Penn and a B-side of the Red Hot Chili Peppers. Jim Dawson's 2008 book Angels Flight includes several chapters, complete with many dozens of early photos, on Bunker Hill and its literary and film background.

Books[edit]

Bunker Hill is the setting for much of Robin Robertson's 2018 verse narrative The Long Take which won the 2018 Goldsmiths Prize. The book includes a map of the old Bunker Hill neighbourhood.

Other media[edit]

It is represented in the 2013 video game Grand Theft Auto V as "Pillbox Hill" ("Pillbox" and "Bunker" being similar) in the game's rendition of Los Angeles as Los Santos.

Fire service[edit]

Fire Station 3 Downtown

Los Angeles Fire Department operates fire Station 3 (Civic Center/Bunker Hill) in the area.

Education[edit]

The area is served by the Los Angeles USD.

Notable people[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2012-2013 Official Visitors Map, Los Angeles Tourism & Convention Board, 2012
  2. ^ Vincent, Roger (May 30, 2018). "Condos, restaurants, an elementary school. How an 80-story skyscraper could transform Bunker Hill". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  3. ^ Loukaitou-Sideris, A.; Sansbury, G. (1 December 1995). "Lost Streets of Bunker Hill". California History. 74 (4): 395. doi:10.2307/25177534.
  4. ^ Creason, Glen (4 March 2015). "CityDig: This 1869 Map Is an Antique Blueprint of Bunker Hill Los Angeles Magazine". Los Angeles Magazine.
  5. ^ Pugsley, William (1977). Bunker Hill : last of the lofty mansions (1st ed.). Trans-Anglo Books. pp. 8–14. ISBN 0-87046-046-3.
  6. ^ Pugsley, William (1977). Bunker Hill : last of the lofty mansions (1st ed.). Trans-Anglo Books. pp. 18–19. ISBN 0-87046-046-3.
  7. ^ Mike Davis, "Hollywood's Dark Shadow," in Dead Cities and Other Tales (New York: The New Press, 2003; orig. ed. 2002), 132.
  8. ^ Documentary "Bunker Hill" special feature on the DVD The Exiles
  9. ^ Loukaitou-Sideris, A.; Sansbury, G. (1 December 1995). "Lost Streets of Bunker Hill". California History. 74 (4): 396. doi:10.2307/25177534.
  10. ^ Rosenberg, Jeremy (23 January 2012). "Laws That Shaped L.A.: How Bunker Hill Lost its Victorians". KCET. Public Media Group of Southern California.
  11. ^ Zerunyan, Frank. "The Demise of California Redevelopment Law, and the Repackaging of Tax Increments for California Municipalities | Bedrosian Center | USC". bedrosian.usc.edu. Sol Price School of Public Policy, University of Southern California.
  12. ^ Jones, Stephen (1 September 2017). "The Bunker Hill Story: Welfare, Redevelopment, and Housing Crisis in Postwar Los Angeles". All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects: 10.
  13. ^ "Amended Redevelopment Plan: Bunker Hill Urban Renewal Project" (PDF). www.crala.org. The Community Redevelopment Agency of the City of Los Angeles, California.
  14. ^ Committee on Banking and Currency. "Housing act of 1949" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 February 2016.
  15. ^ Stevenson, Richard W. (November 11, 1991), "Office Glut Spreads in California", New York Times
  16. ^ Berton, Brad (April 26, 1993), "Los Angeles Community Redevelopment Agency's notice of default suit against Bunker Hill Associates", Los Angeles Business Journal
  17. ^ Vankin, Deborah (21 September 2015). "The heat and the lines couldn't keep them from the Broad on opening day". Retrieved 19 June 2017 – via LA Times.
  18. ^ Vincent, Roger (13 February 2014) "With sale of Two California Plaza, Bunker Hill is poised for comeback" Los Angeles Times
  19. ^ "Building Healthy Communities 101". lacity.org. Archived from the original on February 16, 2005.
  20. ^ http://www.downtownnews.com/articles/2005/03/28/news/news02.txt[permanent dead link] downtownnews.com
  21. ^ Vincent, Roger (October 1, 2014) "Developer of new Bunker Hill apartment high-rise woos older residents" Los Angeles Times
  22. ^ LA Downtown News Will Angels Flight Ever Roll Again?
  23. ^ tumblr. Los Angeles's Bunker Hill: Pulp Fiction's Mean Streets and Film Noir's Ground Zero!
  24. ^ Electric Earl Bunker Hill Goes to the Movies
  25. ^ Edward Dimendberg. "From Berlin to Bunker Hill: Urban Space, Late Modernity, and Film Noir in Fritz Lang's and Joseph Losey's M". Pitzer College. Archived from the original on 2006-09-02.
  26. ^ Time Friday, July 18, 2008 Exiles on Indie Street By Richard Corliss
  27. ^ LA Observed July 31, 2010 Weekend viewing: Bunker Hill, 1956 by Kevin Roderick
  28. ^ LA Observed August 3, 2010 Bunker Hill video deleted from Vimeo * By Kevin Roderick
  29. ^ Los Angeles Film Forum This is the City
  30. ^ Oscilloscope [http://www.oscilloscope.net/films/film/36/The-Exiles The Exiles

Coordinates: 34°03′07″N 118°15′01″W / 34.052045°N 118.250347°W / 34.052045; -118.250347