|Birth name||Neville O'Riley Livingston|
|Also known as||Bunny Livingston |
|Born||10 April 1947|
|Died||2 March 2021 (aged 73)|
Saint Andrew Parish, Jamaica
|Associated acts||The Wailers|
Neville O'Riley Livingston Jamaican singer-songwriter and percussionist. He was an original member of reggae group The Wailers along with Bob Marley and Peter Tosh. A three-time Grammy Award winner, he is considered one of the longtime standard-bearers of reggae music. He was also known as Jah B, Bunny O'Riley, and Bunny Livingston.(10 April 1947 – 2 March 2021), known professionally as Bunny Wailer, was a
Early life and family
Wailer was born Neville O'Riley Livingston on 10 April 1947 in Kingston. He spent his earliest years in the village of Nine Mile in Saint Ann Parish. It was there that he first met Bob Marley, and the two young boys befriended each other quickly. The boys both came from single-parent families; Livingston was brought up by his father, Marley by his mother. Later, Wailer's father Thaddeus "Thaddy Shut" Livingston lived with Marley's mother Cedella Booker in Trenchtown and had a daughter with her named Pearl Livingston. Peter Tosh had a son, Andrew Tosh, with Wailer's sister Shirley, making Andrew his nephew.
Wailer had originally gone to audition for Leslie Kong at Beverley's Records in 1962, around the same time his step-brother Bob Marley was cutting "Judge Not". Wailer had intended to sing his first composition, "Pass It On", which at the time was more ska-oriented. However, Wailer was late getting out of school and missed his audition. A few months later, in 1963, he formed "The Wailing Wailers" with Marley and friend Peter Tosh, and the short-term members Junior Braithwaite and Beverley Kelso. Wailer tended to sing lead vocals less often than Marley and Tosh in the early years, but when Marley left Jamaica in 1966 for Delaware in the US, and was briefly replaced by Constantine "Vision" Walker, Wailer began to record and sing lead vocals on some of his own compositions, such as "Who Feels It Knows It", "I Stand Predominant", and "Sunday Morning". Wailer's style of music was influenced by gospel music and the soul singer Curtis Mayfield. In 1967, he recorded "This Train", based on a gospel standard, for the first time, at Studio One.
Wailer was arrested on charges of possession of cannabis in June 1967 and served a 14-month prison sentence. Around this time he, Bob Marley, and Peter Tosh signed an exclusive recording agreement with Danny Sim's JAD Records and an exclusive publishing agreement with Sim's music publishing company Cayman Music.
As the Wailers regularly changed producers in the late 1960s, Wailer continued to contribute songs to the group's repertoire. The music critic Kwame Dawes says that Wailer's song lyrics were carefully crafted and literary in style, and he remained a key part of the group's distinctive harmonies. Wailer sang lead on such songs as "Dreamland" (a cover of El Tempos' "My Dream Island", which soon became his signature song) "Riding High", "Brainwashing", and in the bridge of the Wailers' song, "Keep On Moving" (sung in the style of Curtis Mayfield of the Impressions), produced by Lee "Scratch" Perry. In 1971, the Wailers recorded Bunny Wailer's song "Pass It On", which he said he wrote in 1962; it was released as a dubplate mix on JAD's "Original Cuts" compilation. This version of the song features different lyrics and music in the verses to the later versions of "Pass It On" – Wailer would later reuse these in "Innocent Blood". By 1973, each of the three founding Wailers operated his own label, Marley with Tuff Gong, Tosh with H.I.M. Intel Diplo, and Bunny Wailer with Solomonic. He sang lead vocals on "Reincarnated Souls", the B-side of the Wailers first Island single of the new era, and on two tracks on the Wailers last trio LP, "Burnin'": "Pass it On" and "Hallelujah Time". By now he was recording singles in his own right, cutting "Searching For Love", "Life Line", "Trod On", "Arab Oil Weapon", and "Pass It On" (a new recording of the Wailers song) for his own label.
Bunny Wailer toured with the Wailers in England and the United States, but soon became reluctant to leave Jamaica. He and Tosh were more marginalised in the group as the Wailers attained international success, and attention was increasingly focused on Marley. Wailer subsequently left the Wailers in 1973 and adopted the name "Bunny" in pursuit of a solo career after balking when Chris Blackwell wanted the Wailers to tour freak clubs in the United States, stating that it was against his Rastafari principles. Before leaving the Wailers, Wailer had become more focused on his spiritual faith. He identified with the Rastafari movement, as did the other Wailers. He also composed much of his own material as well as re-recording a number of cuts from the Wailers' catalogue. Wailer recorded primarily in the roots style, in keeping with his often political and spiritual messages; his album Blackheart Man was well received. According to the journalist Peter Mason, writing in the Guardian newspaper, Blackheart Man "is widely felt to be one of reggae’s highest peaks".
After leaving the Wailers, Wailer experimented with disco on his album Hook Line & Sinker, while Sings the Wailers reworks many of The Wailers songs with the backing of Jamaican session musicians, Sly and Robbie. He also had success recording in the typically apolitical, more pop, dancehall style.
Wailer's music had dancehall and rockers influences, best exemplified by the album Bunny Wailer Sings the Wailers on which he reinterpreted some of the Wailers material as a solo roots singer with roots reggae-based backing by Sly and Robbie. The album, produced by Bunny Wailer, was recorded at Harry J Studio. Some of these tracks are reworked classic Wailers tracks such as "Dreamland", a cover of El Tempos' "My Dream Island" with slightly reworked lyrics that became Bunny's signature song. This was recorded in 1966 by Clement Coxsone Dodd, and in 1972 with Lee "Scratch" Perry; it was released as a 7" in 1971 with a U-Roy version on the B-side. Another classic is "Dancing Shoes", first recorded in the mid-1960s as a driving ska/soul classic with Bunny Wailer on lead vocals.
Wailer won the Grammy Award for Best Reggae Album three times; in 1991 for the album Time Will Tell: A Tribute to Bob Marley, in 1995 for Crucial! Roots Classics, and in 1997 for Hall of Fame: A Tribute to Bob Marley's 50th Anniversary. He was also featured on the album True Love by Toots and the Maytals, which won the Grammy Award in 2004 for Best Reggae Album, and showcased many notable musicians including; Willie Nelson, Eric Clapton, Jeff Beck, Trey Anastasio, Gwen Stefani / No Doubt, Ben Harper, Bonnie Raitt, Manu Chao, The Roots, Ryan Adams, Keith Richards, Toots Hibbert, Paul Douglas, Jackie Jackson, Ken Boothe, and The Skatalites.
In 2016, he played a month-long 'Blackheart Man' tour to celebrate the 40th anniversary of his 1976 album.
In November 2019, Wailer received a Pinnacle Award in New York from the Coalition to Preserve Reggae.
Health and death
In October 2018, Wailer suffered a minor stroke, resulting in speech problems. After suffering another stroke in July 2020, he was hospitalized at Andrews Memorial Hospital in Kingston, Jamaica, where he eventually died on 2 March 2021 at the age of 73, of complications from the stroke he suffered the previous year.
- Blackheart Man (1976) Island/Tuff Gong (2 extra albums with Blackheart Man: Dubd'sco vol.1 (1976) Island/Tuff Gong and Blackheart Man (Remastered & Extended) (1976) Island/Tuff Gong)
- Protest (1977) Solomonic
- Struggle (1978) Solomonic
- In I Father's House (1979) Solomonic
- Bunny Wailer Sings the Wailers (1980) Solomonic
- Dubd'sco vol.2 (1981) Solomonic
- Rock 'n' Groove (1981) Solomonic
- Tribute (1981) Solomonic
- Hook Line & Sinker (1982) Solomonic
- Roots Radics Rockers Reggae (1983) Shanachie (international re-release of In I Father's House + 2 extra tracks)
- Live! (1983) Solomonic
- Marketplace (1985) Solomonic
- Rootsman Skanking (1987) Shanachie (international re-release of Rock And Groove edited version plus 3 extra tracks)
- Rule Dance Hall (1987) Shanachie
- Liberation (1989) Shanachie
- Time Will Tell: A Tribute to Bob Marley (1990) Shanachie (international re-release of Tribute + 2 extra tracks)
- Gumption (1990) Shanachie
- The Never Ending Wailers (1991) RAS
- Dance Massive (1992) Solomonic
- Just Be Nice (1993) RAS
- Hall of Fame: A Tribute to Bob Marley's 50th Anniversary (1996) RAS
- Communication (2000) Solomonic
- World Peace (2003) Solomonic
- Bunny Wailer's Sound Clash (2006) Charly Records
- Rub A Dub (2007) Solomonic
- Cross Culture (2009) Solomonic
- Reincarnated Souls (2013), VP – 3CD + 2DVD set Solomonic
- Dub Fi Dub (2018) R.O.K./The Original Genesis
- Crucial! Roots Classics (1994) RAS
- Retrospective (1995) Solomonic/Shanachie
- Dubd'sco Volumes 1 & 2 (1998) RAS
- Bob Marley & The Wailers Vol 2: Bunny Wailer & Johnny Lover (2002) Saludos Amigos (with Johnny Lover)
- Winning Combinations: Bunny Wailer & Dennis Brown (2002) Universal Special Products (with Dennis Brown)
- The Wailers Legacy (2006) Solomonic (Bunny Wailer & The Wailers)
- Tuff Gong/Island Singles 1: Tread Along: 1969–1976 (2016) Dub Store Records/Tuff Gong/Island
- Solomonic Singles 2: Rise and Shine: 1977–1986 (2016) Dub Store Records/Solomonic
- Live (2005) Video Music, Inc.
Appearances on DVD compilations
- A Reggae Session (1988) Sony BMG, features "Roots, Radics, Rockers and Reggae" and "Rise and Shine"
- Hendricks, Sharlene (2 March 2021). "Bunny Wailer, reggae luminary and last Wailers member, dies". Associated Press.
- Walters, Basil (23 August 2010). "Bunny Wailer chants support for Rasta Millennium Council". Jamaica Observer. Archived from the original on 25 August 2010. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
- Anand Prahlad (2001). Reggae Wisdom: Proverbs in Jamaican Music. Univ. Press of Mississippi. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-60473-659-5.
- Colin Grant (20 June 2011). The Natural Mystics: Marley, Tosh, and Wailer. W. W. Norton. p. 260. ISBN 978-0-393-08218-0.
- Romano, Nick (2 March 2021). "Reggae legend Bunny Wailer of the Wailers dies at 73". Entertainment Weekly.
- "Bunny Wailer obituary". the Guardian. 4 March 2021. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
- Savage, Mark (2 March 2021). "Bunny Wailer: Reggae legend who played with Bob Marley dies, aged 73". BBC News.
- Bonitto, Brian (24 April 2018). "Home Again". Jamaica Observer. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
- Werman, Marco (6 May 2016). "A night of real reggae with Bunny, the last Wailer standing". The World from PRX.
- Steffens, Roger (11 July 2017). So Much Things to Say: The Oral History of Bob Marley. W. W. Norton. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-393-63479-2.
- Maureen Sheridan (1999). Bob Marley: The Stories Behind Every Song : Soul Survivor. Carlton. p. 138. ISBN 978-1-85868-749-0.
- Tsioulcas, Anastasia (2 March 2021). "Bunny Wailer, Iconic Reggae Singer And Wailers Co-Founder, Has Died At Age 73". NPR.
- Martin Charles Strong (1998). The Great Rock Discography. Canongate. p. 506. ISBN 978-0-86241-827-4.
- Colin Larkin (1995). The Guinness Encyclopedia of Popular Music. Guinness Pub. p. 4353. ISBN 978-0-85112-662-3.
- Roger Steffens (11 July 2017). So Much Things to Say: The Oral History of Bob Marley. W. W. Norton. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-393-63479-2.
- Joseph, Adam (7 April 2016). "One of reggae's greatest celebrates 40th anniversary in Salinas". Monterey County Weekly.
- Katz, David. "The Mojo interview: Bunny Wailer". Mojo. No. 191, October 2009. pp. 38–42.
- Singing the jailhouse rock, Jamaica Observer, Published 25 November 2012. Retrieved 25 November 2012
- Ali, Rasha (2 March 2021). "Legendary reggae artist Bunny Wailer, last living founder of Bob Marley and the Wailers, dies at 73". USA Today.
- Eames, Tom (7 October 2020). "The Story of... 'I Can See Clearly Now' by Johnny Nash". Smooth Radio.
- Kwame Dawes (26 June 2012). Bob Marley: Lyrical Genius. Bobcat Books. pp. 85–87. ISBN 978-0-85712-838-6.
- Sisario, Ben (2 March 2021). "Bunny Wailer, Reggae Pioneer With the Wailers, Dies at 73". The New York Times.
- Chang, Kevin O'Brien; Chen, Wayne (1998). Reggae Routes: The Story of Jamaican Music. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. p. 165. ISBN 978-1-56639-629-5.
- David Katz (2000). People Funny Boy. Payback Press. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-86241-854-0.
'Keep On Moving' was a full re-working of the Impressions' 'I've Got To Keep On Moving' that the group had taken a stab at with Perry at Studio One, and featured Bunny's shrill imitation of Curtis Mayfield in the bridge.
- Roger Steffens; Leroy Jodie Pierson (2005). Bob Marley and the Wailers: The Definitive Discography. Rounder Books. p. 167. ISBN 978-1-57940-120-7.
- Ian McCann; Harry Hawke (12 December 2011). Bob Marley: The Complete Guide to his Music. Omnibus Press. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-85712-735-8.
- John Masouri (13 May 2013). Steppin' Razor: The Life of Peter Tosh. Omnibus Press. p. 120. ISBN 978-0-85712-871-3.
- Timothy White (2 May 2006). Catch a Fire: The Life of Bob Marley. Henry Holt and Company. p. 500. ISBN 978-0-8050-8086-5.
- Thompson, Dave (2002). Reggae & Caribbean Music. Hal Leonard Corporation. pp. 296–297. ISBN 978-0-87930-655-7.
- Pareles, Jon (16 December 1997). "Dance Fever No Matter the Message". The New York Times.
- David Vlado Moskowitz (2006). Caribbean Popular Music: An Encyclopedia of Reggae, Mento, Ska, Rock Steady, and Dancehall. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 312. ISBN 978-0-313-33158-9.
- Daniel Kreps (2 March 2021). "Reggae Icon Bunny Wailer -- Founding Member of the Wailers -- Has Died at 73". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on 2 March 2021. Retrieved 3 March 2021.
- Bunny quoted directly in the documentary, Marley
- Mason, Peter (4 March 2021). "Bunny Wailer obituary". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
- "'Jah B' leads the pack among top national honours". Loop Jamaica. 16 October 2017.
- Mint, Reggie (28 July 2020). "Best Reggae Singers: 20 Of Reggae's Greatest Voices". uDiscover Music.
- Breihan, Tom (2 March 2021). "Bunny Wailer Dead At 73". Stereogum.
- Rob Kenner (1995). "Boom Shots". Vibe. Vibe Media Group. p. 114.
- Christgau, Robert (1990). Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the '80s. Pantheon Books. p. 429. ISBN 978-0-679-73015-6.
- Steffens, Roger (2005). Bob Marley and the Wailers: The Definitive Discography (1st ed.). Cambridge, MA: Rounder Books. p. 126. ISBN 978-1-57940-120-7.
- Ian McCann; Harry Hawke (12 December 2011). Bob Marley: The Complete Guide to his Music. Omnibus Press. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-85712-735-8.
- Black, Roy (26 April 2017). "'Musically Speaking' offers untold Wailers stories". The Gleaner.
- Smith, C. C. "Bunny Bags another Grammy." The Beat, vol. 16, no. 2, 1997., pp. 61.
- "Linear CD Notes". Tootsandthemaytals.net. 20 June 2014. Archived from the original on 10 November 2016. Retrieved 20 July 2017.
- Bonitto, Brian (2012) "Tosh gets OM", Jamaica Observer, 7 August 2012. Retrieved 7 August 2012
- Campbell, Howard (2016) "The shows go on for Wailer", Jamaica Observer, 17 May 2016. Retrieved 18 May 2016
- Johnson, Richard (2017) "With Distinction: Arts, entertainment fraternity members honoured at King's House", Jamaica Observer, 17 October 2017. Retrieved 18 October 2017
- Campbell, Howard (2019) "Bunny Wailer gets Pinnacle honour", Jamaica Observer, 6 November 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019
- Lyew, Stephanie (8 November 2018). "Bunny Wailer Securing Legacy Following Minor Stroke", Jamaica Gleaner. Retrieved 25 November 2018
- Bonitto, Brian (2 March 2021). "Bunny Wailer is dead". Jamaica Observer. Retrieved 2 March 2021.
- Savage, Mark. "Bunny Wailer: Reggae legend who found fame with Bob Marley dies, aged 73". BBC News. Retrieved 3 March 2021.
- "Bunny Wailer, reggae luminary and founder of The Wailers, has died at 73". www.cbsnews.com. 3 March 2021. Retrieved 3 March 2021.
- Cooke, Mel (15 June 2009). "Bunny Wailer's 'Blackheart Man' remastered". Daily Gleaner. Gleaner Company. Retrieved 8 June 2016.
- Christgau, Robert (1981). "Consumer Guide '70s: W". Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies. Ticknor & Fields. ISBN 089919026X. Retrieved 21 March 2019 – via robertchristgau.com.
- DeRiso, Nick (2 March 2021). "Reggae Legend Bunny Wailer Dies at 73". Ultimate Classic Rock.
- Vibes, Mr T. at Reggae (3 March 2021). "Bunny Wailer - The Blackheart Man (1947-2021)".
- Retrospective (CD booklet). Bunny Wailer. RAS Records. 2003. p. 2. 06076-89600-2.CS1 maint: others in cite AV media (notes) (link)
- Bonitto, Brian (22 January 2014) "Bunny Wailer Turns Up Treble", Jamaica Observer. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- "Junior Braithwaite". the Guardian. 23 June 1999.
- "Bunny Wailer's Sound Clash". www.top-charts.com.
- "Bob Marley And The Wailers - Discography Simplified : 2009". voiceofthesufferers.free.fr.
- "BUNNY WAILER & WAILING SOULS - DUB FI DUB - 2018". 10 September 2018.
- Kenner, Rob (July 1995). "Boom Shots". Vibe. Vibe Media Group. p. 114.
- "Bob Marley And The Wailers , Guests Bunny Wailer & Johnny Lover - Bob Marley & The Wailers Vol. 2 Album". Favorite Music Albums - opencloudpa.it. OpenCloud PA. 2016. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
- "Bunny Wailer – Album Discography". AllMusic. Retrieved 3 March 2021.
- Steffens, Roger; Pierson, Leroy Jodie (2005). Bob Marley and the Wailers: The Definitive Discography. Rounder Books. p. xiii. ISBN 9781579401207.
- "Bunny Wailer – Credits". AllMusic. Retrieved 3 March 2021.
- "Bunny Wailer". Roots Reggae Library. Retrieved 3 March 2021.
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