|Regions with significant populations|
|Tulu , Kannada (Kundagannada)|
Bunt (//, also known as Nadava) are a community from Karnataka and Kerala, India. They traditionally inhabit the coastal districts of Karnataka and also the neighbouring areas of Kasaragod and Kodagu. The Bunts are described as being the landed gentry and military class of the cultural region of Tulu Nadu. The Bunts today are a largely urbanised community.
American anthropologist Sylvia Vatuk states that the Bunt-Nadava community was a loosely defined social group. The matrilineal kin groups that constituted the caste were linguistically, geographically and economically diverse which were united by their arrogation of aristocratic status and power. The Bunts living in the northern parts of Kanara speak the Kannada language  while the majority living in the south speak Tulu The Bunts follow a matrilineal system of inheritance called Aliyasantana. They have 93 clan names or surnames and are divided into 53 matrilineal septs called Bali. Members of the same bali did not intermarry.[Note 1] According to S. D. L. Alagodi, the Bunts "originally belonged to the warrior class. Being the martial race of Tulu Nadu, they served the ruling chiefs which brought them considerable benefits and allowed them to become the landowners and nobles of the region."
Some Bunt clans claim descent from the ancient Alupa dynasty (circa 2nd century C.E. - 15th century C.E.) . Historian P. Gururaja Bhat mentions that the Alupa royal family were of local origin possibly belonging to the Bunt-Nadava caste. The title Alupa (Alva) survives till this day among the Bunts according to historian Bhaskar Anand Saletore. Some ruling and feudal clans of North Kerala adjacent to Tulu Nadu were also likely descended from Bunt-Nadavas. Indian anthropologist Ayinapalli Aiyappan states that a powerful and warlike clan of the Bunts was called Kola Bali and the Kolathiri Raja of Kolathunadu was a descendant of this Bunt clan.
Norwegian anthropologist Harald Tambs-Lyche, states that the Bunts were warriors of the Jain kingdoms. Jainism gained a foothold in the Canara region during the rule of the Hoysala dynasty who were Jains. The Hoysala Ballal kings are known to have appointed Bunts as military officers A section of Bunts believe that they were originally Jains who later became a caste group. Bunt surnames and clan names like Shetty, Rai, Hegde, Adappa, Ajila, Banga, Chowta and Ballal are of Jain origin. A legend prevalent among the Bunts states that one of the Jain Kings of the Bunts is said to have abandoned Jainism and took to eating peacock meat to cure a disease. Veerendra Heggade, the hereditary administrator of the Dharmasthala Temple has also publicly spoken about the Jain origin of the Bunts. Heggade is the current head of the Pattada Pergade family of Bunt heritage which continues to practice the Jain religion.
The concept of personal landed property existed in South Canara district as far as 12th century C.E. and also a military tenure not very different from the feudal system of Europe. The Bunts being a martial caste were exempt from paying land taxes. Around 15th century C.E. the Bunts had consolidated themselves as a land owning feudal caste grouping Bunt families controlled several villages and lived in a Manor house. Several villages were generally united under a single Bunt chiefdom.The Bunt chiefdoms had considerable autonomy and were vassals to the Jain kings. The Bunt chiefs and petty princes became virtually independent after the rise of the Nayakas of Keladi. The Haleri Rajas, who were likely a cadet branch of the Nayakas of Keladi invited Bunt families to settle in Kodagu district after establishing the Kingdom of Coorg
At the start of the 16th century C.E the Tuluva dynasty came to control the Vijayanagara Empire with its capital at Hampi in North Karnataka.The Tuluva dynasty traces its ancestry to Tuluva Narasa Nayaka, a powerful warlord from the Tulu speaking region. It has been suggested by scholars Mysore Hatti Ramasharma and Mysore Hatti Gopal that the Tuluva rulers were of Bunt Shetty origin. A section of Bunts called Parivara Bunt have also traditionally claimed to be Nayaks (chieftains) of the Vijayanagara Empire.
The feudal life and society of Bunts began to disintegrate in the succeeding colonial British Raj period leading to urbanisation.
The Bunts practice Hinduism and a section among them follow Jainism. Nominally all gods and goddesses of the Hindu pantheon are worshipped by them and festivals like Deepavali and Dusshera are celebrated. S. D. L. Alagodi wrote in 2006 of the Tulu Nadu population that, "Among the Hindus, a little over ten per cent are brahmins, and all the others, though nominally Hindus, are really propitiators or worshippers of tutelary deities and bhutas." Amitav Ghosh describes the Tulu Butas as protective figures, ancestral spirits and heroes who have been assimilated to the ranks of minor deities. The Cult worship of the Butas is widely practiced in Tulu Nadu by a large section of the population. The Bunts being the principal landowners of the region were the traditional patrons of the Buta Kola festival which included aspects akin to theatrical forms like Yakshagana.
Būtas and daivas (Tutelary deity) are not worshipped on a daily basis like mainstream Hindu gods. Their worship is restricted to annual ritual festivals, though daily pūjās may be conducted for the ritual objects, ornaments, and other paraphernalia of the būta. Unlike with the better-known Hindu gods of the purāṇic variety, būta worship is congregational and every caste in the Tulu speaking region has it own set of Butas and daivas that they worship.
Depending on the significance of the people who worship them, būtas or daivas can be family deities (kuṭuṃbada būta), local or village deities (jāgeda būta, ūrada būta), or deities associated with administrative units such as manorial estates (Guțțus,Beedus), groups of estates (māgane), districts (sīme) or even small kingdoms (royal būtas or rajandaivas) The deity Jumadi is cited as an example of a Rajandaiva ie a royal deity who reigns over a former small kingdom or large feudal estate. Jumadi is worshipped mainly by the rich land owning Bunts who are the chief patrons of his cult. In the myth, as well as in the religious Buta Kola dance, Jumadi is always accompanied by his warrior attendant Bante who appears to be specially related to the patrons of the Bunt caste. Kodamanthaye, Kukkinanthaye, Jaranthaye, Ullaya and Ullalthi are some of the other deities from the royal Buta cult.
The Bunts historically lived in a joint family set up with families occupying manor houses and mansions. The houses were generally built at the centre of the feudal estate held by the family. Most Bunts followed a matrilineal system of inheritance and the eldest male member in the female line was the head of the family. This head of the family was called Yajmane and he would preside over the manorial court during the feudal era. These houses also served as centers of Bunt trading networks. Agricultural produce from the estate like pepper, cloves, rice and sugar were traded across the Arabian Sea. The elaborate woodwork in the houses were symbols of growing wealth due to trade. Many of these medieval houses survive unto the present day in the coastal region of Karnataka. However, due to the break up of the joint family system as also loss of land due to Land reform in India, many of these houses are being demolished as Bunt families find it unsustainable to maintain them.
The Nadibettu Aramane house in Shirva was built in the 14th century and has copper plate inscriptions of the Vijayanagara Empire  Chavadi Aramane of Nandalike, the manorial house of the Heggade chieftaincy has inscriptions from 16th century. Suralu Aramane of the Tolaha dynasty is another medieval house of chieftains in Udupi district. It dates back to the 15th century The Suralu Mud Palace is currently under the ownership of Sudarshan Shetty, a descendant of the Tolahas who is leading a restoration project. The Suralu Palace is a State protected Monument which was partially restored in 2016 with help from the Government of Karnataka
Some other houses of the Bunts that preserve medieval architecture include the Kodial Guthu house of Mangalore. Badila Guthu in Kannur , Shetty Bettu, Puthige Guthu, Markada Guthu and Kodethur Guthu
The traditonal caste council of the Bunt-Nadavas has been replaced by a body of elected members called the Buntara Yane Nadavara Mathr Sangha(Bunt or Nadava Association). It was established in 1908 in Mangalore. The Buntara Yane Nadavara Mathr Sangha has been called the apex body of the Bunt community by The Hindu newspaper. This organisation holds an Annual General meeting and felicitates achievers and distributes scholarships to students from the community. Similar regional organisations operate in areas where the Bunts have migrated like Maharashtra, United Arab Emirates and neighbouring Arab countries. The Bunt association including its regional bodies run schools,colleges,hostels and dispensaries.
- Kāmat, Sūryanātha (1973). Karnataka State Gazetteer: South Kanara. Director of Print, Stationery and Publications at the Government Press. p. 108. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- M Raghuram (19 April 2010). "Bunts feel at home wherever they are - DNA". DNA. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
- International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics, Volume 14. Department of Linguistics, University of Kerala. 1985. p. 92. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- S. Jayashanker (2001). Temples of Kasaragod District. Controller of Publications,Directorate of Census Operations, Kerala. p. 7.
Bants of Kasaragod are a military class. They are mostly Hindus except for few Jains and they include four divisions, Masadika Bants, Nadava Bants, Parivara Bants and Jaina Bants
- Iyer, L. A. Krishna (1969). The Coorg tribes and castes (reprint ed.). Gordon Press Madras and Johnson. pp. 67–70. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
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- Vatuk, Sylvia (1978). American Studies in the Anthropology of India. Manohar. pp. 236–239. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
- Sri Sathyan, B. N. Karnataka State Gazetteer: South Kanara. Director of Print., Stationery and Publications at the Government Press. p. 108. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
- Siraj, S. Anees (2012). Karnataka State: Udupi District. Government of Karnataka, Karnataka Gazetteer Department. p. 179. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
- Hegde, Krishna (1990). Feudatories of Coastal Karnataka. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. p. 10.
Coastal Karnataka was home to number of feudatory rulers. All of them being Bunts following matrilineal inheritance called Aliya Santana and favouring both the Hindu and Jain Faith
- Bhatt, P. Gururaja (1969). Antiquities of South Kanara. Prabhakara Press. p. iii. Retrieved 14 February 2018.
- Saletore, Bhaskar Anand (1936). Ancient Karnāṭaka, Volume 1. Oriental Book Agency. p. 154.
- Ayinapalli, Aiyappan (1982). The Personality of Kerala. Department of Publications, University of Kerala. p. 162. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
A very powerful and warlike section of the Bants of Tulunad was known as Kola bali. It is reasonable to suggest that the Kola dynasty was part of the Kola lineages of Tulunad.
- Tambs-Lyche, Harald (2017). Transaction and Hierarchy: Elements for a Theory of Caste(Feudal Fiefs and Mosaic Patterns in South Kanara). Routledge. p. 376. ISBN 9781351393966. Retrieved 14 February 2018.
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- March of Karnataka, Volume 25. Director of Information and Publicity, Government of Karnataka. 1987. p. 17. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
The Bunts, the martial race of the district are not only agriculturist, but also administrators of olden days. Considerable number of them were once Jainas and the surname 'Shetty' many of them inherited from the Jaina Shreshthis.
- Bantwal, Rons (11 October 2011). "Mumbai: Dharmadhikari Dr Veerendra Heggade Lauds Social Welfare of Bunts Sangh". Daijiworld Media Network Mumbai (RD. Retrieved 14 February 2018.
- R. Krishnamurthy (21 May 2015). "In the lap of the Western Ghats". The Hindu. Retrieved 14 February 2018.
- Perspectives on Dakshina Kannada and Kodagu. Mangalore University. 1991. p. 145. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
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The Bants migrated from Dakshina Kannada and Kasargod to Kodagu. It is said that Haleri kings sent for these people from Manjeshwara, Kumble, Bantwala and Puttur to come and inhabit in Kodagu region.
- Pollock, Sheldon (2011). Forms of Knowledge in Early Modern Asia: Explorations in the Intellectual History of India and Tibet, 1500–1800. Duke University Press. p. 74-81. ISBN 9780822349044. Retrieved 16 June 2018.
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The word Tuluva includes all the natives of the Tulu region. In a restricted sense, however, this word has been confined to the Bunts who form the majority of the cultivating class of the districts of North and South Kanara. Some of these Bunts prospering in trade have called themselves shetties or shresties and tried to raise themselves in the social scale. Although the later kings of Tuluva dynasty have called themselves Yadavas of the Lunar line and as having descended from Turvasu, there is little doubt that they were related by blood to this class of shetties.
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- S. Anees Siraj quotes Ganapathi Rao Aigal, one of the earliest historians to document the history of the Kanara region
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- Hegde, Krishananda (2008). History Of Bunts - Medieval Age To Modern Times. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan.
- Rao, Surendra (2010). Bunts in History and Culture. Rastrakavi Govind Pai Research Institute. ISBN 9788186668603.
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