The name "Burauen" evolved from the word “burabod” which means "spring". This is because Burauen is the fountainhead of several rivers: the big Daguitan and Marabong rivers, the Guinarona and Hibuga rivers that pass through several neighbouring towns, as well as several smaller ones. The legend behind the name speaks of a drought when several tributaries of these rivers dried up, forcing people to flock to a cluster of large springs in the town. The place was duly called “Buraburon” which according to Justice Norberto Lopez Romualdez Sr., is the “multiplicative construction of the word "haru” (spring), which indicates “abundance”. Over the years, the name “Buraburon” ("having many springs") evolved into “Burawon” and finally into “Burawen”.
Clandestine diggings conducted by antique hunters and verified by National Museum archaeologists yielded valuable artifacts consisting of chinaware and jars. Some of the discoveries were Stone Age artifacts and implements. These antiques and artifacts were found on the plateaus of both sides of the Kag-oloolo Brook of Barangay Patag and Villa Aurora, which were about 16 kilometers south-west of the poblacion of Burauen. Similar artifacts were found in Barangay Paghudlan which is 12 kilometers from the Kag-oloolo. Earlier diggings on the south-western portion of the poblacion, and those in Barangays Tambuco and Armasen, revealed several precious antiques. With the extensive presence of these artifacts over the said areas, the past locations of prehistoric settlements in Burauen during are indicated.